Examples of Korean

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
어머니가 반죽을 키친타월로 덮으셨다.
Eomeoniga banjugeul kichintaweollo deopeusyeotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
banjug-eul
dough-ACC
kichintaweol-ro
kitchen_towel-INSTR
deop-eusi-eoss-da
cover-HON-PST-DECL
‘Mother covered the dough with a kitchen towel.’
COVER an Alternation:
Locative alternation
(2)
어머니가 딸을 이불을 덮게 하셨다.
Eomeoniga ttareul ibureul deopkke hasyeotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ttal-eul
daughter-ACC
ibul-eul
blanket-ACC
deop-ge
cover-CONV
ha-si-eoss-da
do-HON-PST-DECL
‘The mother made the daughter cover herself with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(3)
형이 잔을 물로 채웠다.
Hyeongi janeul mullo chaewotta.
hyeong-i
older_brother-NOM
jan-eul
glass-ACC
mul-ro
water-INSTR
chae-u-eoss-da
get_full-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘My older brother filled the water into his glass.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(4)
형이 나에게 잔을 채워줬다.
Hyeongi naege janeul chaewo jwotta.
hyeong-i
older_brother-NOM
na-ege
I-DAT
jan-eul
glass-ACC
chae-u-eo
get_full-CAUS-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘My older brother filled a glass for me.’
FILL the Verb form chada
(5)
형이 짐을 차에 실었다.
Hyeongi jimeul chae sireotta.
hyeong-i
older_brother-NOM
jim-eul
luggage-ACC
cha-e
car-LOC
sid-eoss-da
load-PST-DECL
‘My brother loaded the luggage on the car.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(6)
군인이 말을 나무에 묶었다.
Gunini mareul namue mukkeotta.
gunin-i
soldier-NOM
mal-eul
horse-ACC
namu-e
tree-LOC
mukk-eoss-da
tie-PST-DECL
‘The soldier tied the horse to a tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(7)
아이들이 가지들을 서로서로 묶어 놓았다.
Aideuri gajideureul seoroseoro mukkeo noatta.
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
gaji-deul-eul
branch-PL-ACC
seoroseoro
one_another
mukk-eo
tie-CONV
noh-ass-da
put-PST-DECL
‘The children tied the branches to one another.’
TIE the Verb form mukkda
(8)
비가 왔다.
Biga watta.
bi-ga
rain-NOM
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘It has rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(9)
땅이 말랐다.
Ttangi mallatta.
ttang-i
ground-NOM
mareu-ass-da
dry-PST-DECL
‘The ground has dried.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(10)
집이 타고 있다.
Jibi bure tago itta.
jib-i
house-NOM
bul-e
fire-LOC
ta-go
burn-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The house is burning on fire.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(11)
배가 가라앉았다.
Baega garaanjatta.
bae-ga
boat-NOM
garaanj-ass-da
sink-PST-DECL
‘A ship has sunk.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(12)
공이 굴렀다.
Gongi gulleotta.
gong-i
ball-NOM
gureu-eoss-da
roll-PST-DECL
‘A ball rolled/was rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(13)
공이 길 아래로 굴러 갔다.
Gongi gil araero gulleo gatta.
gong-i
ball-NOM
gil
road
arae-ro
downside-DIR
gureu-eo
roll-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The ball rolled down (along) the street.’
ROLL the Verb form gureuda
(14)
이 남자는 사냥군이다.
I namjaneun sanyangkkun ida.
i
this
namja-neun
man-TOP
sanyanggun
hunter
i-da
be-DECL
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(15)
나 배곺아.
Na baegopa.
na
I
baegop-a
be_hungry-PRS
‘I am hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(16)
나 슬퍼.
Na seulpeo.
na
I
seulp-eo
be_sad-PLAIN
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(17)
난 이런 얘기가 너무 슬퍼.
Nan ireon yaegiga neomu seulpeo.
na-n
I-TOP
ireon
such
yaegi-ga
story-NOM
neomu
too
seulp-eo
be_sad-PLAIN
‘Such stories are too sad for me.’
BE SAD the Verb form seulpeuda
(18)
나 이런 얘기는 너무 슬퍼.
Na ireon yaegineun neomu seulpeo.
na
I
ireon
such
yaegi-neun
stories-FOC
neomu
too
seulp-eo
sad-PLAIN
‘Such stories are too sad for me. / Such stories are so sad.’
BE SAD the Verb form seulpeuda
(19)
내 강아지가 죽었다.
Nae gangajiga jugeotta.
nae
my
gangaji-ga
dog-NOM
jug-eoss-da
die-PST-DECL
‘My dog is dead. / My dog died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(20)
나 추워.
Na chuwo.
na
I
chub-eo
be_cold-PRS
‘I am cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(21)
나 팔 아파.
Na pal apa.
na
I
pal=apeu-a
arm=hurt-PLAIN
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form apeuda
(22)
내 팔이 아파.
Na pali apa.
na
1SG
pal-i
arm-NOM
apeu-a
hurt-PRS
‘My arm is hurting (me very much).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(23)
아기가 소리를 질렀다.
Agiga sorireul jilleotta.
agi-ga
baby-NOM
sori-reul
sound-ACC
jireu-eoss-da
scream-PST-DECL
‘The baby screamed.’
SCREAM the Verb form sorijireuda
(24)
아저씨가 웃었다.
Ajeossiga useotta.
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
us-eoss-da
laugh-PST-DECL
‘The man/mister laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(25)
아이들이 놀고 있다.
Aideuri nolgo itta.
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
nol-go
play-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The children are playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(26)
나는 도시에서 산다.
Naneun dosieseo sanda.
na-neun
I-TOP
dosi-eseo
city-LOC
sal-n-da
live-PRS-DECL
‘I live in a city.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(27)
저 독일에서 살아요.
Jeo dogireseo sarayo.
jeo
1SG.HUM
dogil-eseo
Germany-LOC
sal-ayo
live-POL
‘I live in Germany.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(28)
아저씨는 집을 떠났다.
Ajeossineun jibeul tteonatta.
ajeossi-neun
mister-TOP
jib-eul
house-ACC
tteona-ss-da
leave-PST-DECL
‘The man/mister left the house for good.’
LEAVE the Verb form tteonada
(29)
아주머니가 시장에 갔다.
Ajumeoniga sijange gatta.
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
sijang-e
market-LOC
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The madam went to the market (to do something there).’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(30)
아주머니가 시장으로 갔다.
Ajumeoniga sijangeuro gatta.
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
sijang-euro
market-DIR
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The madam went to the market.’
GO the Verb form gada
(31)
저 시장 가요.
Jeo sijang gayo.
jeo
I
sijang=ga-yo
market=go-POL
‘I'm going to the market./I'm going for some grocery shopping.’
GO the Verb form gada
(32)
할머니께서 노래를 부르셨다.
Halmeonikkeseo areumdaun noraereul bureusyeotta.
halmeoni-kkeseo
grandmother-NOM.HON
areumdab-n
beautiful-ATTR
norae-reul
song-ACC
bureu-si-eoss-da
call-HON-PST-DECL
‘Grandmother sang a beautiful song.’
SING the Verb form noraebureuda
(33)
아이들이 좋아서 깡충깡충 뛰고 있었다.
Aideuri joaseo kkangchungkkangchung ttwigo isseotta.
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
joh-aseo
be_glad-CONV.RS
kkangchungkkangchung
up_and_down
ttwi-go
jump-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were happily (i.e., because theywere happy) jumping up and down.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(34)
아이들은 땅에 앉아 있었다.
Aideureun ttange anja isseotta.
ai-deul-eun
child-PL-TOP
ttang-e
floor-LOC
anj-a
sit-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were sitting on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(35)
그는 벤치에 앉았다.
Geuneun benchie anjassda.
geu-neun
he-TOP
benchi-ae
bench-LOC
anj-ass-da
sit-PST-DECL
‘He sat down on the bench.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(36)
말은 달렸다.
Mari dallyeotta.
mal-i
horse-NOM
dalli-eoss-da
run-PST-DECL
‘The horse ran.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(37)
아이가 심하게 기침했다.
Aiga simhage gichimhaetta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
simhage
badly
gichim=ha-ss-da
cough=do-PST-DECL
‘The child coughed badly.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(38)
그는 눈을 깜박였다.
Geuneun nuneul kkambagyeotta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
nun-eul
eye-ACC
kkambagi-eoss-da
blink-PST-DECL
‘He blinked with his eyes.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(39)
그는 수염을 깎았다.
Geuneun suyeomeul kkakkatta.
geu-neun
he-FOC
suyeom-eul
beard-ACC
kkakk-ass-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘He shaved his beard.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(40)
그는 면도했다.
Geuneun myeondohaetta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
myeondo=haess-da
shave=do\PST-DECL
‘He shaved.’
SHAVE (self) a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(41)
아이가 옷을 입었다.
Aiga oseul ibeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
os-eul
cloths-ACC
ib-eoss-da
dress-PST-DECL
‘The child put on his cloths. / The child dressed.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(42)
옷입어!
On nibeo!
os=ib-eo
cloths=dress-PLAIN
‘Get dressed!’
DRESS the Verb form os(eul) ibda
(43)
옷 입었어?
On nibeosseo?
os=ib-eoss-eo
cloths=dress-PST-PLAIN
‘Have you put on your cloths already?’
DRESS the Verb form os(eul) ibda
(44)
아이가 손을 씻었다.
Aiga soneul siseotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
son-eul
hand-ACC
sis-eoss-da
wash-PST-DECL
‘The child wash his hands.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(45)
과일 싰었어?
Gwail sisseosseo?
gwail
fruit
siss-eoss-eo
wash-PST-PLAIN
‘Did you wash the fruit (we were about to eat)?’
WASH the Verb form ssisda
(46)
어머니가 아이를 목욕 시켰다.
Eomeoniga aireul mogyoksikieotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
mogyog=siki-eoss-da
bath=cause-PST-DECL
‘Mother bathed her child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(47)
너 빨리 (*손으로) (*얼굴을) 세수해!
Neo ppalli (*soneuro) (*eolgureul) saesuhae!
neo
2SG
ppalli
quickly
son-euro
hand-INSTR
eolgul-eul
face-ACC
saesu=hae
wash_face=do\PLAIN
‘Quickly, wash your face!’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(48)
엄마, 제 옷 빨았어요?
Eomma je oseul setakkiro pparasseoyo??
eomma
mom
je
my
os-eul
clothes-ACC
setaggi-ro
washing_machine-INSTR
ppal-ass-eoyo
wash-PST-POL
‘Mom, did you wash my laundry using the wahing machine??’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(49)
아이는 과일을 먹었다.
Aineun gwaireul meogeotta.
ai-neun
child-NOM
gwail-eul
fruit-ACC
meog-eoss-da
eat-PST-DECL
‘The child ate the fruit.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(50)
아버지가 아이를 도와줬다.
Abeojiga aireul dowajwotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
dob-a
help-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘Father helped the child.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(51)
병아리가 어미 닭을 따라간다.
Byeongariga eomi dageul ttaraganda.
byeongari-ga
chick-NOM
eomi
mother
dalg-eul
chicken-ACC
ttareu-a
follow-CONV
ga-n-da
go-PRS-DECL
‘A chick is following its mother.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(52)
어재 난 내 전 남자친구를 만났다.
Eojae nan nae jeon namjachingureul mannatta.
eojae
yesterday
na-n
I-TOP
nae
my
jeon
ex
namjachingu-reul
boyfriend-ACC
manna-ss-da
meet-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday I met my ex-boyfriend.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(53)
어제 시내에서 수영이를 만났어요.
Eoje sinaeeseo suyeongireul mannasseoyo.
eoje
yesterday
sinae-eseo
city-LOC
suyeongi-reul
SooYoung-ACC
manna-ss-eoyo
meet-PST-POL
‘Yesterday I met Soo-Young in town.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(54)
저 어제 시내에서 수영이하고 만났어요.
