deopda (덮다 )

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The coding frame of this verb is hard to decide upon, since this verb can configure its locational and instrumental arguments in two different ways: As one possibility, the instrument can be marked with accusative and the locational argument appears in locative case (ex. 230). As another possibility, the locational argument can appear in accusative case and the instrument in instrumental case (ex. 1). The former coding pattern has been chosen in this entry with a decent amount of arbitrariness, although I also took into account the fact that apparently, it is mainly the coding pattern where the instrument is marked with accusative case (ex. 231) that one can apply the benefactive alternation (ex. 101) on, and applying the benefactive alternation on an NOM-ACC-INSTR resulting in a NOM-DAT-ACC case pattern with the locational NP in accusative case, sounds slightly awkward. However this might be due to my personal usage preferences instead of some underlying linguistic restrictions.

Passive alternation can be applied on both coding patterns, which shows that the accusative-marking on an argument is not 'superficial' in that the accusative-marking is not a mere change of morphosyntactic encoding, but rather a rather a reconfiguration of the core arguments of a verb.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(230)
Aiga umsigi sanghaji anke geureuse ttukkeongeul deopeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
umsig-i
food-NOM
sangha-ji
go_bad-NEG
anh-ge
NEG-CONV
geureus-e
bowl-LOC
ttukkeong-eul
lid-ACC
deop-eoss-da
cover-PST-DECL
‘The child put a lid on the bowl to keep the food from getting bad.’
(159)
On madangi nuneuro deopeojyeo isseotta.
on
all
madang-i
patio-NOM
nun-euro
snow-INSTR
deop-eo-ji-eo
cover-CONV-PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The whole patio was covered in snow.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# COVER Coding set Argument type
1 coverer NP-nom A
2 cover NP-acc P
3 covered thing NP-loc L

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
R y
(2)
‘The mother made the daughter cover herself with the blanket.’
C
R y
(101)
‘The mother covered the child with a blanket (for it).’
U
N n
C
R It has been mentioned in the verb layout that this verb apparently takes part in a locative alternation where the two coding patterns NOM-ACC<instrument>-LOC and NOM-ACC<location>-INSTR alternate with each other. The morphological passive operation can be applied on both versions, but of course always only on the accusative-marked argument of the non-passive counterpart. This might be one way to show that it is hard to determine which one of these alternating case frames is the basic one. I do not know how one would be able to express the agents here; maybe they are not expressible. y
(160)
‘Snow is covering the peek of the Halla Mountain. / The peek of Halla Mountain is covered in snow.’
(161)
‘The whole bed is covered with flowers.’
U
R n
C
R ex. 153 shows derivation from the alternative coding frame 1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V y
U
R n
(1)
‘Mother covered the dough with a kitchen towel.’
C
N y
U
N n