Passive (morphological) C

Description

Similarly to morphological causatives, a verb which undergoes this alternation is suffixed with a small set of different, partly phonologically, and partly lexically determined suffixes (see Yeon 2003: 109, for example, or Lee and Ramsey 2000: 206ff.).

The morphology of this type of passive formation is not productive anymore (Lee and Ramsey 2000: 207), and restricted to a few predicates of mostly native Korean origin. Other types of verbs, for example complex
hada predicates simply exchange the verb hada with another verb such as tanghada 'be affected by something'. The later type of 'passive' formation has not been included in this database here (see O'Grady 1991: 48 or Yeon 2003: 108, for example).

As Lee and Ramsey (2000: 208) describe, the rather high degree of lexicalisation of the morphological passive in Korean has sometimes brought along changes in a verb's meaning. These meaning changes have been mentioned in a couple of verb entries, and in the case of HEAR it has been included as a separate entry. Moreover, this lexicalisation has brought along apparent passive forms that do not have any active counterparts anymore (see Yeon 2003: 103).

In a passive clause, the accusative-marked NP of a former transitive verb is marked with nominative and is granted subject status. It is less obvious what happens with the former nominative-marked NP, however. With a passive verb it either seems to be inexpressible or can be expressed with dative-marking (or locative marking on inanimate nouns) on the NP, or through the postposition
euhaeseo 'by' which governs locative case, with the latter possibility sounding rather stilted in spoken usage. Lee and Ramsey (2000: 207) state that the presence of a locative or instrumental-marked NP in a clause forces the agent NP to be expressed in a postpositional phrase.

According to several researchers (Yeon 2003: 109 or Lee and Ramsey 2000: 208) this alternation does not apply to ditransitive verbs, to verbs of sensation, cognition and emotion, verbs which have reciprocal meaning and as a more morphologically motivated feature, verbs whose stems end with
-i. Among verbs with the coding pattern NOM-ACC, HELP for example cannot undergo mopological passive. Researchers that discuss this alternation do not mention the possibility of arguing that the morphological passive applies to verbs which the argument structure <agent, patient> only, where the patient role implies high affectedness. Admittedly though this suggestion does not work for all of the verbs, since NAME for example has a morphological passive form although the 'patient' is not really highly affected.

for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
POUR busda N
(102)
eomma-ga
mom-NOM
ganjang-eul
soy_sauce-ACC
sos-e
pot-LOC
bu-eoss-da
pour-PST-DECL
‘Mom poured the soy sauce into the pot.’
BOIL kkeulhda N
(111)
mul-i
water-NOM
kkeulh-go
boil-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The water is boiling.’
SIT DOWN anjda N
(35)
geu-neun
he-TOP
benchi-ae
bench-LOC
anj-ass-da
sit-PST-DECL
‘He sat down on the bench.’
DRESS os(eul) ibda N
(41)
ai-ga
child-NOM
os-eul
cloths-ACC
ib-eoss-da
dress-PST-DECL
‘The child put on his cloths. / The child dressed.’
EAT meogda R
(49)
ai-neun
child-NOM
gwail-eul
fruit-ACC
meog-eoss-da
eat-PST-DECL
‘The child ate the fruit.’

(257)
sajeong
explain_implore
sajeong-eul
explain_implore-ACC
hae-do
do-CONV
mal-i
speech-NOM
an-meog-hi-ne
NEG-eat-PASS-MIR
‘Really, no matter how much I explain my reasons to him, no matter I beg him, my words just do not reach him.’
HUG anda R
(57)
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
an-ass-da
hug-PST-DECL
‘The mother took the child in her arms. / The mother hugged her child.’