Jeo eoje sinaeeseo suyeongihago mannasseoyo.
jeo
1SG.HUM
eoje
yesterday
sinae-eseo
city-LOC
suyeongi-hago
SooYoung-COM
manna-ss-eoyo
meet-PST-POL
‘Yesterday I met with Soo-Young in town.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(55)
우리 언제 만나?
Uri eonje manna?
uri
we
eonje
when
manna
meet.PLAIN
‘When are we meeting?’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(56)
남편은 아내와 극장 앞에서 만나기로 했다.
Nampyeoneun anaewa geukjjang apeseo mannagiro haetta.
nampyeon-eun
husband-TOP
anae-wa
wife-COM
geugjang
cinema
ap-eseo
front-LOC
mannagiro
to:meet
hae-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘The husband decided to meet his wife in front of the cinema.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(57)
어머니가 아이를 안았다.
Eomeoniga aireul anassda.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother took the child in her arms. / The mother hugged her child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(58)
남자가 돈을 찾고 있었다.
Namjaga doneul chakko isseotta.
Namja-ga
mister-NOM
don-eul
money-ACC
chaj-go
look_for-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The man was looking for money.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(59)
아이는 할머니 생각을 하고 있었다.
Aineun halmeoni saenggageul hago isseotta.
ai-neun
child-TOP
halmeoni
grandmother
saenggag-eul
thought-ACC
ha-go
do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child was thinking about his grandmother.’
THINK the Verb form saenggaghada
(60)
그는 올 방학에 대해서 생각을 하고 있었다.
Geuneun ol banghage daehaeseo saenggageul hago isseossda.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
o-l
come-ATTR
banghag-e
holiday-LOC
daehaeseo
about
saenggag-eul
thought-ACC
ha-go
do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He was thinking about his next holidays.’
THINK the Verb form saenggaghada
(61)
학생은 다음 주제를 생각하고 있었다.
Haksaengeun daeum nonmun jujereul saenggakago isseotta.
haksaeng-eun
student-TOP
daeum
next
nonmun
essay
juje-reul
topic-ACC
saenggag=ha-go
thought=do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The student was thinking about his next essay topic.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(62)
그는 이미 그 사실을 알고 있었다.
Geuneun imi geu sasireul algo isseotta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
imi
already
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He already knew that fact.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(63)
아이는 그 얘기를 알고 있었다.
Aineun geu yaegireul algo isseotta.
ai-neun
child-TOP
geu
that
yaegi-reul
story-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child already knew that story.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(64)
난 니가 너무 좋아.
Nan niga neomu joa!
na-n
I-TOP
ni-ga
you-NOM
neomu
too_much
jo-a
be_good-PRS
‘I like you so much!’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(65)
너 어떤 음식을 좋아해?
Neo eotteon eumsigeul joahae?
neo
you
eotteo-n
what_kind_of-ATTR
eumsig-eul
food-ACC
joh-a
be_good-CONV
hae
do\PLAIN
‘What kind of food do you like (much)?’
LIKE an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(66)
누나는 지진이 무서웠다.
Nuna-neun jijini museoweotta.
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
jijin-i
earthquake-NOM
museoweo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared earthquakes.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(67)
누나는 지진을 무서워했다.
Nunaneun jijineul museowohaetta.
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
jijin-eul
earthquake-ACC
museob-eo
be_afraid-CONV
hae-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared earthquakes.’
FEAR the Verb form museobda
(68)
누나는 큰 짐승을 무서워한다
Nunaneun keun jimseungeul museowohanda.
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
jimseung-eul
animal-ACC
museob-eo=ha-n-da
be_afraid-CONV=do-PRS-DECL
‘My older sister fears big animals.’
FEAR an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(69)
누나는 큰 짐승이 무서웠다
Nunaneun keun jimseungi museowotta.
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
jimseung-i
animal-NOM
museowo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared big animals.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(70)
봐, 소리 때문에 애가 놀랬어!
Bwa, sori ttaemune ega nollaesseo!
bo-a
look-PLAIN
sori
sound
ttaemune
because:LOC
ai-ga
child-NOM
nollae-ss-eo
get_frightened-PST-DECL
‘Look how the child got frightened because of the sound!’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(71)
아이가 아저씨를 놀래켰다.
Aiga ajeossireul nollaekyeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
ajeossi-reul
mister-ACC
nollae-ki-eoss-da
get_frightened-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The child frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(72)
호랑이가 지나가는 사람의 냄새를 맡았다.
Horangiga jinaganeun sarame naemsaereul matatta.
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
jinaga-neun
pass_by-ATTR
saram-ui
person-GEN
naemsae-reul
smell-ACC
mat-ass-da
smell-PST-DECL
‘The tiger smelled persons passing by.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(73)
너 잠깐 이거 냄새 좀 맡아 봐!
Neo jamkkan igeo naemsae (jom) mata bwa!
neo
you
jamkkan
just_a_moment
igeo
this_thing
naemsae
smell
jom
a_bit
mat-a
smell-CONV
bo-a
see-PLAIN
‘Just check out this smell for a minute!’
SMELL the Verb form naemsaereul matta
(74)
사내는 여자애를 바라보았다.
Sanaeneun yeojaaereul baraboatta.
sanae-neun
boy-TOP
yeojaae-reul
young:girl-ACC
barabo-ass-da
look_at-PST-DECL
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(75)
아저씨가 곰을 보았다.
Ajeossiga gomeul boatta.
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
gom-eul
bear-ACC
bo-ass-da
see-PST-DECL
‘The man saw a bear.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(76)
하늘에서는 많은 것들이 보인다.
Haneureseoneun maneun geotteuri boinda.
haneul-eseo-neun
heaven-LOC-TOP
manh-eun
many-ATTR
geos-deul-i
thing-PL-NOM
bo-i-n-da
see-PASS-PRS-DECL
‘You can see many things down from heaven. / Down from heaven, many things are visible.’
SEE an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(77)
여자 아이는 사나이와 강아지에 대해서 얘기하고 있었다.
Yeojaaineun sanaiwa gangajie daehaeseo yaegihago isseotta.
yeojaai-neun
young:girl-TOP
sanai-wa
boy-COM
gangaji-e
dog-LOC
daehaeseo
about
yaegi=ha-go
story=do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The girl was talking with the boy about the dog.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(78)
여자아이는 사나이에게 강아지에 대해서 얘기했다.
Yeojaaineun sanaiege gangajie daehaeseo yaegihaetta.
yeojaai-neun
young:girl-TOP
sanai-ege
boy-DAT
gangaji-e
dog-LOC
daehaeseo
about
yaegi=ha-ss-da
story=do-PST-DECL
‘The girl talked to the boy about the dog.’
TALK the Verb form iyagihada
(79)
아들이 부모님한테서 돈을 요구했다.
Adeuri bumonimanteseo doneul yoguhaetta.
adeul-i
son-NOM
bumonim-hantheseo
parents-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
yogu=ha-ss-da
request=do-PST-DECL
‘The son asked his parents for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(80)
너 지금 나한테 바보라고 했어?
Neo jigeum nahante baborago haesseo?
neo
you
jigeum
just_now
na-hante
1SG-DAT
babo-rago
fool-be:QUOT
ha-ss-eo
do-PST-PLAIN
‘Did you just call me a fool? / Did you just say "fool" to me?’
SAY the Verb form malhada
(81)
그 아이를 안나라고 불렀다.
Bumonimdeuri geu aireul annarago bulleotta.
bumonim-deul-i
parents-PL-NOM
geu
that
ai-reul
child-ACC
anna-rago
Anna-be:QUOT
bureu-eoss-da
call-PST-DECL
‘The parents called that child "Anna".’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-quot V
(82)
수미는 아들한테 내일 떠난다고 얘기했다.
Sumineun adeurante naeil tteonandago yaegihaetta.
sumi-neun
Sumi-TOP
adeul-hante
son-DAT
naeil
tomorrow
tteona-n-da-go
leave-PRS-DECL-QUOT
yaegi=ha-ss-da
story=do-PST-DECL
‘Sumi told her son that she will/would be leaving tomorrow.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat UTT3 V
(83)
그녀는 내게 잘 생겼다고 말했다.
Geunyeoneun naege jal saenggyeottago (mal)haetta.
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
na-ege
1SG-DAT
jal
well
saenggi-eoss-da-go
look-PST-DECL-QUOT
mal=ha-ss-da
speech=do-PST-DECL
‘She told me I was good-looking.’
SAY the Verb form malhada
(84)
그녀는 내게 사실을 말했다.
Geunyeoneun naege sasileul malhaessda.
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
sasil-eul
truth-ACC
mal=ha-ss-da
speech=do-PST-DECL
‘She told me the truth.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-quot V
(85)
그녀는 내게 아니라고 (말)했다.
Geunyeoneun naege anirago (mal)haessda.
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
anirago
NEG:be:QUOT
mal=haess-da
speech=do\PST-DECL
‘She said "no" to me / She told me it wasn't true/the case.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-quot V
(86)
아이는 돌로 유리를 깼다.
Aineun dollo yurireul kkaessda.
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(87)
유리는 쉽게 깨진다 .
Yurineun swipkke kkaejinda.
yuri-neun
glass-TOP
swib-ge
easy-CONV
kkae
break.CONV
ji-n-da
PASS-PRS-DECL
‘Glass breaks easily.’
BREAK an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(88)
아이는 유리를 돌로 깨뜨렸다.
Aineun dollo yurireul kkaetteuryeotta.
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkaetteuri-eoss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the glass with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(89)
*잘 깨뜨려지네요.
*Jal kkaetteuryeojineyo.
jal
well
kkaetteuri-eo
break-CONV
ji-ne-yo
PASS-ASTONISHMENT-POL
‘Wow, it breaks easily/often.’
BREAK an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(90)
아이는 막대기로 뱀을 때렸다.
Aineun makttaegiro baemeul ttaeryeotta.
ai-neun
child-TOP
makdaegi-ro
stick-INSTR
baem-eul
snake-ACC
ttaeri-eoss-da
beat-PST-DECL
‘The child beat/hit the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(91)
사나이는 뱀을 (?막대기로) 쳤다.
Sanaineun baemeul (?makttaegiro) chyeotta.
sanai-neun
boy-TOP
baem-eul
snake-ACC
magdaegi-ro
stick-INSTR
chi-eoss-da
hiss-PST-DECL
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’
HIT the Verb form chida
(92)
그는 그녀의 손을 만졌다.
Geuneun geunyeoae soneul manjyeotta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
geunyeo-ae
that:girl-GEN
son-eul
hand-ACC
manji-eoss-da
touch-PST-DECL
‘He touched her hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(93)
아주머니가 칼로 빵을 잘랐다.
Ajumeoniga kallo ppangeul jallatta.
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
kal-lo
knife-INSTR
ppang-eul
bread-ACC
jareu-ass-da
cut-PST-DECL
‘The woman cut the bread with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(94)
이 칼로 (하면) 빵이 잘 잘라져.
I kallo (hamyeon) ppangi jal jallajieo.
i
this
kal-lo
knife-INSTR
ha-myeon
do-CONV.COND
ppang-i
bread-NOM
jal
well
jalla-ji-eo
cut.CONV-PASS-PLAIN
‘If you do [it] with this knife, the bread cuts well.’
CUT an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(95)
그는 책상 위에 있는 친구(의) 돈을 집었다.
Geuneun chaeksang wie itteon chingu(ae) doneul jibeotta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
chaeksang
table
wi-e
top-LOC
iss-teo-n
be-EV.PST-ATTR
chingu-ae
friend-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
jib-eoss-da
take-PST-DECL
‘He took his friend's money which was on the table.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(96)
너 이걸 왜 찢어?
Neo igeol wae jjijeo?
neo
you
igeo-l
this:thing-ACC
wae
why
jjij-eo
tear-PLAIN
‘Why are you ripping this?’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(97)
아이가 책에서 종이 한 장을 찢어냈다.
