boida (보이다 )

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Morphologically a causative of boda, LOOK. Boida in itself is used for situations where something is shown in an abstract or metaphorical way (ex. 197, 199), and rather in formal/written language. Impressionistically (as confirmed by another consultant), the far more common form in spoken usage is boyeojuda which might technically be seen as a benefactive alternation of boida where the pospositional adjunct (cf. ex. 199) changes to a dative argument in the process. As a caveat though, I am aware that boida sometimes occurs with a NOM-DAT-ACC case frame (ex. 198), but at least for someone who did not have a lot of contact to literary/'prescriptivised' Korean the variant with the postposition sounds more 'correct'. Still, taking A-nom (R+postp-loc) T-acc V as the case pattern for boida would justify classifying boyeojuda (with the case pattern A-nom R-dat T-acc) as its benefactive alternation, alhough then the question arises what should be 'benefactive' about this alternation in the first place, and furthermore there is no particular explanation for why the causer in the causative of boda 'look' receives postpositional marking instead of dative or accusative, as usually expected from the marking of a causer in Korean causative constructions. As discussed in several sources though (for example, see Lee and Ramsey 2000: 212 or O'Grady 1991: 154), the morphological causative in Korean is lexicalised to a high degree, and therefore one could see the postpositional adjunct as the lexically motivated (and therefore morphosyntactically 'unpredictable') expression of a semantic argument. Then, the benefactive alternation could be seen as an (applicative) operation that promotes a postpositional adjunct to a secondary object, which does not seem to be uncommon among the world's languages (as discussed in Kroeger 2004 or Creissels 2010 among others). However, my knowledge on the syntactic status of dative-marked constituents in Korean is limited which is why this should be seen as a suggestion for further research.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(199)
Geunyeoneun mentodeul apeseo jasinmanmanan moseubeul boyeotta.
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
mento-deul
mentor-PL
ap-eseo
before-LOC
jasinmanman=ha-n
fully_confident=do-ATTR
moseub-eul
appearance-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She presented herself to her mentors with overflowing confidence (lit. she showed an appearance of full confidence in front of her mentors).’
(197)
Kim seonsuneun eoje gyeonggijangeseo chameuro nollaun sillyeogeul boyeotta.
kim
Kim
seonsu-neun
champion-TOP
eoje
yesterday
gyeonggijang-eseo
arena-LOC
chameuro
truly
nollab-n
be_astonishing-ATTR
sillyeog-eul
skill-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday in the arena, Kim displayed his exceptional skills.’
(198)
Gunyeon jeon B.ga naege gwansim boyeotta!
20
twenty
nyeon
year
jeon
before
B.-ga
B.-NOM
na-ege
1SG-DAT
gwansim
interest
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Twenty years ago B. showed me her interest!’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SHOW Coding set Argument type
1 shower NP-nom A
2 showing addressee NP-acc P
3 shown thing NP+ap-loc X

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
R One could also see boida as having a ditransitive case frame. In this case, the alternation value for this verb would change to 'never' here. See comment in verb layout. y
(98)
‘The child showed the teacher a picture.’
C
N y
C
R y
U
N n
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n