(219)
dongsaeng-eun
younger_brother-TOP
abeoji-ege
father-DAT
an-gi-eoseo
hug-PASS-CONV
cha-e
car-LOC
oreu-ass-da
move_up-PST-DECL
‘My father grabbed my brother under his arms to help him get in the car. / lit. My younger brother was grabbed by my father under his arms and got in the car.’
TALK iyagihada N
(82)
sumi-neun
Sumi-TOP
adeul-hante
son-DAT
naeil
tomorrow
tteona-n-da-go
leave-PRS-DECL-QUOT
yaegi=ha-ss-da
story=do-PST-DECL
‘Sumi told her son that she will/would be leaving tomorrow.’
BUILD jisda N
(128)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
dol-ro
stone-INSTR
jib-eul
house-ACC
jis-eusi-eoss-da
build-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father build a house out of stones.’
COVER deopda R
(230)
ai-ga
child-NOM
umsig-i
food-NOM
sangha-ji
go_bad-NEG
anh-ge
NEG-CONV
geureus-e
bowl-LOC
ttukkeong-eul
lid-ACC
deop-eoss-da
cover-PST-DECL
‘The child put a lid on the bowl to keep the food from getting bad.’

(160)
hallasan
Halla_Mountain
jeongsang-e
peek-LOC
nun-i
snow-NOM
deop-i-eo
cover-PASS-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘Snow is covering the peek of the Halla Mountain. / The peek of Halla Mountain is covered in snow.’
(161)
babsang-i
table-NOM
sangbo-ro
table_cloth-INSTR
deop-i-eo
cover-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The whole bed is covered with flowers.’
FILL chada N
(175)
pye-e
lung-LOC
mul-i
water-NOM
cha-ss-da
get_full-PST-DECL
‘The lungs are/were filled with water.’
PLAY nolda N
(25)
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
nol-go
play-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The children are playing.’
SAY malhada N
(84)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
sasil-eul
truth-ACC
mal=ha-ss-da
speech=do-PST-DECL
‘She told me the truth.’
(85)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
naege
1SG:DAT
anirago
NEG:be:QUOT
mal=haess-da
speech=do\PST-DECL
‘She said "no" to me / She told me it wasn't true/the case.’
STEAL humchida N
(104)
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money.’
(105)
doduk-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
she-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘A thief stole her money (and went away).’
(200)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-egeseo
3SG-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money (away) from her.’
(201)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeoae
3SG:GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eoss-da
steal-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her wallet.’
(202)
dodug-i
thief-NOM
geunyeo-ae
3SG-GEN
jigab-eseo
wallet-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
humchi-eo
steal-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The thief stole money from her (and came here).’
TAKE jibda R
(95)
geu-neun
he-TOP
chaeksang
table
wi-e
top-LOC
iss-teo-n
be-EV.PST-ATTR
chingu-ae
friend-GEN
don-eul
money-ACC
jib-eoss-da
take-PST-DECL
‘He took his friend's money which was on the table.’

(279)
son-e
hand-LOC
mulkeongha-n
soft-ATTR
geos-i
thing-NOM
jib-hi-eoss-da
take-PASS-PST-DECL
‘[when looking for something with one's arm in a location one cannot see]: He could feel something soft touching his hand./He inadvertedly grabbed something soft.’
PEEL kkada R
(146)
nuna-ga
older_sister_of_male-NOM
gyul-eul
tangerine-ACC
kka-ss-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘Mother peeled a tangerine.’

(284)
eoje
yesterday
neomeoji-eoss-deoni
fall_over-PST-DECL
mureup-i
knee-NOM
da
all
kka-i-eoss-da
peel-PASS-PST-DECL
‘I grazed my knee yesterday when I fell over.’
PEEL beosgida R
(147)
emeoni-ga
mother-NOM
gyul
tangerine
kkeobjil-eul
skin-ACC
beos-gi-da
peel-CAUS-DECL
‘Mother peeled the tangerines.’
(148)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
jamba-reul
jacket-ACC
beos-eusi-eoss-da
take_off-HON-PST-DECL
‘Father took off his jacket.’
(222)
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
ai-ae
child-GEN
os-eul
clothes-ACC
beos-gi-eoss-da
take_off-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘The mother undressed the child.’
CUT kkakkda R
(39)
geu-neun
he-FOC
suyeom-eul
beard-ACC
kkakk-ass-da
peel-PST-DECL
‘He shaved his beard.’