Aiga chaegeseo jongi han jangeul jjijeonaetta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
chaeg-eseo
book-ABL
jongi
paper
han
one
jang-eul
page.CLFR-ACC
jjij-eo=nae-ss-da
tear-CONV=take_out-PST-DECL
‘The child tore a page out of the book. / The child tore one page from the book and took it out.’
TEAR the Verb form jjijda
(98)
아이가 선생님에게 그림을 보여줬다.
Aiga seonsaengnimege geurimeul boyeojwotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
seonsaengnim-ege
teacher-DAT
geurim-eul
picture-ACC
bo-i-eo
show-CAUS-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The child showed the teacher a picture.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(99)
할머니가 아이한테 돈을 줬다.
Halmeoniga aihante doneul jwotta.
halmeoni-ga
grandmother-NOM
ai-hante
child-DAT
don-eul
money-ACC
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother gave the child some money.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(100)
재가 어제 삼촌한테 소포 한 상자를 보냈어요.
Jeo eoje samchonhante sopo han sangjareul bonaesseoyo.
jeo
1SG.HUM
eojae
yesterday
samchon-hanthae
uncle-DAT
sopo
mail
han
one
sangja-reul
box.CLFR-ACC
bonae-ss-eoyo
send-PST-POL
‘I sent a parcel to my uncle yesterday. / I sent you a parcel yesterday, uncle.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(101)
어머니가 아이에게 이불을 덮어 주셨다.
Eomeoniga aiege ibureul deopeojusyeotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
ibul-eul
blanket-ACC
deop-eo
cover-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The mother covered the child with a blanket (for it).’
COVER an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(102)
엄마가 간장을 솟에 붓었다.
Eommaga ganjangeul sose bueotta.
eomma-ga
mom-NOM
ganjang-eul
soy_sauce-ACC
sos-e
pot-LOC
bu-eoss-da
pour-PST-DECL
‘Mom poured the soy sauce into the pot.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(103)
그는 뿌리를 찾기 위해 정원에서 큰 구멍을 팠다.
Geuneun ppurireul chakkii wihae jeongweoneseo keun gumeongeul patta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
ppuri-reul
root-ACC
chaj-gi
find-NMLZ
wihae
for
jeongweon-aeseo
garden-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
gumeong-eul
hole-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug a hole in the garden in order to find the roots.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(104)
도둑이 그녀의 돈을 훔쳤다.
Dodugi geunyeoae doneul humchyeotta.
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(105)
도둑이 그녀의 돈을 훔쳐갔다.
Dodugi geunyeoae doneul humchyeogattaa.
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money (and went away).’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(106)
여자들은 큰 돌로 콩을 갈았다.
Yeojadeureun keun dollo kongeul garatta.
yeoja-deul-eun
woman-PL-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
kong-eul
bean-ACC
gal-ass-da
grind-PST-DECL
‘The women ground the beans with a big stone.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(107)
아이에게 새 소리가 들렸다.
Aiege sae soriga deullyeotta.
ai-ege
child-DAT
sae
bird
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
hear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child (inadvertedly) heard the sound of a bird (=a bird).’
HEAR an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(108)
누나가 동생에게 음악을 들려줬다.
Nunaga dongsaengege eumageul deullyeojwotta.
nuna-ga
older_sister_of_male-NOM
dongsaeng-ege
younger_sibling-DAT
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-li-eo
hear-CAUS-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The older sister showed her brother some music.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(109)
선생이 학생들에게 독어를 가르쳤다.
Seonsaengi haksaengdeurege dogeoreul gareuchyeotta.
seonsaeng-i
teacher-NOM
haksaeng-deul-ege
pupil-PL-DAT
dogeo-reul
German-ACC
gareuchi-eoss-da
teach-PST-DECL
‘The teacher taught the pupils German.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(110)
할머니께서 아이에게 노래를 가르쳐 주셨다.
Halmeonikkeseo aiege noraereul gareuchyeojusyeotta.
halmeoni-kkeseo
grandmother-NOM.HON
ai-ege
child-DAT
norae-reul
song-ACC
gareuchi-eo
teach-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother taught the child a song.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(111)
물이 끓고 있다.
Muri kkeulko ita.
mul-i
water-NOM
kkeulh-go
boil-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(112)
선수가 2.2 미터를 뛰었다.
Seonsuga 2.2 miteoreul ttwieotta.
seonsu-ga
sportsman-NOM
2.2
2.2
miteo-reul
meter-ACC
ttwi-eoss-da
jump-PST-DECL
‘The sportsman jumped 2.2 meters high.’
JUMP the Verb form ttwida
(113)
고향이가 나무에 올라갔다.
Goyangiga namue ollagatta.
goyangi-ga
cat-NOM
namu-e
tree-LOC
oreu-a
move_up-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The cat climbed on the tree. / The cat went up the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(114)
숲속에 남자가 나타났다.
Supsoge namjaga natanatta.
supsok-e
forest:interior-LOC
namja-ga
man-NOM
natana-ss-da
appear-PST-DECL
‘A man appeared in the forest.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(115)
아이가 친구들에게서 선물을 받았다.
Aiga chingudeuregeseo seonmureul badatta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
chingu-deul-egeseo
friend-PL-ABL
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
bad-ass-da
get-PST-DECL
‘The child got a present from his friends.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(116)
이 선물을 받아주세요.
I seonmureul badajuseyo.
i
this
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
bad-a
get-CONV
ju-seyo
give-IMP:POL
‘Please accept this present for me.’
GET an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(117)
아이가 장난감을 원했다.
Aiga jangnangkkameul wonhaetta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
jangnangam-eul
toy-ACC
wonha-ss-da
want-PST-DECL
‘The child wanted toys.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(118)
어머니가 아이에게 옷을 입혔다.
Eomeoniga aiege oseul ipyeotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
os-eul
cloths-ACC
ib-hi-eoss-da
dress-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother dressed her child.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(119)
어머니가 아이에게(~아이를) 옷을 입게 했다.
Eomeoniga {aiege/aireul} oseul ipkke haetta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
{ai-ege/ai-reul}
{child-DAT/child-ACC}
os-eul
cloths-ACC
ib-gae
dress-CONV
ha-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘Mother made her child dress.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(120)
어머니가 아이한테 과일을 먹였다.
Eomeoniga {aihante/aireul} gwaireul meogyeotta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
{ai-hante/ai-reul}
{child-DAT/child-ACC}
gwail-eul
fruit-ACC
meog-i-eoss-da
eat-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother fed her child [some] fruit.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(121)
안나와 토마스가 만났다.
Annawa tomasseuga uyeoni dasi mannatta.
anna-wa
Anna-COM
tomasseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
uyeonhi
accidentally
dasi
again
manna-ss-da
meet-PST-DECL
‘Anna and Thomas met again accidentally.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(122)
엄마가 아이를 껴안았다.
Eommaga aireul kkyeoanatta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother hugged [her] child.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(123)
날 안아줘.
Nal anajwo!
na-l
1SG-ACC
an-a
hug-CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
‘Hug me!’
HUG the Verb form anda
(124)
안나와 토마스가 서로를 껴안았다.
Annawa tomasseuga seororeul kkyeoanatta.
anna-wa
Anna-COM
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
seoro-reul
RECP-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Anna and Thomas hugged each other.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(125)
난 김치가 좋아.
Nan gimchiga joa.
na-n
I-TOP
gimchi-ga
Kimchi-NOM
joh-a
be_good-PLAIN
‘I like Kimchi.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(126)
어머니는 아들한테 소리를 질렀다.
Eomeonineun aideurhante sorireul jilleotta.
eomeoni-neun
mother-TOP
ai-deul-hante
child-PL-DAT
sori-reul
sound-ACC
jill-eoss-da
scream-PST-DECL
‘The mother shouted at the children.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(127)
아이가 온 몸이 아팠다.
Aiga on momi apatta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
on
whole
mom-i
body-NOM
apeu-ass-da
hurt-PST-DECL
‘The child's whole body was hurting.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(128)
아버지가 돌로 집을 지으셨다.
Abeojiga dollo jibeul jieusyeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
dol-ro
stone-INSTR
jib-eul
house-ACC
jis-eusi-eoss-da
build-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father build a house out of stones.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(129)
아이가 계속 울고 있었다.
Aiga gyesok ulgo isseotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
gyesok
constantly
ul-go
cry-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child was crying all the time.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(130)
내가 물을 끓였다.
Naega mureul kkeuryeotta.
naega
1SG
mul-eul
water-ACC
kkeulh-i-eoss-da
boil-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘I boiled the water./It was me who boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(131)
태양열로 물을 끓게 한다.
Taeyangyeollo mureul kkeulke handa.
taeyangyeol-lo
sun:warmth-INSTR
mul-eul
water-ACC
kkeulh-ge
boil-CONV
ha-n-da
do-PRS-DECL
‘One makes the water boil using sunlight/solar power.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(132)
이거로는 물이 빨리 끓여져.
Igeollloneun muri ppalli kkeuryeo jyeo.
igeol-lo-neun
this-INSTR-TOP
mul-i
water-NOM
ppalli
quickly
kkeulh-i-eo
boil-CAUS-CONV
ji-eo
become-PLAIN
‘With this, the water boils quickly./With this you can boil water quickly.’
BOIL the Verb form kkeulhda
(133)
엄마가 책상을 닦았다.
Eommaga chaeksangeul dakkatta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
chaeksang-eul
table-ACC
dak-ass-da
wipe-PST-DECL
‘Mother cleaned the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(134)
엄마가 X 사이에서 먼지를 닦아냈다.
Eommaga gagudeul saieseo meonjireul dakka naetta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
gagu-deul
furniture-PL
sai-eseo
between-ABL
meonji-reul
dust-ACC
dakk-a
wipe-CONV
nae-ss-da
take_out-PST-DECL
‘Mom wiped out the dust out of the spaces between the furniture.’
WIPE the Verb form dakkda
(135)
이걸 저쪽으로 밀어!
Igeol jeojjogeuro mireo.
igeo-l
this-ACC
jeojjok-euro
that:direction-DIR
mil-eo
push-PLAIN
‘(nodding somewhere) Push it in that direction.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dir V
(136)
네가 안경을 어디다 놨지?
Naega angyeongeul eodida nwajji?
nae-ga
I-NOM
angyeong-eul
glasses-ACC
eodi-da
where-LOC
noh-ass-ji
put-PST-asking_oneself
‘(thinking about it intensively) Where did I put my glasses?’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(137)
너 이거 좀 나 대신 책상 위에다 놓아 줘.
Neo igeo jom na daesin chaeksang wieda nwa jweo?
neo
you
igeo
this
jom
a_bit
na
1SG
daesin
instead
chaeksang
table
wi-eda
top-LOC
noh-a
put-CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
‘Can you just put this on the table for me, please?’
PUT an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(138)
아이가 공을 바다로 던졌다.
Aiga gongeul badae deonjieotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
gong-eul
ball-ACC
bada-e
ocean-LOC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The child threw the ball into the direction of the ocean.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(139)
아버지가 이에게 공을 던져 주었다.
Abeojiga aiege gongeul deonjieo jueotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
gong-eul
ball-ACC
deonji-eo
throw-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The father threw a ball to his child.’
THROW an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(140)
어제 그 친구가 우리집에서 떠났다.
Eoje geu chinguga uri jibeseo tteonatta.
eoje
yesterday
geu
that
chingu-ga
friend-NOM
uri
our
jib-eseo
house-ABL
tteona-ss-da
leave-PST-DECL
‘He (my friend I told you about) left our house yesterday/That friend of mine, he left yesterday.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(141)
제발 좀 날 위해 서울에서 떠나 줘.
