kowagaraseru

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The verb kowagaraseru is the causative of kowagaru 'fear' in item 12. Both predicates take two core arguments syntactically, but their realization patterns are different. Semantically, the causative kowagaraseru can select the causer of emotion/agent, experiencer, and the target of emotion, the non-causative kowagaru, experiencer and target of emotion.

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Example

(13)
Kuma-ga kodomo-o kowagar-ase-ta.
kuma-ga
bear-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-caus-past
‘The bear frightened the child.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# FRIGHTEN Coding set Argument type
1 frightener NP-nom A
2 frightenee NP-acc P

Alternations