(290)
achim-e
morning-LOC
ireona-ss-deoni
get_up-PST-CONV
jeongwon-e
garden-LOC
jandi-ga
grass-NOM
imi
already
kkakk-i-eo
cut-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘When I got up in the morning the grass in my backyard had already been cut.’
SMELL naemsaereul matta N
(72)
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
jinaga-neun
pass_by-ATTR
saram-ui
person-GEN
naemsae-reul
smell-ACC
mat-ass-da
smell-PST-DECL
‘The tiger smelled persons passing by.’
CUT jareuda R
(93)
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
kal-lo
knife-INSTR
ppang-eul
bread-ACC
jareu-ass-da
cut-PST-DECL
‘The woman cut the bread with a knife.’

(149)
geunyeo-neun
she-TOP
sago-ro
accident-INSTR
songarak
finger
hana-ga
one-NOM
jareu-li-eoss-da
cut-PASS-PST-DECL
‘One of her fingers was cut off in an accident.’
BEAT ttaerida N
(90)
ai-neun
child-TOP
makdaegi-ro
stick-INSTR
baem-eul
snake-ACC
ttaeri-eoss-da
beat-PST-DECL
‘The child beat/hit the snake with a stick.’
KILL jugida N
(150)
horangi-ga
tiger-NOM
saram-eul
human.being-ACC
jug-i-eoss-da
die-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘A tiger killed a person.’
BREAK kkaeda N
(86)
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkae-ss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK kkaetteurida N
(88)
ai-neun
child-TOP
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
yuri-reul
glass-ACC
kkaetteuri-eoss-da
break-PST-DECL
‘The child broke the glass with a stone.’
GRIND galda N
(106)
yeoja-deul-eun
woman-PL-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
dol-lo
stone-INSTR
kong-eul
bean-ACC
gal-ass-da
grind-PST-DECL
‘The women ground the beans with a big stone.’
CLIMB oreuda N
(113)
goyangi-ga
cat-NOM
namu-e
tree-LOC
oreu-a
move_up-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The cat climbed on the tree. / The cat went up the tree.’
LIVE salda N
(26)
na-neun
I-TOP
dosi-eseo
city-LOC
sal-n-da
live-PRS-DECL
‘I live in a city.’
(27)
jeo
1SG.HUM
dogil-eseo
Germany-LOC
sal-ayo
live-POL
‘I live in Germany.’
LEAVE tteonada N
(140)
eoje
yesterday
geu
that
chingu-ga
friend-NOM
uri
our
jib-eseo
house-ABL
tteona-ss-da
leave-PST-DECL
‘He (my friend I told you about) left our house yesterday/That friend of mine, he left yesterday.’
SIT anja itta N
(34)
ai-deul-eun
child-PL-TOP
ttang-e
floor-LOC
anj-a
sit-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were sitting on the floor.’
NAME bureuda R
(81)
bumonim-deul-i
parents-PL-NOM
geu
that
ai-reul
child-ACC
anna-rago
Anna-be:QUOT
bureu-eoss-da
call-PST-DECL
‘The parents called that child "Anna".’

(151)
geu-neun
he-TOP
chincheok-deul-hante
relative-PL-DAT
Jjangsuni-rago
Jjangsuni-QUOT
bureu-li-eoss-da
call-PASS-PST-DECL
‘He is called Jjangsuni by his relatives.’
(152)
geunyeo-neun
she-TOP
hangug-ae
South_Korea-GEN
madonna-ro
Madonna-INSTR
bureu-li-n-da
name-PASS-PRS-DECL
‘She is called the 'Madonna of Korea'.’
THROW deonjida N
(138)
ai-ga
child-NOM
gong-eul
ball-ACC
bada-e
ocean-LOC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The child threw the ball into the direction of the ocean.’
(225)
hagsaeng-i
student-NOM
ai-ege
child-DAT
gong-eul
ball-ACC
deonji-eoss-da
throw-PST-DECL
‘The student threw a ball to the child.’
PUSH milda R
(135)
igeo-l
this-ACC
jeojjok-euro
that:direction-DIR
mil-eo
push-PLAIN
‘(nodding somewhere) Push it in that direction.’
(221)
uri-ga
1PL-NOM
nong-eul
cupboard-ACC
changga-ro
window_area-DIR
mil-eoss-da
push-PST-DECL
‘We pushed the cupboard towards the window.’