Jebal jom nal wihae seoureseo tteona jweo.
jebal
begging_you
jom
a_bit
na-l
1SG-ACC
wihae
for
seoul-eseo
Seoul-ABL
tteona
leave.CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
‘Please, I'm begging you, leave Seoul.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(142)
마추픽추를 가보셨어요?
Machupicchureul ga bosyeosseoyo?
Machupicchu-reul
Machu_Picchu-ACC
ga
go:CONV
bo-si-eoss-eoyo
see-HON-PST-POL
‘Have you ever been to Machu Picchu?’
GO the Verb form gada
(143)
길을 가던 사람을 붙잡았다.
Gireul gadeon sarameul bujjabatta.
gil-eul
way-ACC
ga-deon
go-ATTR.EV.PST
saram-eul
person-ACC
bujjab-ass-da
stop-PST-DECL
‘I stopped a/the person who was walking along the way.’
GO the Verb form gada
(144)
할아버지가 손녀를 무릎에 앉혔다.
Harabeojiga sonnyeoreul mureube anchyeotta.
harabeoji-ga
grandfather-NOM
sonnyeo-reul
granddaughter-ACC
mureup-e
knee-LOC
anj-hi-eoss-da
sit_down-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The grandfather put his granddaughter on his lap.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(145)
할아버지가 손녀를 무릎 위에 앉게 했다.
Harabeojiga sonnyeottareul mureub wie ankke hasyeotta.
harabeoji-ga
grandfather-NOM
sonnyeottal-eul
granddaughter-ACC
mureup
knee
wi-e
top-LOC
an-ge
sit_down-CONV
ha-si-eoss-da
do-HON-PST-DECL
‘The grandfather made his granddaughter sit on his lap (by talking to her, not by lifting her).’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(146)
어머니가 귤을 깠다.
Nunaga gyureul kkatta.
nuna-ga
older_sister_of_male-NOM
gyul-eul
tangerine-ACC
kka-ss-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘Mother peeled a tangerine.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(147)
어머니가 귤껍질을 벗겼다.
Emeoniga gyulkkeopjjireul beosgyeotta.
emeoni-ga
mother-NOM
gyul
tangerine
kkeobjil-eul
skin-ACC
beos-gi-da
peel-CAUS-DECL
‘Mother peeled the tangerines.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(148)
아버지가 잠바를 벗었다.
Abeojiga jambareul beoseusyeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
jamba-reul
jacket-ACC
beos-eusi-eoss-da
take_off-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father took off his jacket.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(149)
그녀는 사고로 손가락 하나가 잘렸다.
Geunyeoneun sagoro songarak hanaga jallieotta.
geunyeo-neun
she-TOP
sago-ro
accident-INSTR
songarak
finger
hana-ga
one-NOM
jareu-li-eoss-da
cut-PASS-PST-DECL
‘One of her fingers was cut off in an accident.’
CUT an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(150)
호랑이가 사람을 죽였다.
Horangiga sarameul jugyeotta.
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
saram-eul
human.being-ACC
jug-i-eoss-da
die-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘A tiger killed a person.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(151)
그는 친척들한테 짱순이라고 불렸다.
Geuneun chincheoktteurante Jjangsunirago bullyeotta.
geu-neun
he-TOP
chincheok-deul-hante
relative-PL-DAT
Jjangsuni-rago
Jjangsuni-QUOT
bureu-li-eoss-da
call-PASS-PST-DECL
‘He is called Jjangsuni by his relatives.’
NAME an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(152)
그녀는 한국의 마돈나로 불린다.
Geunyeoneun Hangugae Madonnaro bullinda.
geunyeo-neun
she-TOP
hangug-ae
South_Korea-GEN
madonna-ro
Madonna-INSTR
bureu-li-n-da
name-PASS-PRS-DECL
‘She is called the 'Madonna of Korea'.’
NAME an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(153)
아이가 한국으로 선물을 가져갔다.
Aiga chingu jibe seonmureul gajyeogatta.
ai-ga
mother-NOM
chingu
friend
jib-e
house-LOC
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The child took presents to his friend's house.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(154)
해가 밝다.
Haega baktta.
hae-ga
sun-NOM
balg-da
bright-DECL
‘The sun is bright.’
BE BRIGHT a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(155)
그가 그 사실을 밝혔다.
Geuga geu sasireul balkyeotta.
geu-ga
he-NOM
geu
that
sasil-eul
truth-ACC
balg-hi-eoss-da
bright-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘He uncovered that fact.’
BE BRIGHT an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(156)
끔직한 사실이 밝혀졌다.
Kkeumjjikan sasiri balkyeojyeotta.
kkeumjigha-n
terryfing-ATTR
sasil-i
truth-NOM
balg-hi-eo
bright-CAUS-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘A terryfying fact was revealed.’
BE BRIGHT the Verb form balgda
(157)
그리움은 쉽게 놓아지지 않는다.
Geuriumeun swipge noajiji anneunda.
geurium-eun
longing-TOP
swibge
easily
noh-a
put-CONV
ji-ji
PASS.AUX-NEG
an-neun-da
NEG-PRS-DECL
‘It is not easy to let go of longing.’
PUT an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(158)
책이 책상 위에 놓여 있다.
Chaegi chaeksang wie noyeo isseotta.
chaeg-i
book-NOM
chaeksang
table
wi-e
top-LOC
no-i-eo
put-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘A book was lying on the table.’
PUT an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(159)
온 마당이 눈으로 덮어져 있었다.
On madangi nuneuro deopeojyeo isseotta.
on
all
madang-i
patio-NOM
nun-euro
snow-INSTR
deop-eo-ji-eo
cover-CONV-PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The whole patio was covered in snow.’
COVER the Verb form deopda
(160)
한라산 정상에 눈이 덮여 있다.
Hallasan jeongsange nuni deopyeo itta.
hallasan
Halla_Mountain
jeongsang-e
peek-LOC
nun-i
snow-NOM
deop-i-eo
cover-PASS-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘Snow is covering the peek of the Halla Mountain. / The peek of Halla Mountain is covered in snow.’
COVER an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(161)
온 밭이 꽃으로 덮여 있었다.
Babsangi sangboro depyeo isseotta.
babsang-i
table-NOM
sangbo-ro
table_cloth-INSTR
deop-i-eo
cover-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The whole bed is covered with flowers.’
COVER an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(162)
아이가 꽃다발을 들고 있다.
Aiga kkottabareul deulgo itta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
kkochdabal-eul
flower:bouquet-ACC
deul-go
carry-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘A child is carrying a bouquet.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(163)
아이가 할아버제에게 가방을 들어 주었다.
Aiga dongsaengege gabangeul deureo jueotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
dongsaeng-ege
younger_sibling-DAT
gabang-eul
bag-ACC
deul-eo
carry-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The child carried the bag for its younger brother.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(164)
아주머니가 통을 밭으로 들고 갔다.
Ajumeoniga tongeul bateuro deulgo gatta.
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
tong-eul
barrel-ACC
bat-euro
field-DIR
deul-go
carry-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The woman carried the barrel to the field.’
CARRY the Verb form deulda
(165)
통이 너무 무거워서 안 들어져.
Tongi (neomu mugeowoseo) andeureojyeo.
tong-i
barrel-NOM
neomu
too_much
mugeob-eoseo
heavy-CONV
an-deul-eo
NEG-carry-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-PLAIN
‘I can't lift the barrel because it's too heavy.’
CARRY an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(166)
환자가 그 사실을 의사에게 숨겼다.
Hwanjaga geu sasilreul uisaege sumgyeotta.
hwanja-ga
patient-NOM
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
uisa-ege
doctor-DAT
sum-gi-eoss-da
hide-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The patient hid that fact from his doctor.’
HIDE the Verb form sumgida
(167)
아이가 립스틱을 어머니로부터 숨겼다.
Aiga lipseutigeul eomeonirobuteo sumgyeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
lipseutik-eul
lipstick-ACC
eomeoni-robuteo
mother-from
sum-gi-eoss-da
hide-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The child hid the lipstick from his mother.’
HIDE the Verb form sumgida
(168)
아이가 엄마 몰래 강아지를 숨겨 놨다.
Aiga eomma mollae gangajireul sumgyeo nwatta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
eomma
mother
mollae
without_knowing
gangaji-reul
dog-ACC
sum-gi-eo
hide-CAUS-CONV
noh-ass-da
put-PST-DECL
‘The child hid the little dog somewhere without letting his mother know.’
HIDE the Verb form sumgida
(169)
먼저 사과를 껍질을 깐다.
Meonjeo sagwareul kkeopjjireul kkanda.
meonjeo
first
sagwa-reul
apple-ACC
kkeobjil-eul
skin-ACC
kka-n-da
peel-PRS-DECL
‘First, one peels the skin off the apple.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(170)
메세지가 보내지기는 한데, 받아지지 않아요.
Messejiga bonaejigineun hande badajiji anayo.
meseji-ga
message-NOM
bonae
send.CONV
ji-gi-neun
PASS.AUX-NMLZ-TOP
ha-nde
do-but
bad-a
receive-CONV
ji-ji
PASS.AUX-NEG
anh-ayo
NEG-POL
‘The message can be sent, but it cannot be received.’
SEND an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(171)
아이가 아저씨를 놀랬다.
Aiga ajeossireul nollaetta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
ajeossi-reul
mister-ACC
nollae-ss-da
get_frightened:CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The child frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(172)
러닝화를 신으면 잘 뛰어진다.
Reonninghwareul sineumyeon jal ttwieo jinda.
reonninghwa-reul
running_shoes-ACC
sin-eumyeon
put_on-CONV
jal
well
ttwi-eo
run-COV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘If one puts on running shoes, one can run well.’
JUMP an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(173)
나무에서 과일이 떨어졌다.
Namueseo gwairi tteoreojyeotta.
namu-eseo
tree-ABL
gwail-i
fruit-NOM
tteoreoji-eoss-da
fall-PST-DECL
‘Fruit fell from the tree.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(174)
수술하고 나니 눈이 잘 안 깜박여졌다.
Susurhago nani nuni jal an kkamppagyeojyeotta.
susul=ha-go
operation=do-CONV
na-ni
stop-CONV
nun-i
eye-NOM
jal
well
an
NEG
kkambagi-eo
blink-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘After my operation I couldn't blink my eyes anymore.’
BLINK an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(175)
폐에 물이 찼다.
Pyee muri chatta.
pye-e
lung-LOC
mul-i
water-NOM
cha-ss-da
get_full-PST-DECL
‘The lungs are/were filled with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(176)
왜 계속 얘를 울리냐, 울리기는?
Wae gyesok aereul ullinya, ulligineun?
wae
why
gyesok
always
yae-reul
this.child-ACC
ul-li-nya
cry-CAUS-Q
ul-li-gi-neun
cry-CAUS-NMLZ-TOP
‘Why are you always making the kid cry?’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(177)
왜 계속 얘를 울게 하는지...
Wae gyesok aereul ulge haneunji...
wae
why
gyesok
always
yae-reul
child-ACC
ul-ge
cry-CAUS2
ha-neun-ji
do-PRS-COMP
‘I don't know why he's always making the kid(s) cry. / He always has to make the kid(s) cry. It really makes me wonder why...’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(178)
넌 니 길을 가고, 난 네 길을 갈테니 상관 마.
Neon ni gireul gago, nan ne gireul galteni sanggwan ma.
neo-n
you-TOP
ni
your
gil-eul
way-ACC
ga-go
go-CONV
na-n
I-TOP
ne
my
gil-eul
way-ACC
ga-lte-ni
go-PLAIN-CONV
sanggwan
meddling
ma
IMP.NEG
‘You'll go your way and I'll go mine, so don't butt in.’
GO the Verb form gada
(179)
네가 머리를 말렸다.
