ji-Passive (periphrastic) C

Description

Similarly to the morphological passive, the periphrastic ji- passive reduces the valency of a verb by one, although it seems to be applicable to a wider range of verbs, sometimes making it the only available option to build passive forms. For some inransitive verbs such as ttwida this periphastic form seems to exist as well, creating some sort of impersonal predicate with an agent implied, but not overtly expressed. This kind of phenomenon does not seem to be well-studied in Korean, however.

As to the diachrony of this construction, Yeon (2003: 111) mentions that "Historically, the verb
ci- came from the verb, ti-, which means 'to fall' (Bae 1988: 112 [SK: see Yeon 2003 for this reference]). It is generally accepted that the passive auxiliary verb ci- is historically same as the main verb ci- which has various meanings, but the prototypical meaning common to the various usages is a change of state (see Lee 1993: pp109-110 [SK: see Yeon 2003 for this reference])." Note that this auxiliary verb has many other functions in constructions where the valency of a verb is not altered (see Yeon 2003: 112/113 for a litle overview).

Researchers such as Yeon (2003: 119ff.) have long been trying o figure out the semantic differences between the morphological passive and the periphrastic passive, and different factors seems to play into each other. The most unproblematic case for illustration might be where a verb has both the possibility to undergo morphological and periphrastic passive alternation.

Ex. 158 shows the morphological passive form of
nohda, where the event of being put somewhere seems to have happened spontaneously (at least seen from the speaker's perspective), and more importantly, it is assumed that the agent is unknown, and the existence of that agent is not even presupposed. As a conseuquence, and agent cannot be expressed here.

Ex. 157 by contrast shows a sentence with a periphrastic passive, where it is implied that a feeling cannot be put away (translated here with an active sentence) even if one wanted to, and therefore one can conclude that the periphrastic passive tends to retain some volitionality and agency with regard to the instantiation of an event. As opposed to a sentence with a morphological passive, some unknown agent seems to be implied in a periphrastic passive construction (see cf. 94, 233), and this is how some researchers such as O'Grady (1991: 49) call such a verb a 'middle verb' (although this term has been applied to a morphological passive form), and this degree of retained agency seems to correlate with retained control of the agent over the patient.

Accordingly, Yeon (2003: 120ff.) states that in Korean there are verbs which describe weather, nature or perception events (see HEAR or SEE in this database) that undergo morphological passivisation, whereas these verbs cannot be inflected for a periphrastic passive, which Yeon takes as evidence to say that periphrastic passives can only be applied when some control over the patient can be maintained.

As you can see, many examples for this type of passive have been translated into English with an active, modal counterpart, and this is maybe how I tried to express the volitionality that is implied in most of the periphrastic passive sentences. Interestingly, other Koreanic languages such as Jeju for example have developed constructions similar to this periphrastic passive in Korean where the auxiliary
ji is used to express deontic modality: al-a ji-keu-nya know-CONV AUX-IRR-Q means 'You think you can understand this?' in Jeju (see Kang 2007 for a little overview).

Unfortunately, literature on Korean tends to generalise too much on the differences between the morphological and periphrastic passive, and it could well be that in spoken language both versions are used interchangeably, with the periphrasticpassive slowly supplanting morphological forms. As an example, ex. 247 shows the periphrastic passive form of
jjijda 'TEAR', and it is little convincing here to argue for volitionality and agency in terms of the event of shoes getting torn.

Still, this might be due to the fact that arguably, when a verb can employ only one passive variant, then it is probable that one and the same construction can exhibit the semantic differences from above depending on the context (see ex. 218 where the periphrastic passive does not imply an agent). In fact, for the verb TEAR I was not really aware of the fact that there was a morphological passive form of TEAR, and this might have fostered my usage of a periphrastic passive form which includes that for agentless passives. Therefore, frequency in usage should be considered when looking at the differences between these two variants, and a corpus-based approach is still pending.

As another argument that should be seen as a warning from being too over-generalising is the fact that for some verbs such as
deopda 'COVER' it is indeed quite difficult to argue for a semantic difference between the two morphosyntactically different types of passive.