(292)
nae
my
balpyosunseo-ga
turn_to_present-NOM
dwi-ro
dwi-DIR
mil-li-eoss-da
push-PASS-PST-DECL
‘My presentation was moved back.’
BRING gajyeogada N
(153)
ai-ga
mother-NOM
chingu
friend
jib-e
house-LOC
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The child took presents to his friend's house.’
LOAD sidda R
(5)
hyeong-i
older_brother-NOM
jim-eul
luggage-ACC
cha-e
car-LOC
sid-eoss-da
load-PST-DECL
‘My brother loaded the luggage on the car.’
BE BRIGHT balgda N
(154)
hae-ga
sun-NOM
balg-da
bright-DECL
‘The sun is bright.’
TIE mukkda R
(6)
gunin-i
soldier-NOM
mal-eul
horse-ACC
namu-e
tree-LOC
mukk-eoss-da
tie-PST-DECL
‘The soldier tied the horse to a tree.’

(235)
majimageuro
last_time:INSTR
sinbalkkeun-i
shoelaces-NOM
jal
well
mukk-i-eoss-neunji-reul
tie-PASS-PST-NMLZ.COMP-ACC
hwagin=ha-ss-da
check=do-PST-DECL
‘For the last time he checked whether his shoelaces had been tied correctly.’
PUT nohda R
(136)
nae-ga
I-NOM
angyeong-eul
glasses-ACC
eodi-da
where-LOC
noh-ass-ji
put-PST-asking_oneself
‘(thinking about it intensively) Where did I put my glasses?’

(158)
chaeg-i
book-NOM
chaeksang
table
wi-e
top-LOC
no-i-eo
put-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘A book was lying on the table.’
CARRY deulda N
(162)
ai-ga
child-NOM
kkochdabal-eul
flower:bouquet-ACC
deul-go
carry-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘A child is carrying a bouquet.’
HIDE sumgida N
(243)
i
this
jasig-i
son-NOM
gamhi
daringly
nae
1SG.GEN
ap-eseo
front-LOC
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
sum-gi-eo
hide-CAUS-PLAIN
‘So that bastard really dared to hide that fact from me?’
SEND bonaeda N
(100)
jeo
1SG.HUM
eojae
yesterday
samchon-hanthae
uncle-DAT
sopo
mail
han
one
sangja-reul
box.CLFR-ACC
bonae-ss-eoyo
send-PST-POL
‘I sent a parcel to my uncle yesterday. / I sent you a parcel yesterday, uncle.’
GIVE juda N
(99)
halmeoni-ga
grandmother-NOM
ai-hante
child-DAT
don-eul
money-ACC
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother gave the child some money.’
SHOW boida N
(199)
geunyeo-neun
that:girl-TOP
mento-deul
mentor-PL
ap-eseo
before-LOC
jasinmanman=ha-n
fully_confident=do-ATTR
moseub-eul
appearance-ACC
bo-i-eoss-da
look-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She presented herself to her mentors with overflowing confidence (lit. she showed an appearance of full confidence in front of her mentors).’
TEAR jjijda R
(96)
neo
you
igeo-l
this:thing-ACC
wae
why
jjij-eo
tear-PLAIN
‘Why are you ripping this?’

(246)
os-i
cloths-NOM
cheoljomang-e
barbed_wire-LOC
geol-li-eo
hang-PASS-CONV
jjij-gi-eoss-da
tear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘My cloths got caught in barbed wire and got torn.’
WIPE dakkda R
(133)
eomma-ga
mother-NOM
chaeksang-eul
table-ACC
dak-ass-da
wipe-PST-DECL
‘Mother cleaned the table.’

