Argument-Oblique Alternation U

Description

Uncoded alternation; there is a variety of oblique markings, and the choice of oblique markers is largely determined by the thematic property of the argument.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
HUG dakisimeru N
(5)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
tiisai
little
kodomo-o
child-acc
dakisime-ta
hug-past
‘Mother hugged her little child.’
EAT taberu N
(1)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gohan-o
rice-acc
tabe-ta
eat-past
‘Ken ate the rice.’
LOOK AT miru N
(9)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-o
Mari-acc
mi-ta
look-past
‘Ken looked at Mari./Ken saw Mari.’
(91)
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
syasin-o
picture-acc
mi-ta
see-past
‘The teacher looked at the pictures. / The teacher saw the pictures.’
SEE mieru R
(10)
otoko-ni
man-dat
kuma-ga
bear-nom
mie-ta
see-past
‘The man saw the bear.’
SMELL nioi-o kagu N
(11)
kuma-ga
bear-nom
syoonen-no
boy-gen
nioi-o
smell-acc
kai-da
sniff-past
‘The bear sniffed the boy.’
FEAR kowagaru N
(12)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
kuma-o
bear-acc
kowagat-ta
fear-past
‘The child feared the bear.’
FRIGHTEN kowagaraseru N
(13)
kuma-ga
bear-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-caus-past
‘The bear frightened the child.’
LIKE ki-ni-iru N
(14)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
omotya-o
toy-acc
ki-ni-it-ta
mind-loc-enter-past
‘The child liked the toy.’
KNOW siru N
(15)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
sit-te
know-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The boy knows the girl.’
THINK kangaeru R
(16)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
kangae-ta
think-past
‘The girl thought about that matter.’
SEARCH FOR sagasu N
(17)
dansei-ga
man-nom
zyosei-o
woman-acc
sagasi-ta
search-past
‘The man searched for the woman.’
WASH arau N
(18)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
osara-o
plate-acc
arat-ta
wash-past
‘Ken washed the plates.’
DRESS kiseru N
(19)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
musume-ni
daughter-dat
huku-o
clothes-acc
kise-ta
dress-past
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) soru N
(20)
otoko-ga
man-nom
hige-o
beard-acc
sot-ta
shave-past
‘The man shaved his beard.’
HELP tetudau N
(21)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
tetudat-ta
help-past
‘I helped the child.’
FOLLOW ato-ni tuzuku N
(22)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
otona-no
adult-gen
ato-ni
back-loc
tuzui-ta
follow-past
‘The children followed the adults.’
MEET au R
(23)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
at-ta
meet-past
‘Ken met Mari.’
TALK hanasu R
(24)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked to Mari about that matter.’
(96)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked on that matter.’
ASK FOR motomeru R
(25)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
tasuke-o
help-acc
motome-ta
ask-past
‘Ken asked Mari for her help.’
SHOUT AT sakebu N
(26)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
nanika-o
something-acc
saken-da
shout-past
‘The woman shouted (something) at the child.’
TELL tugeru R
(27)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sinzitu-o
truth-acc
tuge-ta
tell-past
‘Ken told Mari the truth.’
SAY yuu R
(28)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
hai
yes
to
quot
it-ta
say-past
‘Ken said "Yes." to Mari.’
NAME yobu N
(29)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-ko-o
that-child-acc
Mari-to
Mari-quot
yon-da
call-past
‘Ken called that child Mari.’
BUILD tateru N
(30)
otoko-tati-ga
man-pl-nom
ki-de
wood-instr
ie-o
house-acc
tate-ta
build-past
‘The men build the house (out of wood).’
BREAK kowasu N
(6)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kabin-o
vase-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Mary broke the vase.’
(31)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
hanmaa-de
hammer-instr
mado-o
window-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Ken broke the window (with a hammer).’
KILL korosu N
(32)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
satyuuzai-de
insecticide-instr
ka-o
mosquito-acc
korosi-ta
kill-past
‘The boy killed the mosquitos (with the insecticide).’
BEAT tataku N
(33)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
hebi-o
snake-acc
tatai-ta
beat-past
‘The child beat the snake (with a stick).’
(34)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
kabe-o
wall-acc
tatai-ta
hit-past
‘The boy hit the wall (with a stick).’
TOUCH sawaru R
(35)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kaeru-o
frog-acc
sawat-ta
touch-past
‘The boy touched the frog.’
CUT kiru N
(36)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
naifu-de
knife-instr
pan-o
bread-acc
kit-ta
cut-past
‘Mother cut the bread (with a knife).’
TAKE toru N
(37)
otoko-ga
man-nom
tomodati-kara
friend-abl
okane-o
money-acc
tot-ta
take-past
‘The man took money from the friend.’
TEAR yaburu N
(38)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-no
book-gen
peezi-o
page-acc
yabut-ta
tear-past
‘The child tore the page from the book.’
PEEL muku N
(99)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-no
apple-gen
kawa-o
skin-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the skin off the apple.’
(100)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-o
apple-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the apple.’
HIDE kakusu N
(39)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-o
book-acc
kakusi-ta
hide-past
‘The child hid the book.’
SHOW miseru R
(3)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Mari showed pictures to the teacher.’
(40)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Ken showed pictures to the teacher.’
GIVE ataeru R
(41)
oya-ga
parent-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
hon-o
book-acc
atae-ta
give-past
‘The parents gave the child the book.’
SEND okuru R
(42)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-loc
tegami-o
letter-acc
okut-ta
send-past
‘Ken sent Mari the letter.’
CARRY hakobu R
(43)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
hako-o
box-acc
hakon-da
carry-past
‘Ken carried the boxes to the market.’