Yeon (2003: 123) suggests that the expressibility of an overt agent phrase in a sentence depends on the verbal semantics of a passive verb. Agents in some passive sentences in Korean can either be marked with dative (animate nouns), locative (inanimate nouns) or a postpositional phrase (see entry for morphological passive for more). He distinguishes between resultative and processive passives, where the former depicts a situation where the result of an action is salient (allowing for no agent or only a 'natural force', inanimate agen), whereas the latter a situation where the process (albeit being a vague notion, see ex. 152) of an event is salient.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
SAY malhada N
(84)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
sasil-eul
truth-ACC
mal=ha-ss-da
speech=do-PST-DECL
‘She told me the truth.’
(85)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
anirago
NEG:be:QUOT
mal=haess-da
speech=do\PST-DECL
‘She said "no" to me / She told me it wasn't true/the case.’
STEAL humchida M
(104)
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money.’
(105)
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money (and went away).’
(200)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-egeseo
3SG-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money (away) from her.’
(201)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeoae
3SG:GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her wallet.’
(202)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
3SG-GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her (and came here).’
TAKE jibda R
(95)
geu-neun
he-TOP
chaeksang
table
wi-e
top-LOC
iss-teo-n
be-EV.PST-ATTR
chingu-ae
friend-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
jib-eoss-da
take-PST-DECL
‘He took his friend's money which was on the table.’
PEEL kkada R
(146)
nuna-ga
older_sister_of_male-NOM
gyul-eul
tangerine-ACC
kka-ss-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘Mother peeled a tangerine.’

(286)
eoje
yesterday
neomeoji-eoss-deoni
fall_over-PST-DECL
mureup-i
knee-NOM
da
all
kka
peel.CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘I grazed my knee yesterday when I fell over.’
(287)
eomma
mum
i
this
hobag-i
pumpkin-NOM
kkeobjil-i
skin-NOM
yeong
just
an=kka
NEG=peel.CONV
ji-ne
PASS.AUX-MIR
‘Mum, this pumpkin skin just doesn't want to come off!’
PEEL beosgida R
(147)
emeoni-ga
mother-NOM
gyul
tangerine
kkeobjil-eul
skin-ACC
beos-gi-da
peel-CAUS-DECL
‘Mother peeled the tangerines.’
(148)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
jamba-reul
jacket-ACC
beos-eusi-eoss-da
take_off-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father took off his jacket.’
(222)
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ae
child-GEN
os-eul
clothes-ACC
beos-gi-eoss-da
take_off-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother undressed the child.’
CUT kkakkda R
(39)
geu-neun
he-FOC
suyeom-eul
beard-ACC
kkakk-ass-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘He shaved his beard.’

(289)
yeonpilkkaki-reul
pencil_sharpener-ACC
sseu-myeon
use-CONV
yeonpil-i
pencil-NOM
hwolssin
much
deo
more
ppalli
quickly
kkakk-a
sharpen-CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘If you use a pencil sharpener, you can sharpen pencils much quicker.’
SMELL naemsaereul matta N
(72)
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
jinaga-neun
pass_by-ATTR
saram-ui
person-GEN
naemsae-reul
smell-ACC
mat-ass-da
smell-PST-DECL
‘The tiger smelled persons passing by.’
CUT jareuda R
(93)
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
kal-lo
knife-INSTR
ppang-eul
bread-ACC
jareu-ass-da
cut-PST-DECL
‘The woman cut the bread with a knife.’

(94)
i
this
kal-lo
knife-INSTR
ha-myeon
do-CONV.COND
ppang-i
bread-NOM
jal
well
jalla-ji-eo
cut.CONV-PASS-PLAIN
‘If you do [it] with this knife, the bread cuts well.’
BEAT ttaerida N
(90)
ai-neun
child-TOP
makdaegi-ro
stick-INSTR
baem-eul
snake-ACC
ttaeri-eoss-da
beat-PST-DECL
‘The child beat/hit the snake with a stick.’
KILL jugida N
(150)
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
saram-eul
human.being-ACC
jug-i-eoss-da
die-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘A tiger killed a person.’
BREAK kkaeda M
(86)
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK kkaetteurida M
(88)
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkaetteuri-eoss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the glass with a stone.’
GRIND galda R
(106)
yeoja-deul-eun
woman-PL-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
kong-eul
bean-ACC
gal-ass-da
grind-PST-DECL
‘The women ground the beans with a big stone.’
BUILD jisda R
(128)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
dol-ro
stone-INSTR
jib-eul
house-ACC
jis-eusi-eoss-da
build-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father build a house out of stones.’