Naega meorireul mallyeotta.
na-ga
1SG-NOM
meori-reul
hair-ACC
mareu-li-eoss-da
dry\_up-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘I dried my hair.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(180)
국보 일 호 숭례문이 불닸다
Gukppo iro sungnyemuni bultatta.
gugbo
national_treasure
il
one
ho
number.CLFR
sungryemun-i
Sungnyemun-NOM
bul=ta-ss-da
fire=burn-PST-DECL
‘The national treasure number one, the Sungnyemun [i.e. more widely known as Namdaemun in Seoul] has burned down.’
BURN the Verb form tada (1)
(181)
신이 집을 불에 태웠다.
Sini jibeul bure taewotta.
sin-i
god-NOM
jib-eul
house-ACC
bul-e
fire-LOC
tae-u-eoss-da
burn-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘A god set the house on fire and let it burn down.’
BURN an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(182)
군인이 실수로 배를 수면 아래로 가라앉히고 말았다
Gunini silsuro baereul sumyeon araero garaanchigo maratta.
gunin-i
soldier-NOM
silsuro
accidentally
bae-reul
boat-ACC
sumyeon
water_surface
arae-ro
downside-DIR
garaanj-hi-go
sink-CAUS-CONV
mal-ass-da
end_up-PST-DECL
‘The soldier ended up sinking the boat on the ground.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(183)
그는 음악을 들으면서 마음을 조금 가라앉혔다.
Geuneun eumageul deureumyeonseo maeumeul jogeum garaanchyeotta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-eumyeonseo
listen-CONV.SIMUL
maeum-eul
heart-ACC
jogeum
bit
garaanj-hi-eoss-da
sink-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘He settled down a bit while listening to music.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(184)
Na baega gopaseo jugeul geo gata.
na
1SG
bae-ga
belly-NOM
gop-aseo
?-CONV.RS
jug-eul
die-ATTR
geo
thing
gateu-a
look_like-PLAIN
‘I think I'm dying of hunger. / I am so hungry I think I'm dying.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(185)
Na-eykey holangi-ka musep-ta.
Naege horangiga museoptta.
na-ege
1SG-DAT
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
museob-da
fearsome-DECL
‘I am afraid of tigers.’
FEAR the Verb form museobda
(186)
나 니가 무서워.
Na niga museowo.
na
1SG
neo-ga
2SG-NOM
museob-eo
frightening-PLAIN
‘I'm afraid of you./I find you frightening.’
FEAR the Verb form museobda
(187)
아이가 심한 기침을 했다.
Aiga siman gichimeul haetta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
simha-n
bad-ATTR
gichim-eul
cough-ACC
ha-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘The child had a bad cough.’
COUGH the Verb form gichimhada
(188)
너 빨리 수염 깎어!
Neo palli suyeom kkakkeo!
neo
2SG
ppalli
quickly
suyeom=kkakk-eo
beard=shave-PLAIN
‘Quickly, shave your beard!’
CUT the Verb form kkakkda
(189)
어머니가 아이를 자기 강아지를 목욕시키게 했다.
Eomeoniga aireul jagi gangajireul meogyoksikige haetta.
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
jagi
REFL
gangaji-reul
dog-ACC
mogyog=siki-ge
bath=cause-CONV
ha-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘The mother made her child bath his/her dog.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(190)
너 날 여기까지 따라왔니?
Neo nal yeogikkaji ttarawanni?
neo
2SG
na-l
1SG-ACC
yeogi-kkaji
here-until
ttareu-a
follow-CONV
o-ass-ni
come-PST-DECL
‘Did you just follow me until here?’
FOLLOW the Verb form ttaragada
(191)
북극곰 돌로 동물원 안전유리 깨…'아찔'
Bukkeukkom dollo dongmurwon anjeonyuri kkae...ajjil.
buggeug-gom
arctic-bear
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
dongmurwon
zoo
anjeonyuri
security.glass
kkae
break.CONV
ajjil
unsettling
‘Discomposure caused by polar bear breaking zoo's security glass.’
BREAK the Verb form kkaeda
(192)
너 나 쳣어 지금?
Neo na chyeosseo jigeum?
neo
2SG
na
1SG
chi-eoss-eo
hit-PST-PLAIN
jigeum
just_now
‘Did you push me/touch me just now?’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(193)
아이가 막대기를 던져 뱀을 쳣다.
Aiga makttaegireul deonjyeo baemeul chyeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
magdaegi-reul
stick-ACC
deonji-eo
throw-CONV
baem-eul
snake-ACC
chi-eoss-da
hit-PST-DECL
‘The child threw a stick and hit the/a snake.’
HIT the Verb form chida
(194)
영웅이 적을 쳐 부쉈다.
Yeongungdeuri himeul dahayeo jeogeul chyeotta.
yeongung-deul-i
hero-PL-NOM
him-eul
force-ACC
da-ha-eo
all-do-CONV
jeog-eul
enemy-ACC
chi-eoss-da
hit-PST-DECL
‘The heroes put all their forces together and crushed the enemy.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(195)
아주머니가 칼을 집어 빵을 잘랐다.
Ajumeoniga kareul jibeo ppangeul jallatta.
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
kal-eul
knife-ACC
jib-eo
grab-CONV
ppang-eul
bread-ACC
jareu-ass-da
cut-PST-DECL
‘The woman cut the bread with a knife/using a knife. / The woman took a knife and cut the bread.’
CUT the Verb form jareuda
(196)
너 나 발로 계속 만져, 왜?
Neo na ballo gyesok manjyeo, wae!?
neo
2SG
na
1SG
bal-lo
foot-INSTR
gyesog
continuously
manji-eo
touch-PLAIN
wae
why
‘Why are you grabbing me with your foot all the time?’
TOUCH the Verb form manjida
(197)
김 선수는 어제 경기장에서 참으로 놀라운 실력을 보였다.
Kim seonsuneun eoje gyeonggijangeseo chameuro nollaun sillyeogeul boyeotta.
kim
Kim
seonsu-neun
champion-TOP
eoje
yesterday
gyeonggijang-eseo
arena-LOC
chameuro
truly
nollab-n
be_astonishing-ATTR
sillyeog-eul
skill-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday in the arena, Kim displayed his exceptional skills.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(198)
ㅅ, 20년 전 ㅂ가 나에게 관심 보였다!
Gunyeon jeon B.ga naege gwansim boyeotta!
20
twenty
nyeon
year
jeon
before
B.-ga
B.-NOM
na-ege
1SG-DAT
gwansim
interest
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Twenty years ago B. showed me her interest!’
SHOW the Verb form boida
(199)
그녀는멘토들 앞에서 자신만만한 모습을 보였다.
Geunyeoneun mentodeul apeseo jasinmanmanan moseubeul boyeotta.
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
mento-deul
mentor-PL
ap-eseo
before-LOC
jasinmanman=ha-n
fully_confident=do-ATTR
moseub-eul
appearance-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She presented herself to her mentors with overflowing confidence (lit. she showed an appearance of full confidence in front of her mentors).’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2+ap-loc 3-acc V
(200)
도둑이 그녀에게서 돈을 훔쳐갔다.
Dodugi geunyeoegeseo doneul humchyeogatta.
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-egeseo
3SG-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money (away) from her.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(201)
Dodugi geunyeoae jigabeseo doneul humchyeotta.
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeoae
3SG:GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her wallet.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(202)
Dodugi geunyeoae jigabeseo doneul humchyeotta.
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
3SG-GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her (and came here).’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(203)
도둑이 (동생에게?) 그녀의 지갑에서 돈을 훔쳐다 (갔다) 줬다.
Dodugi (*dongsaengege) geunyeoae jigabeseo doneul humchyeoda (gatta) jwotta.
dodug-i
thief-NOM
dongsaeng-ege
younger_brother-DAT
geunyeo-ae
3SG-GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoda
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-CONV
‘The thief stole some money from the girl's wallet to give it to his younger brother/for his younger brother.’
STEAL the Verb form humchida
(204)
?도둑이 동생에게 그녀의 지갑에서 돈을 훔쳐 줬다.
?Dodugi dongsaengege geunyeoae jigabeseo doneul humchyeo jwotta.
dodug-i
thief-NOM
dongsaeng-ege
younger_brother-DAT
geunyeo-ae
3SG-GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her wallet for his younger brother.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(205)
성우는 음악을듣고 있었다.
Sounguneun eumageul deukko isseotta.
soungu-neun
Soung_U-TOP
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-go
listen-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Soung-U was listening to music.’
LISTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(206)
내가 아이들에게 재미있는 이야기를 들렸더니 너무 좋아한다.
Naega aideurege jaeminneun iyagireul deullyeotteoni neomu joahanda.
na-ga
1SG-NOM
ai-deul-ege
child-PL-DAT
jaemiss-neun
fun:have-ATTR
iyagi-reul
story-ACC
deud-li-eoss-deoni
listen-PASS-PST-CONV
neomu
too_much
joh-a
like-CONV
ha-n-da
do-NPST-DECL
‘As I told the children my story, they really liked it.’
LIKE an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(207)
누나가 날 음악을 들려줬다.
Nunaga nal eumageul deullyeojwotta.
nuna-ga
older_sister_of_male-NOM
na-l
1SG-ACC
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-li-eo
listen-CAUS-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘My sister showed me some music.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Recipient double accusative alternation
(208)
고양이가 나무에 올랐다.
Goyangiga namue ollatta.
goyangi-ga
cat-NOM
namu-e
tree-LOC
oreu-ass-da
move_up-PST-DECL
‘The cat climbed up the tree.’
CLIMB the Verb form oreuda
(209)
고양이가 나무에 올라왔다.
Goyangiga namue ollawatta.
goyangi-ga
cat-NOM
namu-e
tree-LOC
oreu-a
move_up-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The cat came up the tree.’
CLIMB the Verb form oreuda
(210)
엄마가 아이를 (*아이에게) 옷 입혔다.
Eommaga aireul (*aiege) on nipyeotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
ai-ege
child-DAT
os=ib-hi-eoss-da
cloh=put_on-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother dressed her child.’
DRESS the Verb form os(eul) ibda
(211)
어머니가 아이가 계속 안아 달라 해서 아이를 안아 줬다.
Eommaga [aiga gyesok ana dalla haeseo] aireul ana jwotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ga
child-NOM
gyesog
continuously
an-a
hug-CONV
dal-la
give.IMP.REFL-IMP
ha-seo
do-CONV
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-a
hug-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The mother, with her child constantly begging for a hug, gave the child a hug.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(212)
ku ai ka na lul/*ka sensayng-nim i-la ko pull-ess-ta
Geu aiga nareul (*naega) seonsaengnim irago bulleotta.
geu
that
ai-ga
child-NOM
na-reul
1SG-ACC
nae-ga
1SG-NOM
seonsaengnim
teacher
i-rago
be-DECL:QUOT
bureu-eoss-da
call-PST-DECL
‘That child called me seonsaengnim. / That child used the title saensaengnim to me.’
NAME the Verb form bureuda
(213)
토마스가 안나와 우연히 다시 만났다.
Tomaseuga Annawa uyeonhi dasi mannatta.
tomasseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-wa
Anna-COM
uyeonhi
accidentally
dasi
again
manna-ss-da
meet-PST-DECL
‘Thomas and Anna accidentally met again.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(214)
토마스가 안나를 껴안았다.
Tomaseuga Annareul kkyeoanatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
kki-eo
jam-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas hugged Anna.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(215)
토마스가 안나를 감싸 안았다.
Tomaseuga annareul gamssa anatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
gamssa
embrace.CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas embraced Anna.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(216)
토마스가 안나를 끌어안았다.
Tomaseuga Annareul kkeureo anatta.
tomaseu-ga
Thomas-NOM
anna-reul
Anna-ACC
kkeul-eo
pull-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Thomas hugged Anna by dragging her towards him.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(217)
엄마는 내게 달려와 나를 부둥켜 안았다.
Eommaneun naege dallyeowa nareul budungkyeo anatta.
eomma-neun
mother-TOP
na-ege
1SG-DAT
dalli-eo
tun-CONV
o-a
come-CONV
na-reul
1SG-ACC
budungki-eo
clutch-CONV
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘Mother ran towards me and hugged me with her whole body.’
