Examples of Ket

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Qimdɯlʲ naˀnʲ dabil.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
naˀnʲ
bread
da-b-il-a
3SG.F.SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-PST-eat
‘The girl ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(2)
Dɨ̄lʲ debile naˀnʲ.
dɨ̄lʲ
child
de-b-il-e
3SG.F.SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-PST-eat
naˀnʲ
bread
‘The child ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(3)
Hiɣe dətovɨnte dɨ̄lʲ usinčas.
hiɣe
man
d-ət-o-v-ɨn-te
3SG.M.SBJ-on-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-STEM
dɨ̄lʲ
child
usinč-as
blanket-INSTR
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(4)
Hīɣ dɯlʲ usinsʲas dətoɣomne.
hīɣ
man
dɯlʲ
child
usinsʲ-as
blanket-INSTR
d-ət-o-ɣ-o-m-n-e
3SG.M.SBJ-on-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-TH-PST-put.MOM
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(5)
Hīɣ eɣin ulʲasʲ dutomsin.
hīɣ
man
eɣin
dipper
ulʲ-asʲ
water-INSTR
d-ut-o-b-in-sin
3SG.M.SBJ-full-PST-3INAN.OBJ-PST-cause.to.become
‘The man filled the dipper with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(6)
Hīɣ īsʲ súùlʲdiŋa desoŋondaq.
hīɣ
man
īsʲ
fish
súùlʲ-diŋa
hand.sled-INAN.DAT
d-es-oŋ-o-n-daq
3SG.M.SBJ-into_the_open-3PL.ANIM.OBJ-PST-PST-put.MOM
‘The man loaded the fish on the hand sled.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(7)
Hīɣ sèlʲ oksʲdaŋa daŋaɣina.
hīɣ
man
sèlʲ
reindeer
oksʲ-daŋa
tree-M.DAT
d-aŋ-a-ɣ-in-a
3SG.M.SBJ-rope-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-put.MOM
‘The man tied the deer to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(8)
Hīɣ eɣindiŋa ūlʲ datpijdaq.
hīɣ
man
eɣin-diŋa
dipper-INAN.DAT
ūlʲ
water
d-at-p-ij-daq
3SG.M.SBJ-by_pouring-3INAN.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The man poured the water into the dipper.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(9)
Hīɣ īsʲ lʲam dədiŋa desoŋondaq.
hīɣ
man
īsʲ
fish
lʲam
table
d-ət-diŋa
POSS.INAN-back-INAN.DAT
d-es-oŋ-on-daq
3SG.M.SBJ-into_the_open-3PL.ANIM.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The man put the fish on the table.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(10)
Hiɣdɯlʲ tɯˀsʲ okoškodiŋa deskomdaq.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
tɯˀsʲ
stone
okoško-diŋa
window-INAN.DAT
d-es-k-om-daq
3SG.M.SBJ-into_the_open-TH-3INAN.OBJ/PST-put.MOM
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(11)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋa daiːmbes.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋa
teach-person-M.DAT
ra-ik-u-k-in-bes
3SG.F.SBJ-here-3INAN.OBJ-TH-PST-move.MOM
‘The girl brought the book to the teacher (once).’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 2 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(12)
Qimdɯlʲ rataŋgimne.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
ra-taŋ-g-i-m-n-e
3SG.F.SBJ-drag-TH-EV-3INAN.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The girl dragged it.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(13)
Ulolta.
ul-ol-ta
water-PST-fall
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(14)
Dɯlʲ ovɯlʲd qoʁot.
dɯlʲ
child
o-vɯlʲ-d(e)
PST-be\PST-STEM
qoʁot
hunger
‘The boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(15)
Hiɣdɯlʲ dontəːl.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
d-on-tə:l
3SG.M.SBJ-PST-freeze
‘The boy froze.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(16)
Hīɣ baŋdiŋa hɯta (t)tolaraq.
hīɣ
man
baŋ-diŋa
ground-INAN.DAT
hɯta
down
(t)-t-ol-a-raq
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-3SG.M.SBJ-fall
‘The man fell to the ground.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(17)
Keˀt duno.
keˀt
person
du-n-qo
3SG.M.SBJ-PST-die
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(18)
Āb həŋn aratn.