(301)
i
this
seongdang-eun
church-TOP
namu-ro
wood-INSTR
jis-eo
build-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘This church has been built out of wood.’
CLIMB oreuda N
(113)
goyangi-ga
cat-NOM
namu-e
tree-LOC
oreu-a
move_up-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The cat climbed on the tree. / The cat went up the tree.’
LIVE salda N
(26)
na-neun
I-TOP
dosi-eseo
city-LOC
sal-n-da
live-PRS-DECL
‘I live in a city.’
(27)
jeo
1SG.HUM
dogil-eseo
Germany-LOC
sal-ayo
live-POL
‘I live in Germany.’
SIT DOWN anjda N
(35)
geu-neun
he-TOP
benchi-ae
bench-LOC
anj-ass-da
sit-PST-DECL
‘He sat down on the bench.’
LEAVE tteonada N
(140)
eoje
yesterday
geu
that
chingu-ga
friend-NOM
uri
our
jib-eseo
house-ABL
tteona-ss-da
leave-PST-DECL
‘He (my friend I told you about) left our house yesterday/That friend of mine, he left yesterday.’
TALK iyagihada N
(82)
sumi-neun
Sumi-TOP
adeul-hante
son-DAT
naeil
tomorrow
tteona-n-da-go
leave-PRS-DECL-QUOT
yaegi=ha-ss-da
story=do-PST-DECL
‘Sumi told her son that she will/would be leaving tomorrow.’
SIT anja itta N
(34)
ai-deul-eun
child-PL-TOP
ttang-e
floor-LOC
anj-a
sit-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were sitting on the floor.’
NAME bureuda N
(81)
bumonim-deul-i
parents-PL-NOM
geu
that
ai-reul
child-ACC
anna-rago
Anna-be:QUOT
bureu-eoss-da
call-PST-DECL
‘The parents called that child "Anna".’
THROW deonjida R
(138)
ai-ga
child-NOM
gong-eul
ball-ACC
bada-e
ocean-LOC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The child threw the ball into the direction of the ocean.’
(225)
hagsaeng-i
student-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
gong-eul
ball-ACC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The student threw a ball to the child.’
PUSH milda R
(135)
igeo-l
this-ACC
jeojjok-euro
that:direction-DIR
mil-eo
push-PLAIN
‘(nodding somewhere) Push it in that direction.’
(221)
uri-ga
1PL-NOM
nong-eul
cupboard-ACC
changga-ro
window_area-DIR
mil-eoss-da
push-PST-DECL
‘We pushed the cupboard towards the window.’
BRING gajyeogada N
(153)
ai-ga
mother-NOM
chingu
friend
jib-e
house-LOC
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The child took presents to his friend's house.’
FILL chada N
(175)
pye-e
lung-LOC
mul-i
water-NOM
cha-ss-da
get_full-PST-DECL
‘The lungs are/were filled with water.’
LOAD sidda R
(5)
hyeong-i
older_brother-NOM
jim-eul
luggage-ACC
cha-e
car-LOC
sid-eoss-da
load-PST-DECL
‘My brother loaded the luggage on the car.’

(233)
cha-e
car-LOC
manh-eun
many-ATTR
mulgeon-i
object-NOM
sid-eo
load-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Many things had been loaded onto the car.’
BE BRIGHT balgda N
(154)
hae-ga
sun-NOM
balg-da
bright-DECL
‘The sun is bright.’
TIE mukkda R
(6)
gunin-i
soldier-NOM
mal-eul
horse-ACC
namu-e
tree-LOC
mukk-eoss-da
tie-PST-DECL
‘The soldier tied the horse to a tree.’
POUR busda R
(102)
eomma-ga
mom-NOM
ganjang-eul
soy_sauce-ACC
sos-e
pot-LOC
bu-eoss-da
pour-PST-DECL
‘Mom poured the soy sauce into the pot.’