HUG the Verb form anda
(218)
나는 얼른 뛰어나가 어머니와 부둥켜안고 울었다.
Naneun eolleun ttwieonaga eomeoniwa budungkyeoankko ureotta.
na-neun
1SG-TOP
eolleun
quickly
ttwi-eo
run-CONV
na-ga
go_out-CONV
eomeoni-wa
mother-COM
budungki-eo
embrace-CONV
an-go
hug-CONV
ul-eoss-da
cry-PST-DECL
‘I hurried outside and ran into my mom's arms and cried.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(219)
동생은 아버지에게 안겨서 차에 올랐다.
Dongsaengeun abeojiege angyeoseo chae ollatta.
dongsaeng-eun
younger_brother-TOP
abeoji-ege
father-DAT
an-gi-eoseo
hug-PASS-CONV
cha-e
car-LOC
oreu-ass-da
move_up-PST-DECL
‘My father grabbed my brother under his arms to help him get in the car. / lit. My younger brother was grabbed by my father under his arms and got in the car.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(220)
그는 자신의 실수로 기업에 큰 손해를 안겼다.
Geuneun jasinae silsuro gieobe keun sonaereul angyeotta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
jasin-ae
own-GEN
silsu-ro
mistake-INSTR
gioeob-e
enterprise-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
sonhae-reul
disadvantage-ACC
an-gi-eoss-da
hug-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Through his own mistake he caused his business a whole lot of damage.’
HUG an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(221)
우리가 농을 창가로 밀었다.
Uriga nongeul changkkaro mireotta.
uri-ga
1PL-NOM
nong-eul
cupboard-ACC
changga-ro
window_area-DIR
mil-eoss-da
push-PST-DECL
‘We pushed the cupboard towards the window.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dir V
(222)
엄마가 아이의 옷을 벗겼다.
Eommaga aiae oseul beokkyeotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ae
child-GEN
os-eul
clothes-ACC
beos-gi-eoss-da
take_off-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother undressed the child.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(223)
어머니는 아이들한테 소리질렀다.
Eomeonineun aideulhante sorijilleotta.
eomeoni-neun
mother-TOP
ai-deul-hante
child-PL-DAT
sori=jireu-eoss-da
sound=?-PST-DECL
‘The mother shouted at the children.’
SCREAM the Verb form sorijireuda
(224)
아버지가 돌을 가져다 집을 지으셨다.
Abeojiga doreul gajyeoda jibeul jieusyeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
dol-eul
stone-ACC
gaji-eoda
take-CONV
jib-eul
house-ACC
jis-eusi-eoss-da
build-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father build a house using stones.’
BUILD the Verb form jisda
(225)
학생이 아이에게 공을 던졌다.
Haksaengi aiege gongeul deonjyeotta.
hagsaeng-i
student-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
gong-eul
ball-ACC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The student threw a ball to the child.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(226)
다음날 아침에 집 앞에 쓰레기가 던져져 있었다.
Daeum nal achime jib ape sseuregiga deonjyeo jyeo isseotta.
daeum
next
nal
day
achim-e
morning-LOC
jib
house
ap-e
front-LOC
sseuregi-ga
waste-NOM
deonji-eo
throw-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
AUX-PST-DECL
‘The next morning rubbish was dropped in front of his house.’
THROW an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(227)
페가 물로 가득 차 있었어.
Pyega mullo gadeuk cha isseosseo.
pye-ga
lungs-NOM
mul-lo
water-INSTR
gadeug
fully
cha
get_full.CONV
iss-eoss-eo
be-PST-PLAIN
‘The lungs were filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Locative alternation
(228)
야, 고기가 탄다, 타!
Ya, gogiga tanda, ta!
ya
hey
gogi-ga
meat-NOM
ta-n-da
burn-NPST-DECL
ta
burn
‘Hey watch out, the meat is catching fire!/getting burned!’
BURN the Verb form tada (1)
(229)
곰이 ㄷㄹ을 집어 유리를 깼다.
Gomi doreul jibeo yurireul kkaetta.
gom-i
bear-NOM
dol-eul
stone-ACC
jib-eo
grab-CONV
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘A bear took a stone and broke the glass.’
BREAK the Verb form kkaeda
(230)
아이가 음식이 상하지 않게 그릇에 뚜껑을 덮었다.
Aiga umsigi sanghaji anke geureuse ttukkeongeul deopeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
umsig-i
food-NOM
sangha-ji
go_bad-NEG
anh-ge
NEG-CONV
geureus-e
bowl-LOC
ttukkeong-eul
lid-ACC
deop-eoss-da
cover-PST-DECL
‘The child put a lid on the bowl to keep the food from getting bad.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(231)
?물이 폐에 찼다.
?Muri pyee chatta.
mul-i
water-NOM
pye-e
lungs-LOC
cha-ss-da
get_full-PST-DECL
‘The lungs got full with water.’
FILL the Verb form chada
(232)
그녀가 잔에 물을 채웠다.
Geunyeoga jane mureul chaewotta.
geunyeo-ga
3SG.F-NOM
jan-e
glass-LOC
mul-eul
water-ACC
chae-u-eoss-da
get_full-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She filled water into the glass.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(233)
차에 많은 물건이 실어져 있었다.
Chae maneun mulgeoni sireojyeo isseotta.
cha-e
car-LOC
manh-eun
many-ATTR
mulgeon-i
object-NOM
sid-eo
load-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Many things had been loaded onto the car.’
LOAD an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(234)
아버지가 아이에게 신발끈을 묶어 주셨다.
Abeojiga aiege sinbalkkeuneul mukkeo jusyeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
sinbalkkeun-eul
shoelace-ACC
mukk-eo
tie-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The father of the child tied his shoelaces for him.’
TIE an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(235)
마지막으로 신발끈이 잘 묶였는지를 확인했다.
Majimageuro sinbalkkeuni jal mukkyeonneunjireul hwaginhaetta.
majimageuro
last_time:INSTR
sinbalkkeun-i
shoelaces-NOM
jal
well
mukk-i-eoss-neunji-reul
tie-PASS-PST-NMLZ.COMP-ACC
hwagin=ha-ss-da
check=do-PST-DECL
‘For the last time he checked whether his shoelaces had been tied correctly.’
TIE an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(236)
그는 남은 음식을 돼지들에게 부어 주었다.
Geuneun nameun eumsigeul dwaejideurege bueo jueotta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
nam-eun
remain-ATTR
eumsig-eul
food-ACC
dwaeji-deul-ege
pig-PL-DAT
bus-eo
pour-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘He poured the remaining food in front of his pigs.’
POUR an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(237)
음식에 짙은 양념이 부어져 있었다.
Eumsige jiteun yangnyeomi bueojyeo isseotta.
eumsig-e
food-LOC
jit-eun
intense-ATTR
yangnyeom-i
seasoning-NOM
bu-eo
pour-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘A dark sauce was on the food.’
POUR an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(238)
아이가 내게 선물을 가져왔다.
Aiga naege seonmureul gajyeowatta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
na-ege
1SG-DAT
seonmul-eul
gift-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The child brought me a present.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc LOC3 V
(239)
아이가 우리 집에 선물을 가져왔다.
Aiga uri jibe seonmureul gajyeo watta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
uri
1PL
jib-e
house-LOC
seonmul-eul
gift-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The child brought a gift to our house.’
BRING the Verb form gajyeooda
(240)
아이가 친구에게 선물을 보내줬다.
Aiga chinguege seonmureul bonaejwotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
chingu-ege
friend-DAT
seonmul-eul
gift-ACC
bonae
send.CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The child sent a gift to his friend.’
SEND an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(241)
너 얘를 왜 돈 달라고 할 때마다 돈을 줘, 왜?
Neo yaereul wae don dallago hal ttaemada doneul jwo, wae?
neo
2SG
i-ae-reul
this-child-ACC
wae
why
don
money
dal-rago
give.IMP-QUOT
ha-l
do-ATTR
ttae-mada
time-every
don-eul
money-ACC
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
wae
why
‘Why the hell do you give him money every time he asks for it? Why?’
GIVE an Alternation:
Recipient double accusative alternation
(242)
그에게 다시 한 번 기회가 주어졌다.
Geuege dasi han beon gihoega jueojyeotta.
geu-ege
3SG-DAT
dasi
again
han
one
beon
time.CLFR
gihoe-ga
opportunity-NOM
ju-eo
give-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘He had been given/granted another opportunity.’
GIVE an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(243)
이 자식이 감히 내 앞에서 그 사실을 숨겨?
I jasigi gami nae apeseo geu sasireul sumgyeo?
i
this
jasig-i
son-NOM
gamhi
daringly
nae
1SG.GEN
ap-eseo
front-LOC
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
sum-gi-eo
hide-CAUS-PLAIN
‘So that bastard really dared to hide that fact from me?’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2+ap-loc 3-acc V
(244)
이야기 속에는 언제나 진실이 숨겨 있다.
Iyagi sogeneun eonjena jinsiri sumgyeojyeo itta.
iyagi
story
sog-e-neun
inside-LOC-TOP
eonjena
always
jinsil-i
truth-NOM
sum-gi-eo
hide-CAUS-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘There is always truth hidden inside stories.’
HIDE an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(245)
동생에게 인형을 만들 헝겊을 찢겼다.
Dongsaengege inhyeongeul mandeul heonggeobeul jjikkyeotta.
dongsaeng-ege
younger_sibling-DAT
inhyeong-eul
doll-ACC
mandeu-l
make-ATTR
heonggeop-eul
scrap-ACC
jjij-ki-eoss-da
tear-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘He tore off some scrap for his younger sibling to make dolls.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(246)
옷이 철조망에 걸려 찢겼다.
Osi cheoljjomange geollyeo jjikkyeotta.
os-i
cloths-NOM
cheoljomang-e
barbed_wire-LOC
geol-li-eo
hang-PASS-CONV
jjij-gi-eoss-da
tear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘My cloths got caught in barbed wire and got torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(247)
하루 종일 걸었더니 신발이 다 찢어졌다.
Harujongil georeotteoni sinbari da jjijeojyeotta.
harujongil
whole_day
geod-eoss-deoni
walk-PST-CONV
sinbal-i
shoe-NOM
da
all
jjij-eo
tear-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘As I had walked all day long, my shoes were all torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(248)
엄마 여기 먼지가 잘 안 딲아져! (구어체)
Eomma, yeogi meonjiga jal an ttakkajyeo!
eomma
mum
yeogi
here
meonji-ga
dust-NOM
jal
well
an-ttakk-a
NEG-wipe-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
‘Mum, the dust here doesn't really get wiped off properly!’
WIPE an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(249)
유리창이 제대로 안 닦여 있었다.
Yurichangi jedaero an dakkyeo isseotta.
yurichang-i
glass-NOM
jedaero
properly
an-dakk-i-eo
NEG-wipe-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The glass had not been cleaned properly.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(250)
아이들에게 바닥에 엎질러진 물을 닦였다.
Aideurege badage eopjjilleojin mureul dakkyeotta.
ai-deul-ege
child-PL-DAT
badag-e
floor-LOC
eopjilleoji-n
spill:PASS.AUX-ATTR
mul-eul
water-ACC
dakk-i-eoss-da
wipe-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Supposedly: (somebody) made the children wipe off the spilled water.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(251)
엄마가 아이의 입을 닦아 주셨다.
Eommaga aiae ibeul dakka jusyeotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ui
child-GEN
ib-eul
mouth-ACC
dakk-a
wipe-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The mother wiped the child's mouth (for it).’
WIPE an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(252)
엄마가 아이에게 고기를 잘라주셨다.
Eommaga aiege gogireul jallajusyeotta.
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
gogi-reul
meat-ACC
jareu-a
cut-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The mother cut the meat for her child.’