āb
1POSS
həŋn
arm
ar-a-tn
be_sick-PRES-undergo
‘My arm hurts (me).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 V
(19)
Hiɣdɯlʲ dbilil.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
d-b-il-il
3SG.M.SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-PST-sing
‘The boy sang (it).’
SING a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].obj[2].V
(20)
Hiɣdɯlʲ eŋŋuŋga doldaq.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
eŋŋuŋ-ga
village-LOC
d-ol-daq
3SG.M.SBJ-PST-live
‘The boy lived in the village.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(21)
Hiɣdɯlʲ eŋŋuŋdiŋalʲ oɣon.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
eŋŋuŋ-diŋalʲ
village-INAN.ABL
o-ɣ-o-(t)n
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-go
‘The boy went (from the village).’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 2-abl subj[1].V
(22)
Hīɣ baŋga tsesolte.
hīɣ
man
baŋ-ga
ground-LOC
t-ses-ol-te
3SG.M.SBJ-place-PST-be.put
‘The man sat on the ground.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(23)
Hīɣ baŋdiŋa tkonaɣən.
hīɣ
man
baŋ-diŋa
ground-INAN.DAT
t-k-on-a-ɣən
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-3SG.M.SBJ-sit_down
‘The man sat down on the ground.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(24)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋa školadiŋa daeraqimne.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋa
teach-person-M.DAT
škola-diŋa
school-INAN.DAT
da-era-q-im-n-e
3SG.F.SBJ-send-CAUS-3INAN.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher to school.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 2 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(25)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatket daovijaq.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket
teach-person
da-o-v-ij-aq
3SG.F.SBJ-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-give
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(26)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋa raɯtkimna.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋa
teach-person-M.DAT
ra-ɯt-k-im-n-a
3SG.F.SBJ-visible-TH-3INAN.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The girl showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 2 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(27)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋalʲ rauddeiŋuɣolvet.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋalʲ
teach-person-M.ABL
ra-uddeiŋ-u-ɣ-ol-vet
3SG.F.SBJ-steal-3INAN.OBJ-TH-PST-ITER
‘The girl stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(28)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋalʲ dakajnem.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋalʲ
teach-person-M.ABL
da-kaj-n-em
3SG.F.SBJ-take_object-PST-take
‘The girl took the book from the teacher.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-abl) subj[1].obj[2].V
(29)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲa siraɣatketdaŋalʲ ragimna.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa
book
siraɣat-ket-daŋalʲ
teach-person-M.ABL
ra-gi-m-n-a
3SG.F.SBJ-hide-3INAN.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The girl hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(30)
Qimdɯlʲ eslʲadiŋalʲ eslit lʲamt kəma raqətejula.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
eslʲa-diŋalʲ
book-INAN.ABL
esli-t
book-POSS
lʲamt
piece
kəma
away
ra-qətej-u-l-a
3SG.F.SBJ-yank-3INAN.OBJ-PST-MOM
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(31)
Qimdɯlʲ lamd ətdiŋalʲ sʲīn kəma raovilvet.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
lam-d
table-POSS
ət-diŋalʲ
back-INAN.ABL
sʲīn
dirt
kəma
away
ra-o-v-il-vet
3SG.F.SBJ-PST-3INAN.OBJ-PST-wipe