(237)
eumsig-e
food-LOC
jit-eun
intense-ATTR
yangnyeom-i
seasoning-NOM
bu-eo
pour-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘A dark sauce was on the food.’
PUT nohda R
(136)
nae-ga
I-NOM
angyeong-eul
glasses-ACC
eodi-da
where-LOC
noh-ass-ji
put-PST-asking_oneself
‘(thinking about it intensively) Where did I put my glasses?’

(157)
geurium-eun
longing-TOP
swibge
easily
noh-a
put-CONV
ji-ji
PASS.AUX-NEG
an-neun-da
NEG-PRS-DECL
‘It is not easy to let go of longing.’
COVER deopda R
(230)
ai-ga
child-NOM
umsig-i
food-NOM
sangha-ji
go_bad-NEG
anh-ge
NEG-CONV
geureus-e
bowl-LOC
ttukkeong-eul
lid-ACC
deop-eoss-da
cover-PST-DECL
‘The child put a lid on the bowl to keep the food from getting bad.’
CARRY deulda R
(162)
ai-ga
child-NOM
kkochdabal-eul
flower:bouquet-ACC
deul-go
carry-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘A child is carrying a bouquet.’

(165)
tong-i
barrel-NOM
neomu
too_much
mugeob-eoseo
heavy-CONV
an-deul-eo
NEG-carry-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-PLAIN
‘I can't lift the barrel because it's too heavy.’
HIDE sumgida R
(243)
i
this
jasig-i
son-NOM
gamhi
daringly
nae
1SG.GEN
ap-eseo
front-LOC
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
sum-gi-eo
hide-CAUS-PLAIN
‘So that bastard really dared to hide that fact from me?’
SEND bonaeda R
(100)
jeo
1SG.HUM
eojae
yesterday
samchon-hanthae
uncle-DAT
sopo
mail
han
one
sangja-reul
box.CLFR-ACC
bonae-ss-eoyo
send-PST-POL
‘I sent a parcel to my uncle yesterday. / I sent you a parcel yesterday, uncle.’
GIVE juda R
(99)
halmeoni-ga
grandmother-NOM
ai-hante
child-DAT
don-eul
money-ACC
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother gave the child some money.’

(242)
geu-ege
3SG-DAT
dasi
again
han
one
beon
time.CLFR
gihoe-ga
opportunity-NOM
ju-eo
give-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘He had been given/granted another opportunity.’
(314)
mari-ga
Mari-NOM
aju
really
gwiha-n
precious-ATTR
gihoe-ga
opportuniy-NOM
ju-eo
give-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘Mari was given a truly valuable opportuniy.’
SHOW boida N
(199)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
mento-deul
mentor-PL
ap-eseo
before-LOC
jasinmanman=ha-n
fully_confident=do-ATTR
moseub-eul
appearance-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She presented herself to her mentors with overflowing confidence (lit. she showed an appearance of full confidence in front of her mentors).’
TEAR jjijda R
(96)
neo
you
igeo-l
this:thing-ACC
wae
why
jjij-eo
tear-PLAIN
‘Why are you ripping this?’

(247)
harujongil
whole_day
geod-eoss-deoni
walk-PST-CONV
sinbal-i
shoe-NOM
da
all
jjij-eo
tear-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘As I had walked all day long, my shoes were all torn.’
WIPE dakkda R
(133)
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
chaeksang-eul
table-ACC
dak-ass-da
wipe-PST-DECL
‘Mother cleaned the table.’

