Examples of Japanese (standard)

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Ken-ga gohan-o tabe-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gohan-o
rice-acc
tabe-ta
eat-past
‘Ken ate the rice.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(2)
Uma-ga hasi-ru.
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-ru
run-pres
‘The horse runs.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(3)
Mari-ga sensei-ni syasin-o mise-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Mari showed pictures to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(4)
Sensei-ga syasin-o mise-rare-ta.
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-rare-ta
show-pass-past
‘The teacher was shown a picture.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Direct Passivization Promoting Ni-marked Argument
(5)
Okaasan-ga tiisai kodomo-o dakisime-ta.
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
tiisai
little
kodomo-o
child-acc
dakisime-ta
hug-past
‘Mother hugged her little child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(6)
Mari-ga kabin-o kowasi-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kabin-o
vase-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Mary broke the vase.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(7)
Booru-ga korogat-ta.
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-ta
roll-past
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(8)
Ken-ga koppu-ni mizu-o mitasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
koppu-ni
cup-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
mitasi-ta
fill-past
‘Ken filled water into the cup.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(9)
Ken-ga Mari-o mi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-o
Mari-acc
mi-ta
look-past
‘Ken looked at Mari./Ken saw Mari.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(10)
Otoko-ni kuma-ga mie-ta.
otoko-ni
man-dat
kuma-ga
bear-nom
mie-ta
see-past
‘The man saw the bear.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-dat 2-nom V
(11)
Kuma-ga syoonen-no nioi-o kai-da.
kuma-ga
bear-nom
syoonen-no
boy-gen
nioi-o
smell-acc
kai-da
sniff-past
‘The bear sniffed the boy.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(12)
Kodomo-ga kuma-o kowagat-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
kuma-o
bear-acc
kowagat-ta
fear-past
‘The child feared the bear.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(13)
Kuma-ga kodomo-o kowagar-ase-ta.
kuma-ga
bear-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-caus-past
‘The bear frightened the child.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(14)
Kodomo-ga omotya-o ki-ni-it-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
omotya-o
toy-acc
ki-ni-it-ta
mind-loc-enter-past
‘The child liked the toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(15)
Syoonen-ga syoozyo-o sit-te i-ru.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
sit-te
know-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The boy knows the girl.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(16)
Syoozyo-ga sono-koto-o kangae-ta.
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
kangae-ta
think-past
‘The girl thought about that matter.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(17)
Dansei-ga zyosei-o sagasi-ta.
dansei-ga
man-nom
zyosei-o
woman-acc
sagasi-ta
search-past
‘The man searched for the woman.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(18)
Ken-ga osara-o arat-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
osara-o
plate-acc
arat-ta
wash-past
‘Ken washed the plates.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(19)
Okaasan-ga musume-ni huku-o kise-ta.
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
musume-ni
daughter-dat
huku-o
clothes-acc
kise-ta
dress-past
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(20)
Otoko-ga hige-o sot-ta.
otoko-ga
man-nom
hige-o
beard-acc
sot-ta
shave-past
‘The man shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(21)
Watasi-ga kodomo-o tetudat-ta.
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
tetudat-ta
help-past
‘I helped the child.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(22)
Kodomo-ga otona-no ato-ni tuzui-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
otona-no
adult-gen
ato-ni
back-loc
tuzui-ta
follow-past
‘The children followed the adults.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(23)
Ken-ga Mari-ni at-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
at-ta
meet-past
‘Ken met Mari.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(24)
Ken-ga Mari-ni sono-koto-o hanasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked to Mari about that matter.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(25)
Ken-ga Mari-ni tasuke-o motome-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
tasuke-o
help-acc
motome-ta
ask-past
‘Ken asked Mari for her help.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(26)
Zyosei-ga kodomo-ni (nanika-o) saken-da.