‘The girl wiped the dirt off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-abl) subj[1].obj[2].V
(32)
Hiɣdɯlʲ naˀnʲ donasʲ tkomna.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
naˀnʲ
bread
don-asʲ
knife-INSTR
t-k-o-m-n-a
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-3INAN.OBJ-PST-cut
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(33)
Hiɣdɯlʲ tìɣ oksʲasʲ dnoldəj.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
tìɣ
snake
oksʲ-asʲ
stick-INSTR
d-n-o-l-dəj
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-3SG.M.OBJ-PST-touch
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(34)
Hiɣdɯlʲ tìɣ oksʲas doviltet.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
tìɣ
snake
oksʲ-as
stick-INSTR
d-o-v-il-tet
3SG.M.SBJ-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-hit
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(35)
Hiɣdɯlʲ tìɣ oksʲas tharondo.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
tìɣ
snake
oksʲ-as
stick-INSTR
t-har-o-n-do
3SG.M.SBJ-area-3M.SG.OBJ-PST-beat
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(36)
Hiɣdɯlʲ tìɣ oksʲas daʁaj.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
tìɣ
snake
oksʲ-as
stick-INSTR
d-a-ʁ-aj
3SG.M.SBJ-3SG.M.OBJ-PST-kill
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(37)
Hiɣdɯlʲ okoško tɯsʲas dilunbet.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
okoško
window
tɯsʲ-as
stone-INSTR
d-il-u-k-in-bed
3SG.M.SBJ-small.piece-3SG.INAN.OBJ-TH-PST-make
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(38)
Hīɣ iʁus dubbet (aqdiŋalʲ).
hīɣ
man
iʁus
house
du-b-bed
3SG.M.SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-make
aq-diŋalʲ
wood.PL-INAN.ABL
‘The man builds a house out of wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-abl) subj[1].obj[2].V
(39)
kарр’ да'ңа барä: “?едди”.
Qarʲ da'ŋa bara: eddi.
qarʲ
DEM.M
da'ŋa
3SG.M.DAT
bara
3M.SG.say
ed-di
alive-1SG
‘He said to him: "I’m alive".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 (2-dat) subj[1].V UTT3
(40)
Hīɣ qimdɯldiŋa desolej.
hīɣ
man
qim-dɯl-diŋa
woman-child-F.DAT
d-es-ol-ej
3SG.M.SBJ-out-PST-call
‘The man shouted at the girl.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 2-dat subj[1].V
(41)
Hīɣ qimdɯldiŋa asʲkət (t)tovinge.
hīɣ
man
qim-dɯl-diŋa
woman-child-F.DAT
asʲkət
fairy_tale
t-t-o-v-in-ge
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-3INAN.OBJ-PST-tell
‘The man told a fairytale to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 2 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(42)
Hiɣdɯlʲ hiɣdaŋalʲ qəmtəŋ esʲaŋ tsilaq.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
hiɣ-daŋalʲ
man-M.ABL
qəmtəŋ
money
esʲaŋ
for
t-si-l-aq
3SG.M.SBJ-ask-PST-STEM
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 (2-abl) (3-transl) subj[1].V
(43)
Hīɣ hiɣdɯlasʲ qimdil dasanolʁan.
hīɣ
man
hiɣ-dɯl-asʲ
man-child-INSTR
qim-dɯl
woman-child
d-asqan-i-ɣ-ol-kan
3SG.M.SBJ-words-3F.SG.OBJ-TH-PST-speak
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 2-instr 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(44)
Hīɣ dɯlda qoŋ inam italam.
hīɣ
man
dɯl-da
child-POSS.M
qoŋ
image
inam
long_ago
it-a-l-am
know-3SG.M.SBJ-PST-STEM
‘The man knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].V
(45)
Hīɣ hiɣdɯlʲ datoloŋ.
hīɣ
man
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
d-a-t-ol-oŋ
3SG.M.SBJ-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-PST-see
‘The man saw the boy.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(46)
Hiɣə daniŋlʲebet ture dɯldat.
hiɣə
man
d-aniŋ-lʲe-bet
3SG.M.SBJ-think-PST-ITER
ture
DEM.M
dɯl-dat
child-M.SG.ADESS
‘The man thought about that boy.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 2-adess subj[1].V
(47)
Hīɣ hiɣdɯlʲda tān dbuŋloq.