CUT an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(253)
?철수는 수미를 뺨을 때렸다.
?Cheolsuneun sumireul ppyameul ttaeryeotta.
cheolsu-neun
Cheolsu-TOP
sumi-reul
Sumi-ACC
ppyam-eul
cheek-ACC
ttaeri-eoss-da
hit-PST-DECL
‘Cheolsu gave Sumi a slap in the face.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(254)
아버지가 (?아들을) 매를 때렸다.
Abeojiga (?adeureul) maereul ttaeryeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
adeul-eul
son-ACC
mae-reul
stick-ACC
ttaeri-eoss-da
beat_up-PST-DECL
‘The father beat up his son with a stick./The father punished his son through beating.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Recipient double accusative alternation
(255)
우리는 어제 밤 계속 애기 하다가 잠 들었다.
Urineun eoje bam gyesok yaegihadaga jam deureotta.
uri-neun
1PL-TOP
eoje
yesterday
bam
night
gyesog
continuously
yaegi=ha-daga
story=do-CONV
jam
sleep
deul-eoss-da
enter-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday we fell asleep after talking to each other for hours.’
TALK the Verb form iyagihada
(256)
이 상황에 그래도 밥이 먹어지냐, 먹어져, 이 자식아?
I sangwange geuraedo babi meogeojinya, meogeojyeo, i jasiga?
i
this
sanghwang-e
situation-LOC
geuraedo
still
bab-i
food-NOM
meog-eo
eat-CONV
ji-nya
PASS.AUX-Q.PLAIN
meog-eo
eat-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
i
this
jasig-a
bastard-VOC
‘So you still can eat despite the situation were in, you bastard?’
EAT an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(257)
사정 사정을 해도 말이 안 먹히네.
Sajeong sajeongeul haedo mari an meokine.
sajeong
explain_implore
sajeong-eul
explain_implore-ACC
hae-do
do-CONV
mal-i
speech-NOM
an-meog-hi-ne
NEG-eat-PASS-MIR
‘Really, no matter how much I explain my reasons to him, no matter I beg him, my words just do not reach him.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(258)
밥 먹기 전에 가서 씻어!
Neo bab meokki jeone gaseo ssiseo!
neo
2SG
bab
food
meog-gi
eat-NMLZ
jeon-e
before-LOC
ga-seo
go-CONV
ssis-eo
was-PLAIN
‘Go wash before we eat!’
WASH the Verb form ssisda
(259)
많은 사람들이 배에 탔다.
Maneun saramdeuri baee tatta.
manh-eun
be_many-ATTR
saram-deul-i
person-PL-NOM
bae-e
ship-LOC
ta-ss-da
climb-PST-DECL
‘Many people have boarded the ship.’
CLIMB the Verb form tada (2)
(260)
많은 사람들이 버스를 타고 서락산에 등산하러 갔다.
Maneun saramdeuri beoseureul tago Seoraksane deungsanhareo gatta.
manh-eun
be_many-ATTR
saram-deul-i
person-PL-NOM
beoseu-reul
bus-ACC
ta-go
climb-CONV
Seoraksan-e
Seoraksan-LOC
deungsanha-reo
hiking:do-PURP
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘Many people went on a bus to the Seorak mountains to go hiking.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(261)
원숭이가 나무를 잘 탄다.
Wonsungiga namureul jal tanda.
wonsungi-ga
monkey-NOM
namu-reul
tree-ACC
jal
well
ta-n-da
climb-NPST-DECL
‘The monkey climbs on the tree without any effort.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(262)
내가 오늘 총 10 키로미터를 달렸다.
Naega oneul chong sip kiromiteoreul dallyeotta.
nae-ga
1SG-NOM
oneul
today
chong
total
sib
ten
kiromiteo-reul
kilometre-ACC
dalli-eoss-da
run-PST-DECL
‘In total I ran 10 kilometres today.’
RUN the Verb form dallida
(263)
내가 오늘 전 코스를 달려가지고 엄청 피곤하다.
Oneul naega jeon koseureul dallyeogajigo eomcheong pigonhada.
oneul
today
nae-ga
1SG-NOM
jeon
whole
koseu-reul
course-ACC
dalli-eogajigo
run-because
eomcheong
really
pigonha-da
tiredness:do-DECL
‘I've run the whole course today and am really, really tired.’
RUN the Verb form dallida
(264)
꾸준히 체력을 키우면 더 잘 잘려진다.
Kkujunhi cheryeogeul kiumyeon deo jal dallyeojinda.
kkujunhi
constantly
cheryeog-eul
endurance-ACC
kiu-myeon
foster-CONV
deo
more
jal
well
dalli-eo
run-CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘If one works on one's stamina continuously, one can run much more easily.’
RUN an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(265)
우리 할머니는 하루 종일 노래 부르셨다.
Uri halmeonineun haru jongil noraebureusyeotta.
uri
1PL
halmeoni-neun
grandmother-TOP
harujongil
whole_day
norae=bureu-si-eoss-da
song=call-HON-PST-DECL
‘Our grandmother used to sing all day long.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(266)
엄마는 저녁마다 아이에게 노래를 불러 주셨다.
Eommaneun jeonyeogmada aiege norae(reul) bulleo jusyeotta.
eomma-neun
mother-TOP
jeonyeog-mada
evening-every
ai-ege
child-DAT
norae-reul
song-ACC
bureu-eo
call-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘Every night the mother sang her child a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(267)
그들은 마을에서 행복한 인생을 살고 있었다.
Geudeureun maeureseo haengbokan insaengeul salgo isseotta.
geu-deul-eun
3SG-PL-TOP
maeul-eseo
village-LOC
haengbogha-n
happiness:do-ATTR
insaeng-eul
life-ACC
sal-go
live-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘They were living a happy life in the village.’
LIVE the Verb form salda
(268)
신이 백성들을 그 마을에서 살게 하였다.
Sini baekseongdeureul geu maeureseo salge hayeotta.
sin-i
god-NOM
baekseong-deul-eul
subject-PL-ACC
geu
that
maeul-eseo
village-LOC
sal-ge
live-CONV
hai-eoss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘The god made his people live in that village.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(269)
신이 그 아이를 살렸다.
Sini geu aireul sallyeotta.
sin-i
god-NOM
geu
that
ai-reul
child-ACC
sal-li-eoss-da
live-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The god rescued/resuscitated that child.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(270)
주인은 우리에게 아주 반가운 기색을 나타냈다.
Juineun uriege aju bangaun gisaegeul natanaetta.
juin-eun
owner-TOP
uri-ege
1PL-DAT
aju
very
bangab-n
welcoming-ATTR
gisaeg-eul
facial_expression-ACC
natanae-ss-da
appear.CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The owner presented us his joy of seeing us (on his face).’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(271)
나 이 방이 추워서 잠을 못 자겠어.
Naneun i bangi chuwoseo jameul mot jagesseo.
na-neun
1SG-TOP
i
this
bang-i
room-NOM
chub-eoseo
be_cold-CONV
jam-eul
sleep-ACC
mos
NEG.POT
ja-gess-eo
sleep-IRR-PLAIN
‘I think I can't sleep because this room is so cold.’
FEEL COLD the Verb form chubda
(272)
끝없는 외로움이 내 마음을 춥게 한다.
Kkeudeobneun oeroumi nae maeumeul chubge handa.
kkeudeobs-neun
endless-ATTR
oeroum-i
loneliness-NOM
nae
1SG.GEN
maeum-eul
heart-ACC
chub-ge
cold-CONV
ha-n-da
do-NPST-DECL
‘The endless loneliness makes my heart feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(273)
제가 이 곡을 당신에게 바칩니다.
Jega i gogeul dangsinege bachimnida.
je-ga
1SG.HUM-NOM
i
this
gog-eul
piece-ACC
dangsin-ege
you-DAT
bad-hi-bni-da
receive-CAUS-POL:EV-DECL
‘I am dedicating this piece to you.’
GET an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(274)
아이가 소리질렀다.
Aiga sorijilleotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
sori=jireu-eoss-da
scream=?-PST-DECL
‘The child screamed.’
SCREAM the Verb form sorijireuda
(275)
아빠가 아이에게 장남을 찾아 주었다.
Appaga aiege jangnankkameul chaja jueotta.
appa-ga
father-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
jangnankkam-eul
toy-ACC
chaj-a
search-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The father looked for/found the toy for his child.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(276)
컴퓨터가 빠를 수록 페이지가 더 빨리 찾아진다.
Keompyuteoga ppareul surog peijiga deo ppalli chajajinda.
keompyuteo-ga
computer-NOM
ppareu-l
quick-ATTR
surog
COMPR
peiji-ga
web_page-NOM
deo
more
ppalli
quickly
chaj-a
search-CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘The faster the computer, the quicker one can find the web pages.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(277)
철수는 친구의 죽음을 무척 슬퍼했다.
Cheolsuneun chingue jugeumeul mucheok seulpeohaetta.
cheolsu-neun
Cheolsu-TOP
chingu-ui
friend-GEN
jugeum-eul
death-ACC
mucheog
very
seulpeu-eo
sad-CONV
hae-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘Cheolsu was very sad about the death of his friend.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(278)
nay ka Mia lul kil eyse wus-ky-ess-ta
Naega Miareul gireseo usgyeotta.
nae-ga
1SG-NOM
mia-reul
Mia-ACC
gil-eseo
street-LOC
us-gi-eoss-da
laugh-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Intended meaning: I made Mia laugh on the street.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(279)
손에 물컹한 것이 집혔다.
Sone mulkeonghan geosi jipyeotta.
son-e
hand-LOC
mulkeongha-n
soft-ATTR
geos-i
thing-NOM
jib-hi-eoss-da
take-PASS-PST-DECL
‘[when looking for something with one's arm in a location one cannot see]: He could feel something soft touching his hand./He inadvertedly grabbed something soft.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(280)
그는 몇 시간 동안 미치도록 땅을 팠다.
Geuneun myeot sigan dongan michidorog ttangeul patta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
myeoch
several
sigan
hour
dongan
during
michidorog
like_crazy
ttang-eul
ground-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug the ground for hours and hours as though he went crazy.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(281)
아침에 일어났더니 정원에 큰 구덩이가 파여 있었다.
Achime ireonatteoni jeongwone keun gudeongiga payeo isseotta.
achim-e
morning-LOC
ireona-ss-deoni
get_up-PST-CONV
jeongwon-e
garden-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
gudeongi-ga
hole-NOM
pa-i-eo
dig-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He had just got up in the morning when he saw that someone had dug a big hole in his garden.’
DIG an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(282)
요즘 비가 덜 와서 땅이 잘 안 파진다.
Yojeum biga deol waseo ttangi jal an pajinda.
yojeum
these_days
bi-ga
rain-NOM
deol
less
o-aseo
come-CONV
ttang-i
ground-NOM
jal
well
an=pa
NEG=dig.CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘It is hard to dig the ground since it's been raining little.’
DIG an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(283)
농부가 땅에서 뿌리를 파냈다.
Nongbuga ttangeseo ppurireul panaetta.
nongbu-ga
farmer-NOM
ttang-eseo
ground-ABL
ppuri-reul
root-ACC
pa
dig.CONV
nae-ss-da
take_out-PST-DECL
‘The farmer dug the roots out of the ground.’
DIG the Verb form pada
(284)
어제 넘어졌더니 무릎이 다 까졌다.
Eoje neomeojyeotteoni mureubi da kkayeotta.
eoje
yesterday
neomeoji-eoss-deoni
fall_over-PST-DECL
mureup-i
knee-NOM
da
all
kka-i-eoss-da
peel-PASS-PST-DECL
‘I grazed my knee yesterday when I fell over.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(285)
먼저 사과 껍질을 짜야 한다.
Meonjeo sagwa kkeopjjireul kkaya handa.
meonjeo
first
sagwa
apple
kkeopjil-eul
skin-ACC
kka-ya
peel-MOD
ha-n-da
do-NPST-DECL
‘First, you have to peel the skin off the apple.’