TIE tunagu N
(45)
otoko-ga
man-nom
roopu-de
rope-instr
ki-ni
tree-loc
uma-o
horse-acc
tunai-da
tie-past
‘The man tied a horse to the tree (with a rope).’
PUT oku N
(46)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
teeburu-ni
table-loc
kappu-o
cup-acc
oi-ta
put-past
‘I put the cup on the table.’
POUR sosogu N
(47)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gurasu-ni
glass-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
sosoi-da
pour-past
‘Ken poured water into the glass.’
COVER kurumu N
(48)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
akatyan-o
baby-acc
nuno-de
cloth-instr
kurun-da
cover-past
‘Ken covered the baby with a cloth.’
FILL mitasu N
(8)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
koppu-ni
cup-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
mitasi-ta
fill-past
‘Ken filled water into the cup.’
LOAD tumu R
(49)
noohu-ga
farmer-nom
torakku-ni
truck-loc
hosikusa-o
hay-acc
tun-da
load-past
‘Ken loaded hay onto the truck.’
BLINK mabataki-o suru N
(50)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
mabataki-o
blink-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘Mari blinked.’
COUGH seki-o suru N
(51)
roozin-ga
old.man-nom
seki-o
cough-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘The old man coughed.’
CLIMB noboru R
(52)
otoko-ga
man-nom
ki-o
tree-acc
nobot-ta
climb-past
‘The man climbed the tree.’
RUN hasiru N
(2)
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-ru
run-pres
‘The horse runs.’
(53)
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-te
run-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The horse is running.’
SIT suwaru N
(54)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
yuka-ni
floor-loc
suwat-ta
sit-past
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT DOWN kosi-o orosu N
(55)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
benti-ni
bench-loc
kosi-o
waist-acc
orosi-ta
lower-past
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
JUMP tobiagaru N
(56)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
tobiagat-ta
jump-past
‘The boy jumped.’
SING utau N
(57)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
uta-o
song-acc
utat-ta
sing-past
‘The girl sang (a song).’
(86)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
uta-o
song-acc
uta-u
sing-pres
‘Mari sings a song.’
GO iku R
(58)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
it-ta
go-past
‘The woman went to the market.’
LEAVE saru R
(59)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
mura-o
village-acc
sat-ta
leave-past
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE sumu N
(60)
tomodati-ga
friend-nom
Tokyo-ni
Tokyo-loc
sun-de
live-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The friend lives in Tokyo.’
LAUGH warau N
(61)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
warat-ta
laugh-past
‘Mari laughed.’
SCREAM sakebi-goe-o ageru N
(62)
otoko-ga
man-nom
sakebi-goe-o
scream-voice-acc
age-ta
raise-past
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN itai N
(63)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
itakat-ta
painful-past
‘I had a pain on my stomach.’
FEEL COLD samui N
(64)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
samukat-ta
cold-past
‘Ken felt cold.’
DIE sinu N
(65)
musi-ga
insect-nom
sin-da
die-past
‘The insects died.’
PLAY asobu N
(66)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
ason-de
play-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD kanasii N
(67)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
kanasikat-ta
sad-past
‘The girl was sad.’
BE HUNGRY onaka-ga suku N
(68)
akatyan-ga
baby-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
sui-te
reduce-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The baby is hungry.’
ROLL korogaru N
(7)
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-ta
roll-past
‘The ball rolled.’
(69)
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-te
roll-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ball is rolling.’
SINK sizumu N
(70)
hune-ga
boat-nom
sizun-da
sink-past
‘The boat sank.’
BURN moeru N
(71)
ie-ga
house-nom
moe-te
burn-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawaku N
(72)
zimen-ga
ground-nom
kawai-te
dry-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ground is dry.’
RAIN (ame-ga) huru N
(73)
ame-ga
rain-nom
hut-ta
fall-past
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
(74)
ano-hito-ga
that-man-nom
ryoosi-da
hunter-cop
‘That man is a hunter.’
GRIND hiku N
(75)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
komugi-o
wheat-acc
hii-ta
grind-past
‘The woman ground the wheat.’
WIPE hukitoru N
(76)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
teeburu-no
table-gen
doro-o
dirt-acc
hukitot-ta
wipe-past
‘Mari wiped dirt off the table.’
DIG horu N
(77)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
imo-o
potatoes-acc
hot-te
dig-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH osu N
(78)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
osi-ta
push-past
‘The boy pushed the girl.’
BRING mot-te kuru R
(79)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
watasi-ni
1.sg-loc
hana-o
flower-acc
mot-te
bring-ger
ki-ta
come-past
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
STEAL nusumu N
(80)
doroboo-ga
thief-nom
roozin-kara
old.man-abl
okane-o
money-acc
nusun-da
steal-past
‘The thief stole money from the old man.’
TEACH osieru R
(81)
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
seito-ni
student-dat
suugaku-o
math-acc
osie-ta
teach-past
‘The teacher taught the students math.’
HEAR kiku N
(82)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kuma-no
bear-gen
koe-o
voice-acc
kii-ta
hear-past
‘The boy heard the bear's voice.’
COOK ryoori-suru N
(83)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kodomo-no
child-gen
tame-ni
benefit-dat
sakana-o
fish-acc
ryoori-si-ta
cook-do-past
‘Mari cooked the fish (for her child).’
BOIL waku N
(84)
oyu-ga
hot.water-nom
wai-ta
boil-past
‘The water boiled.’
THROW nageru R
(44)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
booru-o
ball-acc
mado-ni
window-loc
nage-ta
throw-past
‘The boy threw the ball to the window.’