hīɣ
man
hiɣ-dɯlʲ-da
man-child-POSS.M
tān
toward
d-bu-ŋ-l-oq
3SG.M.SBJ-3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-look
‘The man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 2-poss+tān subj[1].V
(48)
Hīɣ hiɣdɯlʲ dqoranqone.
hīɣ
man
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
d-qoraŋ-q-o-n-e
3SG.M.SBJ-fright-CAUS-3SG.M.OBJ-PST-put.MOM
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(49)
Hiɣdɯlʲ hiɣdaŋalʲ dbutolok.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
hiɣ-daŋalʲ
man-M.ABL
d-bu-t-ol-ok
3SG.M.SBJ-3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-shiver
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 2-abl subj[1].V
(50)
Hiɣdɯlʲdaŋa hīɣ daqtoɣon.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ-daŋa
man-child-M.DAT
hīɣ
man
d-aqt-o-ʁon
3SG.M.SBJ-good-PST-be.INCEPT
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2-dat subj[1].V
(51)
Hīɣ hiɣdɯlʲdaŋt tsaŋlevet.
hīɣ
man
hiɣ-dɯlʲ-daŋt
man-child-M.ADESS
t-saŋ-le-vet
3SG.M.SBJ-search-PST-ITER
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 2-adess subj[1].V
(52)
Hīɣ qīm (du)sukbulotin.
hīɣ
man
qīm
woman
du-suk-bu-k-il-ot-in
3ANIM.SBJ-meet-3ANIM.SBJ-TH-PST-go-SBJ.PL
‘The man and the woman met.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].rfl/sbj[2].V
(53)
Hīɣ qīmd oŋta qolʲepka eiŋ aɣoɣon.
hīɣ
man
qīm-d
woman-POSS
oŋta
back
qolʲep-ka
side-LOC
eiŋ
go
a-ɣ-o-ʁon
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-INCEPT
‘The man followed the woman.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].V
(54)
Hīɣ qīm posovatuɣolbet.
hīɣ
man
qīm
woman
du-posovat-u-ɣ-ol-bet
3SG.M.SBJ-help-3SG.F.OBJ-TH-PST-ITER
‘The man helped the woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(55)
Qimdɯlʲ dɯlʲ daolsa.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
dɯlʲ
child
da-o-l-sa
3SG.F.SBJ-3SG.M.OBJ-PST-dress
‘The girl dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(56)
Qimdɯlʲ dɯlʲ dauldolaŋ.
qim-dɯlʲ
woman-child
dɯlʲ
child
da-ul-d-o-l-gaŋ
3SG.F.SBJ-water-TH-3SG.M.OBJ-PST-wash
‘The girl washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(57)
Hīɣ qaqtemerolbet.
hīɣ
man
du-qaqtemer-ol-bed
3SG.M.SBJ-cough-PST-make
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(58)
Hīɣ qaˀj tosʲa tkonut.
hīɣ
man
qaˀj
hill
tosʲa
up
t-k-on-qut
3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-go
‘The man climbed up the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(59)
Dɯlʲ baŋbesʲ toqtetoɣon.
dɯlʲ
child
baŋ-besʲ
ground-PROS
toqtet-o-ɣ-o-(t)n
run-3SG.M.SBJ-TH-PST-go
‘The child ran (on the floor).’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(60)
Dɯlʲ deŋolbet.
dɯlʲ
child
d-eŋ-ol-bed
3SG.M.SBJ-jump-PST-make
‘The child jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(61)
Hiɣdɯlʲ (kulʲtaɣa) dətoɣon.
hiɣ-dɯlʲ
man-child
kulʲta-ɣa
road-LOC
d-ət-o-qon
3SG.M.SBJ-visible-PST-INCEPT
‘The boy appeared (on the road).’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(62)
Buŋ dɯlgat thataŋɔŋsivetn.