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
nanika-o
something-acc
saken-da
shout-past
‘The woman shouted (something) at the child.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(27)
Ken-ga Mari-ni sinzitu-o tuge-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sinzitu-o
truth-acc
tuge-ta
tell-past
‘Ken told Mari the truth.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(28)
Ken-ga Mari-ni "hai." to it-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
hai
yes
to
quot
it-ta
say-past
‘Ken said "Yes." to Mari.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat UTT3 V
(29)
Ken-ga sono-ko-o Mari-to yon-da.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-ko-o
that-child-acc
Mari-to
Mari-quot
yon-da
call-past
‘Ken called that child Mari.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-quot V
(30)
Otoko-tati-ga (ki-de) ie-o tate-ta.
otoko-tati-ga
man-pl-nom
ki-de
wood-instr
ie-o
house-acc
tate-ta
build-past
‘The men build the house (out of wood).’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(31)
Ken-ga (hanmaa-de) mado-o kowasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
hanmaa-de
hammer-instr
mado-o
window-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Ken broke the window (with a hammer).’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(32)
Syoonen-ga (satyuuzai-de) ka-o korosi-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
satyuuzai-de
insecticide-instr
ka-o
mosquito-acc
korosi-ta
kill-past
‘The boy killed the mosquitos (with the insecticide).’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(33)
Kodomo-ga (boo-de) hebi-o tatai-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
hebi-o
snake-acc
tatai-ta
beat-past
‘The child beat the snake (with a stick).’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(34)
Syoonen-ga (boo-de) kabe-o tatai-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
kabe-o
wall-acc
tatai-ta
hit-past
‘The boy hit the wall (with a stick).’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(35)
Syoonen-ga kaeru-o sawat-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kaeru-o
frog-acc
sawat-ta
touch-past
‘The boy touched the frog.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(36)
Okaasan-ga (naifu-de) pan-o kit-ta.
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
naifu-de
knife-instr
pan-o
bread-acc
kit-ta
cut-past
‘Mother cut the bread (with a knife).’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(37)
Otoko-ga tomodati-kara okane-o tot-ta.
otoko-ga
man-nom
tomodati-kara
friend-abl
okane-o
money-acc
tot-ta
take-past
‘The man took money from the friend.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(38)
Kodomo-ga hon-no peezi-o yabut-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-no
book-gen
peezi-o
page-acc
yabut-ta
tear-past
‘The child tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(39)
Kodomo-ga hon-o kakusi-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-o
book-acc
kakusi-ta
hide-past
‘The child hid the book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(40)
Ken-ga sensei-ni syasin-o mise-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Ken showed pictures to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(41)
Oya-ga kodomo-ni hon-o atae-ta.
oya-ga
parent-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
hon-o
book-acc
atae-ta
give-past
‘The parents gave the child the book.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(42)
Ken-ga Mari-ni tegami-o okut-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-loc
tegami-o
letter-acc
okut-ta
send-past
‘Ken sent Mari the letter.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(43)
Ken-ga itiba-ni hako-o hakon-da.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
hako-o
box-acc
hakon-da
carry-past
‘Ken carried the boxes to the market.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(44)
Syoonen-ga booru-o mado-ni nage-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
booru-o
ball-acc
mado-ni
window-loc
nage-ta
throw-past
‘The boy threw the ball to the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(45)
Otoko-ga (roopu-de) ki-ni uma-o tunai-da.
otoko-ga
man-nom
roopu-de
rope-instr
ki-ni
tree-loc
uma-o
horse-acc
tunai-da
tie-past
‘The man tied a horse to the tree (with a rope).’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-loc 4-acc V
(46)
Watasi-ga teeburu-ni kappu-o oi-ta.
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
teeburu-ni
table-loc
kappu-o
cup-acc
oi-ta
put-past
‘I put the cup on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(47)
Ken-ga gurasu-ni mizu-o sosoi-da.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gurasu-ni
glass-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
sosoi-da
pour-past
‘Ken poured water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(48)
Ken-ga akatyan-o nuno-de kurun-da.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
akatyan-o
baby-acc
nuno-de
cloth-instr
kurun-da
cover-past
‘Ken covered the baby with a cloth.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-instr) 3-acc V
(49)
Noohu-ga torakku-ni hosikusa-o tun-da.
noohu-ga
farmer-nom
torakku-ni
truck-loc
hosikusa-o
hay-acc
tun-da
load-past
‘Ken loaded hay onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(50)
Mari-ga mabataki-o si-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
mabataki-o
blink-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘Mari blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(51)
Roozin-ga seki-o si-ta.
roozin-ga
old.man-nom
seki-o
cough-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(52)
Otoko-ga ki-o nobot-ta.
otoko-ga
man-nom
ki-o
tree-acc
nobot-ta
climb-past
‘The man climbed the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(53)
Uma-ga hasiy-te i-ru.