(248)
eomma
mum
yeogi
here
meonji-ga
dust-NOM
jal
well
an-ttakk-a
NEG-wipe-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
‘Mum, the dust here doesn't really get wiped off properly!’
TOUCH manjida M
(92)
geu-neun
he-TOP
geunyeo-ae
that:girl-GEN
son-eul
hand-ACC
manji-eoss-da
touch-PST-DECL
‘He touched her hand.’
HIT chida N
(192)
neo
2SG
na
1SG
chi-eoss-eo
hit-PST-PLAIN
jigeum
just_now
‘Did you push me/touch me just now?’
(194)
yeongung-deul-i
hero-PL-NOM
him-eul
force-ACC
da-ha-eo
all-do-CONV
jeog-eul
enemy-ACC
chi-eoss-da
hit-PST-DECL
‘The heroes put all their forces together and crushed the enemy.’
KNOW alda M
(62)
geu-neun
he-TOP
imi
already
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He already knew that fact.’
(63)
ai-neun
child-TOP
geu
that
yaegi-reul
story-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child already knew that story.’
SEE boda R
(74)
sanae-neun
boy-TOP
yeojaae-reul
young:girl-ACC
barabo-ass-da
look_at-PST-DECL
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
(75)
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
gom-eul
bear-ACC
bo-ass-da
see-PST-DECL
‘The man saw a bear.’
FRIGHTEN nollaeda N
(70)
bo-a
look-PLAIN
sori
sound
ttaemune
because:LOC
ai-ga
child-NOM
nollae-ss-eo
get_frightened-PST-DECL
‘Look how the child got frightened because of the sound!’
FEAR museobda N
(66)
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
jijin-i
earthquake-NOM
museoweo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared earthquakes.’
(69)
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
jimseung-i
animal-NOM
museowo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared big animals.’
LIKE johda N
(64)
na-n
I-TOP
ni-ga
you-NOM
neomu
too_much
jo-a
be_good-PRS
‘I like you so much!’
(125)
na-n
I-TOP
gimchi-ga
Kimchi-NOM
joh-a
be_good-PLAIN
‘I like Kimchi.’
MEET mannada N
(52)
eojae
yesterday
na-n
I-TOP
nae
my
jeon
ex
namjachingu-reul
boyfriend-ACC
manna-ss-da
meet-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday I met my ex-boyfriend.’
(53)
eoje
yesterday
sinae-eseo
city-LOC
suyeongi-reul
SooYoung-ACC
manna-ss-eoyo
meet-PST-POL
‘Yesterday I met Soo-Young in town.’
FOLLOW ttaragada N
(51)
byeongari-ga
chick-NOM
eomi
mother
dalg-eul
chicken-ACC
ttareu-a
follow-CONV
ga-n-da
go-PRS-DECL
‘A chick is following its mother.’
HELP dowajuda N
(50)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
dob-a
help-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘Father helped the child.’
EAT meogda R
(49)
ai-neun
child-NOM
gwail-eul
fruit-ACC
meog-eoss-da
eat-PST-DECL
‘The child ate the fruit.’