buŋ
3PL
dɯlgat
children
t-hataŋ-ɔŋ-k-si-bed-n
3SBJ-press-3PL.OBJ-TH-PRES-make-ANIM.PL.SBJ
‘They hug the children.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(63)
Hīɣ isnadiŋal ditit.
hīɣ
man
is-na-diŋal
fish-POSS.ANIM.PL-ABL
d-it-it
3SG.M.SBJ-smell-sense
‘The man smells the fish. / The man catches the scent of the fish.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 2-abl subj[1].V
(64)
Hīɣ dakūˑl tkava.
hīɣ
man
da-kūˑl
3SG.M.POSS-beard
t-k-a-v-a
3SBJ-off-PRES-3INAN.OBJ-shave
‘The man shaves his beard.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-instr) subj[1].obj[2].V
(65)
Āˑm hiɣdɯl daesaɣej.
āˑm
mother
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
da-es-a-ɣ-ej
3SG.F.SBJ-out-3SG.M.OBJ-TH-call
‘The mother calls the boy.’
CALL a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(66)
Āˑm dēˑs daimoltijtsa.
āˑm
mother
da-imoltij-bu-t-s-a
3SG.F.SBJ-blink-3SBJ.RFLX-TH-PRES-make
‘Mother blinks.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(67)
Kʌjdɛŋ sesdiŋa ɔŋɔn.
kʌj-dɛŋ
hunting-people
ses-diŋa
river-INAN.ADESS
ɔŋ-k-ɔn-den
3ANIM.SBJ-TH-PST-go
‘The hunters went to the river.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(68)
Āˑm dadaʁɔlij.
āˑm
mother
da-daʁ-ɔl-ij
3SG.F.SBJ-laugh-PST-ITER
‘Mother laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(69)
Āˑm daesij.
āˑm
mother
da-es-ej
3SG.F.SBJ-out-shout
‘Mother is shouting (out).’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(70)
Dɯlgat danisten.
dɯlgat
children
d-an-is-de-n
3SBJ-mind-PRES-occupy-ANIM.PL.SBJ
‘Children are playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(71)
Hiɣdɯl daŋsivet.
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
d-aŋ-si-bed
3SG.M.SBJ-negative.feeling-PRES-make
‘The boy is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(72)
Bāˑɣ kivatiŋ.
bāˑɣ
log
k-i-b-a-tiŋ
down-PRES-3INAN.SBJ-INTRANS-roll
‘A log is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(73)
Qīˑm daulolon.
qīˑm
woman
da-ul-ol-qan
3SG.F.SBJ-wet-PST-become
‘The woman sank. / The woman drowned.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(74)
Bɔˀk inaʁavʁan.
bɔˀk
fire
inaq-a-b-qan
burn-PRES-3INAN.SBJ-begin
‘Fire burns. / Fire begins to burn.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(75)
Baˀŋ tɔʁɔjiŋam.
baˀŋ
ground
tɔʁɔjiŋ-am
dry-3INAN.SBJ.PRED.AGR
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 V
(76)
Bōˑp kʌjket ovɯldu.
b-ōˑp
my-father
kʌj-ket
hunting-person
ovɯl-du
be\PST-3.MASC.SG
‘My father was a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(77)
At talɯn diptet.
at
1SG
talɯn
flour
di-b-ted
1SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-grind
‘I grind flour.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(78)
At tirʌŋ dugdavut.
ad
1SG
tid-ʌŋ
root-PL
d-u-gd-a-v-qut
1SG.SBJ-3INAN.OBJ-TH-PRES-TH-dig
‘I dig roots.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(79)
Āˑm hiɣdɯl dateːlajt.
āˑm
mother
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
da-teːl-aj-t
3SG.F.SBJ-shove-3SG.M.OBJ-do.once
‘The mother pushes the boy.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) subj[1].obj[2].V
(80)
Qīˑm dɯlgat dasiraqqaŋit.
qīˑm
woman
dɯlgat
children
da-siraq-q-aŋ-t
3SG.F.SBJ-teach-into-3ANIM.PL.OBJ-put.MOM
‘The woman teaches the children.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(81)
At uɣil qaan baɣabda.
at
1SG
uɣ-il
2SG-ABL
qaan
words
ba-ɣ-a-b-da
1SG.SBJ-TH-PRES-TH-hear
‘I hear you. / I hear your words.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(82)
Āˑm aːl daənɢivit.