(249)
yurichang-i
glass-NOM
jedaero
properly
an-dakk-i-eo
NEG-wipe-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The glass had not been cleaned properly.’
TOUCH manjida N
(92)
geu-neun
he-TOP
geunyeo-ae
that:girl-GEN
son-eul
hand-ACC
manji-eoss-da
touch-PST-DECL
‘He touched her hand.’
HIT chida N
(192)
neo
2SG
na
1SG
chi-eoss-eo
hit-PST-PLAIN
jigeum
just_now
‘Did you push me/touch me just now?’
(194)
yeongung-deul-i
hero-PL-NOM
him-eul
force-ACC
da-ha-eo
all-do-CONV
jeog-eul
enemy-ACC
chi-eoss-da
hit-PST-DECL
‘The heroes put all their forces together and crushed the enemy.’
KNOW alda N
(62)
geu-neun
he-TOP
imi
already
geu
that
sasil-eul
fact-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He already knew that fact.’
(63)
ai-neun
child-TOP
geu
that
yaegi-reul
story-ACC
al-go
know-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child already knew that story.’
SEE boda R
(74)
sanae-neun
boy-TOP
yeojaae-reul
young:girl-ACC
barabo-ass-da
look_at-PST-DECL
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
(75)
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
gom-eul
bear-ACC
bo-ass-da
see-PST-DECL
‘The man saw a bear.’