PEEL the Verb form kkada
(286)
어제 넘어졌더니 무릎이 다 까졌다.
Eoje neomeojyeotteoni mureubi da kkajyeotta.
eoje
yesterday
neomeoji-eoss-deoni
fall_over-PST-DECL
mureup-i
knee-NOM
da
all
kka
peel.CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘I grazed my knee yesterday when I fell over.’
PEEL an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(287)
엄마 이 호박이 껍질이 영 안 까지네!
Eomma i hobagi kkeopjjiri yeong an kkajine!
eomma
mum
i
this
hobag-i
pumpkin-NOM
kkeobjil-i
skin-NOM
yeong
just
an=kka
NEG=peel.CONV
ji-ne
PASS.AUX-MIR
‘Mum, this pumpkin skin just doesn't want to come off!’
PEEL an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(288)
너 이 사과 깎어.
Neo i sagwa kkakkeo.
neo
2SG
i
this
sagwa
apple
kkakk-eo
peel-PLAIN
‘Peel this apple.’
CUT the Verb form kkakkda
(289)
연필깎이를 쓰면 연필이 훨씬 더 빨리 깎아진다.
Yeonpilkkakkireul sseumyeon yeonpiri hwolssin deo ppalli kkakkajinda.
yeonpilkkaki-reul
pencil_sharpener-ACC
sseu-myeon
use-CONV
yeonpil-i
pencil-NOM
hwolssin
much
deo
more
ppalli
quickly
kkakk-a
sharpen-CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘If you use a pencil sharpener, you can sharpen pencils much quicker.’
CUT an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(290)
아침에 일어났더니 저원에 잔디가 이미 깎여 있었다.
Achime ireonatteoni jeongwone jandiga imi kkakkyeo isseotta.
achim-e
morning-LOC
ireona-ss-deoni
get_up-PST-CONV
jeongwon-e
garden-LOC
jandi-ga
grass-NOM
imi
already
kkakk-i-eo
cut-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘When I got up in the morning the grass in my backyard had already been cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(291)
우리가 농을 창가
Uriga nongeul {changkkaro/changkkaeda} mireo noatta.
uri-ga
1PL-NOM
nong-eul
cupboard-ACC
{changga-ro/changga-eda}
{windowside-DIR/changga-LOC}
mil-eo
push-CONV
noh-ass-da
put-PST-DECL
‘We put the cupboard by the windowside by pushing it there.’
PUSH the Verb form milda
(292)
내 발표 순서가 뒤로 밀렸다.
Nae balpyo sunseoga dwiro millyeotta.
nae
my
balpyosunseo-ga
turn_to_present-NOM
dwi-ro
dwi-DIR
mil-li-eoss-da
push-PASS-PST-DECL
‘My presentation was moved back.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Passive (morphological)
(293)
선생님이 학생들을 독어를 가르쳐 주셨다.
Seonsaengnimi haksaengdeureul dogeoreul gareuchisyeotta.
seonsaengnim-i
teacher-NOM
haksaeng-deul-eul
student-PL-ACC
dogeo-reul
German-ACC
gareuchi-si-eoss-da
teach-HON-PST-DECL
‘The teacher taught the students German.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Recipient double accusative alternation
(294)
아이가 멀리서 이상한 소리가 들렸다.
?Aiga meolliseo isanghan soriga deullyeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
meolli-seo
far-ABL
isangha-n
weird-ATTR
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
listen-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child perceived a weird sound coming from far away.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(295)
철수가 마당에서 친구하고 놀고 있었다.
Cheolsuga madangeseo chinguhago nolgo isseotta.
cheolsu-ga
Cheolsu-NOM
madang-eseo
patio-LOC
chingu-hago
friend-COM
nol-go
play-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Cheolsu was playing with his friend in the patio.’
PLAY the Verb form nolda
(296)
아이들이 철수를 놀렸다.
Aideuri Cheolsureul nollyeotta.
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
cheolsu-reul
Cheolsu-ACC
nol-li-eoss-da
play-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The children made fun of Cheolsu.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(297)
떠나면 안 되니까 얠 계속 앉아 있게 해!
Tteonamyeon andwenikka yael gyesok geogie anja ikke hae!
tteona-myeon
leave-CONV
an=dwe-nikka
NEG=become-CONV
i-ae-l
this-child-ACC
gyesok
continuously
geogi-e
there-LOC
anj-a
sit_down-CONV
iss-ge
be-CONV
hae
do.PLAIN
‘He can't leave, so make him stay sat the whole time!’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(298)
수미는 식구에게 기쁜 소식을 알렸다.
Sumineun sikkuege gippeun sosigeul allyeotta.
sumi-neun
Sumi-TOP
sikku-ege
family-DAT
gippeu-n
happy-ATTR
sosig-eul
news-ACC
al-li-eoss-da
know-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘Sumi told her family the happy news.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(299)
어제 밤 그 사실이 온 국민에게 알려졌다.
Eoje bam geu sasiri on gukminege allyeojyeotta.
eoje
yesterday
bam
night
geu
that
sasil-i
truth-NOM
on
all
gukmin-ege
citizens-DAT
al-li-eo
know-CAUS-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘That fact went public yesterday.’
KNOW the Verb form alda
(300)
아버지가 아들에게 집을 지어 주셨다.
Abeojiga adeurege jibeul jieo jusyeotta.
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
adeul-ege
son-ACC
jib-eul
house-ACC
jis-eo
build-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The father built a house for his son.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(301)
이 성당은 나무로 지어졌다.
I seongdangeun namuro jieojyeotta.
i
this
seongdang-eun
church-TOP
namu-ro
wood-INSTR
jis-eo
build-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘This church has been built out of wood.’
BUILD an Alternation:
ji-Passive (periphrastic)
(302)
그는 가슴에 손을 올리고 맹세했다.
Geuneun gaseume soneul olligo maengsehaetta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
gaseum-e
chest-LOC
son-eul
hand-ACC
oreu-li-go
move_up-CAUS-CONV
maengse=ha-ss-da
swear=do-PST-DECL
‘He put his hand on his chest and swore an oath.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative (morphological)
(303)
비가 좀 와 줬으면 좋겠다.
Biga jom wajwosseumyeon joketta?
bi-ga
rain-NOM
jom
bit
o-a
come-CONV
ju-eoss-eumyeon
give-PST-CONV
joh-gess-da
be_good-IRR-DECL
‘How nice would it be if it rained (for us)?’
RAIN an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(304)
이 쪽으로 앉아 주십시오.
I jjogeuro anja jusibsio?
i
this
jjog-euro
direction-DIR
anj-a
sit_down-CONV
ju-sibsio
give-IMP.POL
‘Please, would you sit down around here?’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(305)
엄마 나 이 귤 좀 까줘, 나 지금 힘이 없어.
Eomma na i gyul jom kkajwo, na jigeum himi eobseo.
eomma
mum
na
1SG
i
this
gyul
tangerine
jom
bit
kka
peel.CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
na
1SG
jigeum
now
him-i
power-NOM
eobs-eo
NEG.be-PLAIN
‘Mum, can you peel this tangerine for me? I just don't have the energy to do that right now.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(306)
?야 너 날 그 칼을 좀 찾아줘, 잠깐!
?Ya neo nal geu kareul jom chajajwo jamkkan?
ya
hey
neo
2SG
na-l
1SG-ACC
geu
that
kaleul
knife
jom
bit
chaj-a
search-CONV
ju-eo
give-PLAIN
jamkkan
just_a_moment
‘Hey can you just look for the knife you told me about for me?’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive Alternation
(307)
성우가 수미를 철수에게 선물을 주게 했다.
Seonguga sumireul Cheolsuege seonmureul juge haetta.
seongu-ga
Soung_U-NOM
sumi-reul
Sumi-ACC
cheolsu-ege
Cheolsu-DAT
seonmul-reul
gift-ACC
ju-ge
give-CONV
ha-ss-da
do-PST-DECL
‘Soung-U made Sumi give a gift to Cheolsu.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Causative (periphrastic)
(308)
...깊은 사랑도 해보고, 또는, 대게 아파도 많이 해보고 그래서...
Gipeun sarangdo haebogo, ttoneun, daege apado mani haebogo geuraeseo...
gipeu-n
deep-ATTR
sarang-do
love-ADD
hae
do.CONV
bo-go
see-CONV
ttoneun
also
daege
very
apeu-a-do
feel_pain-CONV-ADD
manhi
a_lot
hae
do.CONV
bo-go
see-CONV
geuraeseo
so
‘...I had the chance to be deeply in love and also be in deep pain, so...’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(309)
니가 좋아질까봐 내가 널 일부러 무서워하는 거야.
Niga joajilkkabwa naega neol ilbureo museowohaneun geoya.
ni-ga
2SG-NOM
joajilkkabwa
could:become:likable
nae-ga
1SG-NOM
neo-l
2SG-ACC
ilbureo
on_purpose
museob-eo
fear-CONV
ha-neungeoya
do-you_know
‘I'm being afraid of you on purpose because I might start liking you, you know [and I musn't do that].’
FEAR an Alternation:
hada-alternation
(310)
나는 오늘 시장에를 갔다.
Naneun oneul sijangereul katta.
na-neun
1SG-TOP
oneul
today
sijang-e-reul
market-LOC-ACC
ka-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘I went to the market today.’
GO the Verb form gada
(311)
수미는 미국에서 십년을 살다가 한국으로 돌아왔다.
Sumineun migugeseo sibnyeoneul saldaga hangugeuro dorawatta.
sumi-neun
Sumi-TOP
migug-eseo
United_States-LOC
sib
ten
nyeon-eul
years-ACC
sal-daga
live-CONV
hangug-euro
Korea-DIR
dolawa-ss-da
come_back-PST-DECL
‘Sumi lived in the States for ten years and came back to Korea.’
LIVE the Verb form salda
(312)
국을 삼십 분을 더 끓인다.
Gugeul samsib buneul deo kkeurinda.
gug-eul
soup-ACC
samsib
30
bun-eul
minutes.CLFR-ACC
deo
more
kkeulh-i-n-da
boil-PASS-NPST-DECL
‘One cooks the soup for thirty more minutes.’
BOIL the Verb form kkeulhda
(313)
그는 사람을 스무 명을 죽였다.
Geuneun sarameul seumu myeongeul jugyeotta.
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
saram-eul
person-ACC
seumul
twenty
myeong-eul
people.CLFR-ACC
jug-i-eoss-da
die-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘He killed thirty people.’
KILL the Verb form jugida
(314)
마리가 아주 귀한 기회가 주어졌다.
Mariga aju gwihan gihoega jueojyeotta.
mari-ga
Mari-NOM
aju
really
gwiha-n
precious-ATTR
gihoe-ga
opportuniy-NOM
ju-eo
give-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘Mari was given a truly valuable opportuniy.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Recipient double accusative alternation
(315)
Ku namwu-ka Mary-eyuyhayse kaci-lul cal-li-ess-ta
Geu namuga Marye euhaeseo kajireul jallyeotta.
geu
that
namu-ga
tree-NOM
mary-e
Mary-LOC
euihaeseo
by
kaji-reul
branch-ACC
jareu-li-eoss-da
cut-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The branch of that tree was cut by Mary.’
CUT an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(316)
학생이 점점 자신감이 죽어갔다.
Haksaengi jeomjeom jasingami jugeo gatta.
haksaeng-i
student-NOM
jeomjeom
bit_by_bit
jasingam-i
confidence-NOM
jug-eo
die-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘Bit by bit, the student's sense of self died away.’
DIE an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(317)
아이가 나무 뒤에 숨었다.
Aiga namu dwie sumeotta.
ai-ga
child-NOM
namu
tree
dwi-e
behind-loc
sum-eoss-da
hide-PST-DECL
‘The child hid behind the tree.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V