āˑm
mother
aːl
soup
da-ən-q-i-b-t
3SG.F.SBJ-cook-into-PRES-3INAN.OBJ-put.MOM
‘Mother cooks soup.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(83)
Aːl uɣaʁan.
aːl
soup
u-k-a-qan
3INAN.SBJ-TH-PRES-boil
‘The soup is boiling. / The soup is cooking.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(84)
Qīˑm bāˑɣ dakiptiŋ.
qīˑm
woman
bāˑɣ
log
da-k-i-b-tiŋ
3SG.F.SBJ-TH-PRES-3INAN.OBJ-roll
‘The woman rolls a log.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative
(85)
Isqo keˀt daŋbuːna.
isqo
fishing
keˀt
man
d-aŋ-bu-k-in-a
3SG.M.SBJ-tie-3SBJ.RFLX-TH-PST-put.MOM
‘The fisherman tethered himself.’
TIE an Alternation:
Reflexive/Reciprocal Alternation
(86)
Thataŋbuksivetn.
t-hataŋ-bu-k-si-bed-n
3SBJ-close-3SBJ.RFLX-TH-PRES-make-ANIM.PL.SBJ
‘They hug each other. / They hug themselves.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reflexive/Reciprocal Alternation
(87)
Isqo deˀŋ daŋbuːnan.
isqo
fishing
deˀŋ
people
d-aŋ-bu-k-in-a-n
3SBJ-tie-3SBJ.RFLX-TH-PST-put.MOM-ANIM.PL.SBJ
‘The fishermen tethered each other.’
TIE an Alternation:
Reflexive/Reciprocal Alternation
(88)
Keˀt tsuna.
keˀt
person
t-sun-a
3SBJ-hazel.grouse-eat
‘The person is eating grouse meat.’
EAT an Alternation:
Incorporation
(89)
Āˑm hiɣdɯl dadaqqajit.
āˑm
mother
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
da-daq-q-aj-t
3SG.F.SBJ-laugh-CAUS-3SG.M.OBJ-do.once
‘The mother causes the boy to start laughing (once).’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(90)
Āˑm hiɣdɯl dadaqqajda.
āˑm
mother
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
da-daq-q-aj-da
3SG.F.SBJ-laugh-CAUS-3SG.M.OBJ-ITER
‘The mother causes the boy to start laughing (regularly).’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(91)
Ad eŋqoŋ diksives.
ad
1SG
eŋqoŋ
today
d-ik-si-bes
1SG-into.open.space-PRES-pass
‘I come today.’
COME (1) a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(92)
Ad op eŋqoŋ diɣoksives.
ad
1SG
op
father
eŋqoŋ
today
d-ik-o-k-si-bes
1SG-into.open.space-3.MASC.OBJ-with/TH-PRES-pass
‘I come with (=bring) father today.’
COME (1) an Alternation:
Comitative Alternation
(93)
Lʲa’m abəbed.
lʲa’m
table
a-b-ə-bed
PRES-3INAN.SBJ-RES-wipe
‘The table is wiped off.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Resultative
(94)
At lʲa’m dabbet.
ad
1SG
lʲa’m
table
d-a-b-bed
1.SBJ-PRES-3INAN.SBJ-wipe
‘I wiped the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2 (3-abl) subj[1].obj[2].V
(95)
Hīɣdɯlʲ tiɣdaŋal tqoranejolbet.
hīɣ
boy
dɯlʲ
child
tiɣ-daŋal
snake-MASC.SG:ABL
t-qoranej-ol-bed
3SBJ-fear-PST-make
‘The boy was afraid of the snake.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 2-abl subj[1].V