(76)
haneul-eseo-neun
heaven-LOC-TOP
manh-eun
many-ATTR
geos-deul-i
thing-PL-NOM
bo-i-n-da
see-PASS-PRS-DECL
‘You can see many things down from heaven. / Down from heaven, many things are visible.’
FRIGHTEN nollaeda N
(70)
bo-a
look-PLAIN
sori
sound
ttaemune
because:LOC
ai-ga
child-NOM
nollae-ss-eo
get_frightened-PST-DECL
‘Look how the child got frightened because of the sound!’
FEAR museobda N
(66)
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
jijin-i
earthquake-NOM
museoweo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared earthquakes.’
(69)
nuna-neun
older_sister-TOP
keu-n
big-ATTR
jimseung-i
animal-NOM
museowo-ss-da
fear-PST-DECL
‘My older sister feared big animals.’
LIKE johda N
(64)
na-n
I-TOP
ni-ga
you-NOM
neomu
too_much
jo-a
be_good-PRS
‘I like you so much!’
(125)
na-n
I-TOP
gimchi-ga
Kimchi-NOM
joh-a
be_good-PLAIN
‘I like Kimchi.’
MEET mannada N
(52)
eojae
yesterday
na-n
I-TOP
nae
my
jeon
ex
namjachingu-reul
boyfriend-ACC
manna-ss-da
meet-PST-DECL
‘Yesterday I met my ex-boyfriend.’
(53)
eoje
yesterday
sinae-eseo
city-LOC
suyeongi-reul
SooYoung-ACC
manna-ss-eoyo
meet-PST-POL
‘Yesterday I met Soo-Young in town.’
FOLLOW ttaragada N
(51)
byeongari-ga
chick-NOM
eomi
mother
dalg-eul
chicken-ACC
ttareu-a
follow-CONV
ga-n-da
go-PRS-DECL
‘A chick is following its mother.’
HELP dowajuda N
(50)
abeoji-ga
father-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
dob-a
help-CONV
ju-eoss-da
give-PST-DECL
‘Father helped the child.’
WASH mogyoksikida N
(46)
eomeoni-ga
mother-NOM
ai-reul
child-ACC
mogyog=siki-eoss-da
bath=cause-PST-DECL
‘Mother bathed her child.’
WASH ssisda R
(44)
ai-ga
child-NOM
son-eul
hand-ACC
sis-eoss-da
wash-PST-DECL
‘The child wash his hands.’
WASH sesuhada N
(47)
neo
2SG
ppalli
quickly
son-euro
hand-INSTR
eolgul-eul
face-ACC
saesu=hae
wash_face=do\PLAIN
‘Quickly, wash your face!’
COUGH gichimhada N
(37)
ai-ga
child-NOM
simhage
badly
gichim=ha-ss-da
cough=do-PST-DECL
‘The child coughed badly.’
CLIMB tada (2) N
(260)
manh-eun
be_many-ATTR
saram-deul-i
person-PL-NOM
beoseu-reul
bus-ACC
ta-go
climb-CONV
Seoraksan-e
Seoraksan-LOC
deungsanha-reo
hiking:do-PURP
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘Many people went on a bus to the Seorak mountains to go hiking.’
(261)
wonsungi-ga
monkey-NOM
namu-reul
tree-ACC
jal
well
ta-n-da
climb-NPST-DECL
‘The monkey climbs on the tree without any effort.’
RUN dallida N
(36)
mal-i
horse-NOM
dalli-eoss-da
run-PST-DECL
‘The horse ran.’
JUMP ttwida N
(33)
ai-deul-i
child-PL-NOM
joh-aseo
be_glad-CONV.RS
kkangchungkkangchung
up_and_down
ttwi-go
jump-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The children were happily (i.e., because theywere happy) jumping up and down.’
SING noraebureuda N
(265)
uri
1PL
halmeoni-neun
grandmother-TOP
harujongil
whole_day
norae=bureu-si-eoss-da
song=call-HON-PST-DECL
‘Our grandmother used to sing all day long.’
APPEAR natanada N
(114)
supsok-e
forest:interior-LOC
namja-ga
man-NOM
natana-ss-da
appear-PST-DECL
‘A man appeared in the forest.’
DIE jugda N
(19)
nae
my
gangaji-ga
dog-NOM
jug-eoss-da
die-PST-DECL
‘My dog is dead. / My dog died.’
FALL tteoreojida N
(173)
namu-eseo
tree-ABL
gwail-i
fruit-NOM
tteoreoji-eoss-da
fall-PST-DECL
‘Fruit fell from the tree.’
FEEL COLD chubda N
(20)
na
I
chub-eo
be_cold-PRS
‘I am cold.’
BE HUNGRY baegopeuda N
(15)
na
I
baegop-a
be_hungry-PRS
‘I am hungry.’
RAIN biga oda N
(8)
bi-ga
rain-NOM
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘It has rained.’
GET badda N
(115)
ai-ga
child-NOM
chingu-deul-egeseo
friend-PL-ABL
seonmul-eul
present-ACC
bad-ass-da
get-PST-DECL
‘The child got a present from his friends.’
THINK saenggaghada N
(61)
haksaeng-eun
student-TOP
daeum
next
nonmun
essay
juje-reul
topic-ACC
saenggag=ha-go
thought=do-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The student was thinking about his next essay topic.’
SEARCH FOR chajda N
(58)
Namja-ga
mister-NOM
don-eul
money-ACC
chaj-go
look_for-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The man was looking for money.’
FEEL PAIN apeuda N
(22)
na
1SG
pal-i
arm-NOM
apeu-a
hurt-PRS
‘My arm is hurting (me very much).’
BE SAD seulpeuda N
(16)
na
I
seulp-eo
be_sad-PLAIN
‘I am sad.’
BE DRY mareuda N
(9)
ttang-i
ground-NOM
mareu-ass-da
dry-PST-DECL
‘The ground has dried.’
GO gada N
(29)
ajumeoni-ga
madam-NOM
sijang-e
market-LOC
ga-ss-da
go-PST-DECL
‘The madam went to the market (to do something there).’
LAUGH usda N
(24)
ajeossi-ga
mister-TOP
us-eoss-da
laugh-PST-DECL
‘The man/mister laughed.’
BURN tada (1) N
(10)
jib-i
house-NOM
bul-e
fire-LOC
ta-go
burn-CONV
iss-da
be-DECL
‘The house is burning on fire.’
BLINK nuneul kkambagida N
(38)
geu-neun
he-TOP
nun-eul
eye-ACC
kkambagi-eoss-da
blink-PST-DECL
‘He blinked with his eyes.’
BE A HUNTER sanyanggun ida N
(14)
i
this
namja-neun
man-TOP
sanyanggun
hunter
i-da
be-DECL
‘This man is a hunter.’
DIG pada R
(103)
geu-neun
he-TOP
ppuri-reul
root-ACC
chaj-gi
find-NMLZ
wihae
for
jeongweon-aeseo
garden-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
gumeong-eul
hole-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug a hole in the garden in order to find the roots.’
(280)
geu-neun
3SG-TOP
myeoch
several
sigan
hour
dongan
during
michidorog
like_crazy
ttang-eul
ground-ACC
pa-ss-da
dig-PST-DECL
‘He dug the ground for hours and hours as though he went crazy.’