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-te
run-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The horse is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(54)
Kodomo-ga yuka-ni suwat-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
yuka-ni
floor-loc
suwat-ta
sit-past
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(55)
Kodomo-ga benti-ni kosi-o orosi-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
benti-ni
bench-loc
kosi-o
waist-acc
orosi-ta
lower-past
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(56)
Syoonen-ga tobiagat-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
tobiagat-ta
jump-past
‘The boy jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(57)
Syoozyo-ga (uta-o) utat-ta.
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
uta-o
song-acc
utat-ta
sing-past
‘The girl sang (a song).’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(58)
Zyosei-ga itiba-ni it-ta.
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
it-ta
go-past
‘The woman went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(59)
Syoonen-ga mura-o sat-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
mura-o
village-acc
sat-ta
leave-past
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(60)
Tomodati-ga Tokyo-ni sun-de i-ru.
tomodati-ga
friend-nom
Tokyo-ni
Tokyo-loc
sun-de
live-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The friend lives in Tokyo.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(61)
Mari-ga warat-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
warat-ta
laugh-past
‘Mari laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(62)
Otoko-ga sakebi-goe-o age-ta.
otoko-ga
man-nom
sakebi-goe-o
scream-voice-acc
age-ta
raise-past
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(63)
Watasi-ga onaka-ga itakat-ta.
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
itakat-ta
painful-past
‘I had a pain on my stomach.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(64)
Ken-ga samukat-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
samukat-ta
cold-past
‘Ken felt cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(65)
Musi-ga sin-da.
musi-ga
insect-nom
sin-da
die-past
‘The insects died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(66)
Kodomo-ga ason-de i-ru.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
ason-de
play-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(67)
Syoozyo-ga kanasikat-ta.
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
kanasikat-ta
sad-past
‘The girl was sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(68)
Akatyan-ga onaka-ga sui-te i-ru.
akatyan-ga
baby-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
sui-te
reduce-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(69)
Booru-ga korogat-te i-ru.
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-te
roll-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(70)
Hune-ga sizun-da.
hune-ga
boat-nom
sizun-da
sink-past
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(71)
Ie-ga moe-te i-ru.
ie-ga
house-nom
moe-te
burn-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(72)
Zimen-ga kawai-te i-ru.
zimen-ga
ground-nom
kawai-te
dry-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(73)
Ame-ga hut-ta.
ame-ga
rain-nom
hut-ta
fall-past
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(74)
Ano-hito-ga ryoosi-da.
ano-hito-ga
that-man-nom
ryoosi-da
hunter-cop
‘That man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(75)
Zyosei-ga komugi-o hii-ta.
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
komugi-o
wheat-acc
hii-ta
grind-past
‘The woman ground the wheat.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(76)
Mari-ga teeburu-no doro-o hukitot-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
teeburu-no
table-gen
doro-o
dirt-acc
hukitot-ta
wipe-past
‘Mari wiped dirt off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(77)
Zyosei-ga imo-o hot-te i-ru.
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
imo-o
potatoes-acc
hot-te
dig-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(78)
Syoonen-ga syoozyo-o osi-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
osi-ta
push-past
‘The boy pushed the girl.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(79)
Syoozyo-ga watasi-ni hana-o mot-te ki-ta.
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
watasi-ni
1.sg-loc
hana-o
flower-acc
mot-te
bring-ger
ki-ta
come-past
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc 3-acc V
(80)
Doroboo-ga roozin-kara okane-o nusun-da.
doroboo-ga
thief-nom
roozin-kara
old.man-abl
okane-o
money-acc
nusun-da
steal-past
‘The thief stole money from the old man.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(81)
Sensei-ga seito-ni suugaku-o osie-ta.
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
seito-ni
student-dat
suugaku-o
math-acc
osie-ta
teach-past
‘The teacher taught the students math.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(82)
Syoonen-ga kuma-no koe-o kii-ta.