(256)
i
this
sanghwang-e
situation-LOC
geuraedo
still
bab-i
food-NOM
meog-eo
eat-CONV
ji-nya
PASS.AUX-Q.PLAIN
meog-eo
eat-CONV
ji-eo
PASS.AUX-CONV
i
this
jasig-a
bastard-VOC
‘So you still can eat despite the situation were in, you bastard?’
WASH mogyoksikida N
(46)
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
mogyog=siki-eoss-da
bath=cause-PST-DECL
‘Mother bathed her child.’
WASH ssisda R
(44)
ai-ga
child-NOM
son-eul
hand-ACC
sis-eoss-da
wash-PST-DECL
‘The child wash his hands.’
WASH sesuhada N
(47)
neo
2SG
ppalli
quickly
son-euro
hand-INSTR
eolgul-eul
face-ACC
saesu=hae
wash_face=do\PLAIN
‘Quickly, wash your face!’
COUGH gichimhada N
(37)
ai-ga
child-NOM
simhage
badly
gichim=ha-ss-da
cough=do-PST-DECL
‘The child coughed badly.’
CLIMB tada (2) N
(260)
manh-eun
be_many-ATTR
saram-deul-i
person-PL-NOM
beoseu-reul
bus-ACC
ta-go
climb-CONV
Seoraksan-e
Seoraksan-LOC
deungsanha-reo
hiking:do-PURP
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘Many people went on a bus to the Seorak mountains to go hiking.’
(261)
wonsungi-ga
monkey-NOM
namu-reul
tree-ACC
jal
well
ta-n-da
climb-NPST-DECL
‘The monkey climbs on the tree without any effort.’
RUN dallida M
(36)
mal-i
horse-NOM
dalli-eoss-da
run-PST-DECL
‘The horse ran.’
JUMP ttwida M
(33)
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
joh-aseo
be_glad-CONV.RS
kkangchungkkangchung
up_and_down
ttwi-go
jump-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were happily (i.e., because theywere happy) jumping up and down.’
SING noraebureuda N
(265)
uri
1PL
halmeoni-neun
grandmother-TOP
harujongil
whole_day
norae=bureu-si-eoss-da
song=call-HON-PST-DECL
‘Our grandmother used to sing all day long.’
APPEAR natanada N
(114)
supsok-e
forest:interior-LOC
namja-ga
man-NOM
natana-ss-da
appear-PST-DECL
‘A man appeared in the forest.’
DIE jugda N
(19)
nae
my
gangaji-ga
dog-NOM
jug-eoss-da
die-PST-DECL
‘My dog is dead. / My dog died.’
FALL tteoreojida N
(173)
namu-eseo
tree-ABL
gwail-i
fruit-NOM
tteoreoji-eoss-da
fall-PST-DECL
‘Fruit fell from the tree.’
FEEL COLD chubda N
(20)
na
I
chub-eo
be_cold-PRS
‘I am cold.’
BE HUNGRY baegopeuda N
(15)
na
I
baegop-a
be_hungry-PRS
‘I am hungry.’
RAIN biga oda N
(8)
bi-ga
rain-NOM
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘It has rained.’
GET badda N
(115)
ai-ga
child-NOM
chingu-deul-egeseo
friend-PL-ABL
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
bad-ass-da
get-PST-DECL
‘The child got a present from his friends.’
THINK saenggaghada N
(61)
haksaeng-eun
student-TOP
daeum
next
nonmun
essay
juje-reul
topic-ACC
saenggag=ha-go
thought=do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The student was thinking about his next essay topic.’
SEARCH FOR chajda R
(58)
Namja-ga
mister-NOM
don-eul
money-ACC
chaj-go
look_for-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The man was looking for money.’

(276)
keompyuteo-ga
computer-NOM
ppareu-l
quick-ATTR
surog
COMPR
peiji-ga
web_page-NOM
deo
more
ppalli
quickly
chaj-a
search-CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘The faster the computer, the quicker one can find the web pages.’
HUG anda N
(57)
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother took the child in her arms. / The mother hugged her child.’
FEEL PAIN apeuda N
(22)
na
1SG
pal-i
arm-NOM
apeu-a
hurt-PRS
‘My arm is hurting (me very much).’
BE SAD seulpeuda N
(16)
na
I
seulp-eo
be_sad-PLAIN
‘I am sad.’
BE DRY mareuda N
(9)
ttang-i
ground-NOM
mareu-ass-da
dry-PST-DECL
‘The ground has dried.’
GO gada N
(29)
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
sijang-e
market-LOC
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The madam went to the market (to do something there).’
LAUGH usda N
(24)
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
us-eoss-da
laugh-PST-DECL
‘The man/mister laughed.’
BURN tada (1) N
(10)
jib-i
house-NOM
bul-e
fire-LOC
ta-go
burn-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The house is burning on fire.’
BLINK nuneul kkambagida R
(38)
geu-neun
he-TOP
nun-eul
eye-ACC
kkambagi-eoss-da
blink-PST-DECL
‘He blinked with his eyes.’

(174)
susul=ha-go
operation=do-CONV
na-ni
stop-CONV
nun-i
eye-NOM
jal
well
an
NEG
kkambagi-eo
blink-CONV
ji-eoss-da
PASS.AUX-PST-DECL
‘After my operation I couldn't blink my eyes anymore.’
BE A HUNTER sanyanggun ida N
(14)
i
this
namja-neun
man-TOP
sanyanggun
hunter
i-da
be-DECL
‘This man is a hunter.’
DIG pada R
(103)
geu-neun
he-TOP
ppuri-reul
root-ACC
chaj-gi
find-NMLZ
wihae
for
jeongweon-aeseo
garden-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
gumeong-eul
hole-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug a hole in the garden in order to find the roots.’
(280)
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
myeoch
several
sigan
hour
dongan
during
michidorog
like_crazy
ttang-eul
ground-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug the ground for hours and hours as though he went crazy.’

