kkaeda (깨다)

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Although the case frame shown in ex. 86, NOM-ACC-INSTR may fit well into the picture of what is expected for BREAK in a case marking language, it sounds weird to express the instrument with intstrumental case here (cf. ex. 191 where this appears only in the title of an online newspaper, but not in the body). A more natural example can be seen ex. 229.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(86)
Aineun dollo yurireul kkaessda.
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the window with a stone.’
(191)
Bukkeukkom dollo dongmurwon anjeonyuri kkae...ajjil.
buggeug-gom
arctic-bear
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
dongmurwon
zoo
anjeonyuri
security.glass
kkae
break.CONV
ajjil
unsettling
‘Discomposure caused by polar bear breaking zoo's security glass.’
(229)
Gomi doreul jibeo yurireul kkaetta.
gom-i
bear-NOM
dol-eul
stone-ACC
jib-eo
grab-CONV
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘A bear took a stone and broke the glass.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# BREAK Coding set Argument type
1 breaker NP-nom A
2 broken thing NP-acc P
3 breaking instrument NP-instr I

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
U
N n
C
N y
U
R n
U
N n
C
M y
(87)
‘Glass breaks easily.’
C
N y
U
N n