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kuma-no
bear-gen
koe-o
voice-acc
kii-ta
hear-past
‘The boy heard the bear's voice.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(83)
Mari-ga (kodomo-no tame-ni) sakana-o ryoori-si-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kodomo-no
child-gen
tame-ni
benefit-dat
sakana-o
fish-acc
ryoori-si-ta
cook-do-past
‘Mari cooked the fish (for her child).’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(84)
Oyu-ga wai-ta.
oyu-ga
hot.water-nom
wai-ta
boil-past
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(85)
Uma-ga hasir-e-ru.
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasir-e-ru
run-pot-pres
‘The horse can run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Potential Formation
(86)
Mari-ga uta-o uta-u.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
uta-o
song-acc
uta-u
sing-pres
‘Mari sings a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(87)
Mari-ni uta-ga uta-e-ru.
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
uta-ga
song-nom
uta-e-ru
sing-pot-pres
‘Mari can sing a song.’
SING the Verb form utau
(88)
Syasin-ga sensei-ni mise-rare-ta.
syasin-ga
picture-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
mise-rare-ta
show-pass-past
‘Pictures were shown to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Direct Passivization Promoting O-marked argument
(89)
Kabin-ga koware-ta.
kabin-ga
vase-nom
koware-ta
break-past
‘The vase broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Argument-Decreasing Alternation
(90)
Ken-ga booru-o korogasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
booru-o
ball-acc
korogasi-ta
roll-past
‘Ken rolled the ball.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Argument-Increasing Alternation
(91)
Sensei-ga syashin-o mi-ta.
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
syasin-o
picture-acc
mi-ta
see-past
‘The teacher looked at the pictures. / The teacher saw the pictures.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(92)
Ken-kara Mary-ni tasuke-o motome-ru.
Ken-kara
Ken-abl
Mary-ni
Mary-dat
tasuke-o
help-acc
motome-ru
ask-pres
‘Ken asked Mary for her help.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Argument-Oblique Alternation
(93)
Ken-ga itiba-e hako-o hakon-da.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
itiba-e
market-dir
hako-o
box-acc
hakon-da
carry-past
‘Ken carried the boxes toward the market.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Argument-Oblique Alternation
(94)
Otoko-ga ki-ni nobot-ta.
otoko-ga
man-nom
ki-ni
tree-loc
nobot-ta
climb-past
‘The man climbed on the tree.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Argument-Oblique Alternation
(95)
Ken-ga Mari-to at-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-to
Mari-com
at-ta
meet-past
‘Ken met with Mari.’
MEET an Alternation:
Argument-Oblique Alternation
(96)
Ken-ga sono-koto-o hanasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked on that matter.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(97)
Ken-ga sono-koto-nituite hanasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-koto-nituite
that-matter-about
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked about that matter.’
TALK an Alternation:
Argument-Oblique Alternation
(98)
Ken-ga mizu-de koppu-o mitasi-ta.
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
mizu-de
water-instr
koppu-o
cup-acc
mitasi-ta
fill-past
‘Ken filled the cup with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Locative Alternation
(99)
Mari-ga ringo-no kawa-o mui-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-no
apple-gen
kawa-o
skin-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the skin off the apple.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(100)
Mari-ga ringo-o mui-ta.
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-o
apple-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the apple.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(101)
Sensei-ga seito-o osie-ta.
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
seito-o
student-acc
osie-ta
teach-past
‘The teacher taught the students.’
TEACH the Verb form osieru
(102)
Kodomo-ni omotya-ga ki-ni-it-ta.
kodomo-ni
child-dat
omotya-ga
toy-nom
ki-ni-it-ta
mind-loc-enter-past
‘The child liked the toy.’
LIKE the Verb form ki-ni-iru
(103)
Kodomo-ga omotya-ga ki-ni-it-ta.
kodomo-ga
child-nom
omotya-ga
toy-nom
ki-ni-it-ta
mind-loc-enter-past
‘The child liked the toy.’
LIKE the Verb form ki-ni-iru
(104)
Musume-ga huku-o ki-ta.
musume-ga
daughter-nom
huku-o
clothes-acc
ki-ta
put.on-past
‘The daughter put on the clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Argument-Decreasing Alternation