(281)
achim-e
morning-LOC
ireona-ss-deoni
get_up-PST-CONV
jeongwon-e
garden-LOC
keu-n
be_big-ATTR
gudeongi-ga
hole-NOM
pa-i-eo
dig-PASS-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘He had just got up in the morning when he saw that someone had dug a big hole in his garden.’
ROLL gureuda N
(12)
gong-i
ball-NOM
gureu-eoss-da
roll-PST-DECL
‘A ball rolled/was rolling.’
TEACH gareuchida N
(109)
seonsaeng-i
teacher-NOM
haksaeng-deul-ege
pupil-PL-DAT
dogeo-reul
German-ACC
gareuchi-eoss-da
teach-PST-DECL
‘The teacher taught the pupils German.’
(110)
halmeoni-kkeseo
grandmother-NOM.HON
ai-ege
child-DAT
norae-reul
song-ACC
gareuchi-eo
teach-CONV
ju-si-eoss-da
give-HON-PST-DECL
‘The grandmother taught the child a song.’
HEAR deullida (1) N
(107)
ai-ege
child-DAT
sae
bird
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
hear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child (inadvertedly) heard the sound of a bird (=a bird).’
(294)
ai-ga
child-NOM
meolli-seo
far-ABL
isangha-n
weird-ATTR
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
listen-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child perceived a weird sound coming from far away.’
WANT weonhada N
(117)
ai-ga
child-NOM
jangnangam-eul
toy-ACC
wonha-ss-da
want-PST-DECL
‘The child wanted toys.’
SINK garaanjda N
(11)
bae-ga
boat-NOM
garaanj-ass-da
sink-PST-DECL
‘A ship has sunk.’
SHAVE (self) myeondohada N
(40)
geu-neun
he-TOP
myeondo=haess-da
shave=do\PST-DECL
‘He shaved.’
WASH ppalda N
(48)
eomma
mom
je
my
os-eul
clothes-ACC
setaggi-ro
washing_machine-INSTR
ppal-ass-eoyo
wash-PST-POL
‘Mom, did you wash my laundry using the wahing machine??’
ASK FOR yoguhada N
(79)
adeul-i
son-NOM
bumonim-hantheseo
parents-ABL
don-eul
money-ACC
yogu=ha-ss-da
request=do-PST-DECL
‘The son asked his parents for money.’
SCREAM sorijireuda N
(126)
eomeoni-neun
mother-TOP
ai-deul-hante
child-PL-DAT
sori-reul
sound-ACC
jill-eoss-da
scream-PST-DECL
‘The mother shouted at the children.’
CRY ulda N
(129)
ai-ga
child-NOM
gyesok
constantly
ul-go
cry-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘The child was crying all the time.’
BRING gajyeooda N
(238)
ai-ga
child-NOM
na-ege
1SG-DAT
seonmul-eul
gift-ACC
gaji-eo
take-CONV
o-ass-da
come-PST-DECL
‘The child brought me a present.’
LISTEN deudda R
(205)
soungu-neun
Soung_U-TOP
eumag-eul
music-ACC
deud-go
listen-CONV
iss-eoss-da
be-PST-DECL
‘Soung-U was listening to music.’

(107)
ai-ege
child-DAT
sae
bird
sori-ga
sound-NOM
deud-li-eoss-da
hear-PASS-PST-DECL
‘The child (inadvertedly) heard the sound of a bird (=a bird).’
SHOW deullida (2) N
(206)
na-ga
1SG-NOM
ai-deul-ege
child-PL-DAT
jaemiss-neun
fun:have-ATTR
iyagi-reul
story-ACC
deud-li-eoss-deoni
listen-PASS-PST-CONV
neomu
too_much
joh-a
like-CONV
ha-n-da
do-NPST-DECL
‘As I told the children my story, they really liked it.’
LOOK AT baraboda N
(74)
sanae-neun
boy-TOP
yeojaae-reul
young:girl-ACC
barabo-ass-da
look_at-PST-DECL
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
FILL chaeuda N
(232)
geunyeo-ga
3SG.F-NOM
jan-e
glass-LOC
mul-eul
water-ACC
chae-u-eoss-da
get_full-CAUS-PST-DECL
‘She filled water into the glass.’
HIDE sumda N
(317)
ai-ga
child-NOM
namu
tree
dwi-e
behind-loc
sum-eoss-da
hide-PST-DECL
‘The child hid behind the tree.’