(282)
yojeum
these_days
bi-ga
rain-NOM
deol
less
o-aseo
come-CONV
ttang-i
ground-NOM
jal
well
an=pa
NEG=dig.CONV
ji-n-da
PASS.AUX-NPST-DECL
‘It is hard to dig the ground since it's been raining little.’
ROLL gureuda N
(12)
gong-i
ball-NOM
gureu-eoss-da
roll-PST-DECL
‘A ball rolled/was rolling.’
TEACH gareuchida N
(109)
seonsaeng-i
teacher-NOM
haksaeng-deul-ege
pupil-PL-DAT
dogeo-reul
German-ACC
gareuchi-eoss-da
teach-PST-DECL
‘The teacher taught the pupils German.’
(110)
halmeoni-kkeseo
grandmother-NOM.HON
ai-ege
child-DAT
norae-reul
song-ACC
gareuchi-eo
teach-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother taught the child a song.’
HEAR deullida (1) N
(107)
ai-ege
child-DAT
sae
bird
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
hear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child (inadvertedly) heard the sound of a bird (=a bird).’
(294)
ai-ga
child-NOM
meolli-seo
far-ABL
isangha-n
weird-ATTR
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
listen-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child perceived a weird sound coming from far away.’
WANT weonhada N
(117)
ai-ga
child-NOM
jangnangam-eul
toy-ACC
wonha-ss-da
want-PST-DECL
‘The child wanted toys.’
SINK garaanjda N
(11)
bae-ga
boat-NOM
garaanj-ass-da
sink-PST-DECL
‘A ship has sunk.’
BOIL kkeulhda N
(111)
mul-i
water-NOM
kkeulh-go
boil-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The water is boiling.’
PLAY nolda N
(25)
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
nol-go
play-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The children are playing.’
SHAVE (self) myeondohada N
(40)
geu-neun
he-TOP
myeondo=haess-da
shave=do\PST-DECL
‘He shaved.’
DRESS os(eul) ibda N
(41)
ai-ga
child-NOM
os-eul
cloths-ACC
ib-eoss-da
dress-PST-DECL
‘The child put on his cloths. / The child dressed.’
WASH ppalda R
(48)
eomma
mom
je
my
os-eul
clothes-ACC
setaggi-ro
washing_machine-INSTR
ppal-ass-eoyo
wash-PST-POL
‘Mom, did you wash my laundry using the wahing machine??’
ASK FOR yoguhada N
(79)
adeul-i
son-NOM
bumonim-hantheseo
parents-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
yogu=ha-ss-da
request=do-PST-DECL
‘The son asked his parents for money.’
SCREAM sorijireuda N
(126)
eomeoni-neun
mother-TOP
ai-deul-hante
child-PL-DAT
sori-reul
sound-ACC
jill-eoss-da
scream-PST-DECL
‘The mother shouted at the children.’
CRY ulda N
(129)
ai-ga
child-NOM
gyesok
constantly
ul-go
cry-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child was crying all the time.’
BRING gajyeooda N
(238)
ai-ga
child-NOM
na-ege
1SG-DAT
seonmul-eul
gift-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The child brought me a present.’
LISTEN deudda N
(205)
soungu-neun
Soung_U-TOP
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-go
listen-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Soung-U was listening to music.’
SHOW deullida (2) N
(206)
na-ga
1SG-NOM
ai-deul-ege
child-PL-DAT
jaemiss-neun
fun:have-ATTR
iyagi-reul
story-ACC
deud-li-eoss-deoni
listen-PASS-PST-CONV
neomu
too_much
joh-a
like-CONV
ha-n-da
do-NPST-DECL
‘As I told the children my story, they really liked it.’
LOOK AT baraboda N
(74)
sanae-neun
boy-TOP
yeojaae-reul
young:girl-ACC
barabo-ass-da
look_at-PST-DECL
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
FILL chaeuda N
(232)
geunyeo-ga
3SG.F-NOM
jan-e
glass-LOC
mul-eul
water-ACC
chae-u-eoss-da
get_full-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She filled water into the glass.’
HIDE sumda M
(317)
ai-ga
child-NOM
namu
tree
dwi-e
behind-loc
sum-eoss-da
hide-PST-DECL
‘The child hid behind the tree.’