Alternations of Ket

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y Alternation between transitive verb with subject/object marking and intransitive verb with multi-site subject marking and/or intransitivizing affix. Sometimes the intransitivizing affix has merged with the verb base to create suppletive or partial suppletive bases in Modern Ket. This alternation could also be referred to as "Ambitransitive". 10
C
y Replacement of verb-internal object marker with second subject marker. Additionally, many verbs add intransitive affix of some sort, or show verb base suppletion or partial suppletion (often due historically to merger with intransitivizing affix).
Reciprocal meanings only occur with PL forms.
(86)
Thataŋbuksivetn.
t-hataŋ-bu-k-si-bed-n
3SBJ-close-3SBJ.RFLX-TH-PRES-make-ANIM.PL.SBJ
‘They hug each other. / They hug themselves.’
17
C
y Theme- or instrument-role noun is incorporated into a transitive verb stem, resulting in an intransitive stem. This process is highly lexicalized and only productive with a small handful of basic stems, most of which do not happen to be in the database. The verb 'eat' incorporates theme-role objects, while the verb 'hit' incorporates instrument-role NPs only.
(88)
Keˀt tsuna.
keˀt
person
t-sun-a
3SBJ-hazel.grouse-eat
‘The person is eating grouse meat.’
2
C
y An intransitive stative verb is derived from a transitive. The intransitive conveys the existence of the state that came into being as a result of the transitive action.
(93)
Lʲa’m abəbed.
lʲa’m
table
a-b-ə-bed
PRES-3INAN.SBJ-RES-wipe
‘The table is wiped off.’
32
C
y A causative transitive verb is derived from an intransitive (rarely, from a transitive). The causative in Ket also typically refers to the inception of action and has separate single-action and multiple-action stems, differing in their base structure and tense-mood marking prefix.
The causative is only available with verbs that have an infinitive form, because the infinitive is incorporated into the causative.
(89)
Āˑm hiɣdɯl dadaqqajit.
āˑm
mother
hiɣ-dɯl
man-child
da-daq-q-aj-t
3SG.F.SBJ-laugh-CAUS-3SG.M.OBJ-do.once
‘The mother causes the boy to start laughing (once).’
16
C
y Intransitive motion verbs become transitive with the inclusion of an object agreement slot followed by the thematic consonant k. None of the basic stems in the database generate this alternation, though the verb BRING is a derivative of it (from the more basic verb COME).
(92)
Ad op eŋqoŋ diɣoksives.
ad
1SG
op
father
eŋqoŋ
today
d-ik-o-k-si-bes
1SG-into.open.space-3.MASC.OBJ-with/TH-PRES-pass
‘I come with (=bring) father today.’
1