Argument-Increasing Alternation C

Description

Most typically coded alternation; some verbs alternate with no morphological change. Argument-increasing alternation involves a change from an intransitive to a transitive verb; sometimes from a transitive to a ditransitive verb. Here, the verb on the list is taken to be a base form, and its directionality does not necessarily reflect the actual morphological derivation.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
HUG dakisimeru N
(5)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
tiisai
little
kodomo-o
child-acc
dakisime-ta
hug-past
‘Mother hugged her little child.’
EAT taberu N
(1)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gohan-o
rice-acc
tabe-ta
eat-past
‘Ken ate the rice.’
LOOK AT miru N
(9)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-o
Mari-acc
mi-ta
look-past
‘Ken looked at Mari./Ken saw Mari.’
(91)
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
syasin-o
picture-acc
mi-ta
see-past
‘The teacher looked at the pictures. / The teacher saw the pictures.’
SEE mieru N
(10)
otoko-ni
man-dat
kuma-ga
bear-nom
mie-ta
see-past
‘The man saw the bear.’
SMELL nioi-o kagu N
(11)
kuma-ga
bear-nom
syoonen-no
boy-gen
nioi-o
smell-acc
kai-da
sniff-past
‘The bear sniffed the boy.’
FEAR kowagaru N
(12)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
kuma-o
bear-acc
kowagat-ta
fear-past
‘The child feared the bear.’
FRIGHTEN kowagaraseru N
(13)
kuma-ga
bear-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-caus-past
‘The bear frightened the child.’
LIKE ki-ni-iru N
(14)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
omotya-o
toy-acc
ki-ni-it-ta
mind-loc-enter-past
‘The child liked the toy.’
KNOW siru N
(15)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
sit-te
know-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The boy knows the girl.’
THINK kangaeru N
(16)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
kangae-ta
think-past
‘The girl thought about that matter.’
SEARCH FOR sagasu N
(17)
dansei-ga
man-nom
zyosei-o
woman-acc
sagasi-ta
search-past
‘The man searched for the woman.’
WASH arau N
(18)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
osara-o
plate-acc
arat-ta
wash-past
‘Ken washed the plates.’
DRESS kiseru N
(19)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
musume-ni
daughter-dat
huku-o
clothes-acc
kise-ta
dress-past
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) soru N
(20)
otoko-ga
man-nom
hige-o
beard-acc
sot-ta
shave-past
‘The man shaved his beard.’
HELP tetudau N
(21)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
kodomo-o
child-acc
tetudat-ta
help-past
‘I helped the child.’
FOLLOW ato-ni tuzuku N
(22)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
otona-no
adult-gen
ato-ni
back-loc
tuzui-ta
follow-past
‘The children followed the adults.’
MEET au N
(23)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
at-ta
meet-past
‘Ken met Mari.’
TALK hanasu N
(24)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked to Mari about that matter.’
(96)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-koto-o
that-matter-acc
hanasi-ta
talk-past
‘Ken talked on that matter.’
ASK FOR motomeru N
(25)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
tasuke-o
help-acc
motome-ta
ask-past
‘Ken asked Mari for her help.’
SHOUT AT sakebu N
(26)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
nanika-o
something-acc
saken-da
shout-past
‘The woman shouted (something) at the child.’
TELL tugeru N
(27)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
sinzitu-o
truth-acc
tuge-ta
tell-past
‘Ken told Mari the truth.’
SAY yuu N
(28)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-dat
hai
yes
to
quot
it-ta
say-past
‘Ken said "Yes." to Mari.’
NAME yobu N
(29)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sono-ko-o
that-child-acc
Mari-to
Mari-quot
yon-da
call-past
‘Ken called that child Mari.’
BUILD tateru N
(30)
otoko-tati-ga
man-pl-nom
ki-de
wood-instr
ie-o
house-acc
tate-ta
build-past
‘The men build the house (out of wood).’
BREAK kowasu N
(6)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kabin-o
vase-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Mary broke the vase.’
(31)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
hanmaa-de
hammer-instr
mado-o
window-acc
kowasi-ta
break-past
‘Ken broke the window (with a hammer).’
KILL korosu N
(32)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
satyuuzai-de
insecticide-instr
ka-o
mosquito-acc
korosi-ta
kill-past
‘The boy killed the mosquitos (with the insecticide).’
BEAT tataku N
(33)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
hebi-o
snake-acc
tatai-ta
beat-past
‘The child beat the snake (with a stick).’
(34)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
boo-de
stick-instr
kabe-o
wall-acc
tatai-ta
hit-past
‘The boy hit the wall (with a stick).’
TOUCH sawaru N
(35)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kaeru-o
frog-acc
sawat-ta
touch-past
‘The boy touched the frog.’
CUT kiru N
(36)
okaasan-ga
mother-nom
naifu-de
knife-instr
pan-o
bread-acc
kit-ta
cut-past
‘Mother cut the bread (with a knife).’
TAKE toru N
(37)
otoko-ga
man-nom
tomodati-kara
friend-abl
okane-o
money-acc
tot-ta
take-past
‘The man took money from the friend.’
TEAR yaburu N
(38)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-no
book-gen
peezi-o
page-acc
yabut-ta
tear-past
‘The child tore the page from the book.’
PEEL muku N
(99)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-no
apple-gen
kawa-o
skin-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the skin off the apple.’
(100)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
ringo-o
apple-acc
mui-ta
peel-past
‘Mari peeled the apple.’
HIDE kakusu N
(39)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
hon-o
book-acc
kakusi-ta
hide-past
‘The child hid the book.’
SHOW miseru N
(3)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Mari showed pictures to the teacher.’
(40)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
sensei-ni
teacher-dat
syasin-o
picture-acc
mise-ta
show-past
‘Ken showed pictures to the teacher.’
GIVE ataeru N
(41)
oya-ga
parent-nom
kodomo-ni
child-dat
hon-o
book-acc
atae-ta
give-past
‘The parents gave the child the book.’
SEND okuru N
(42)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
Mari-ni
Mari-loc
tegami-o
letter-acc
okut-ta
send-past
‘Ken sent Mari the letter.’
CARRY hakobu N
(43)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
hako-o
box-acc
hakon-da
carry-past
‘Ken carried the boxes to the market.’
TIE tunagu N
(45)
otoko-ga
man-nom
roopu-de
rope-instr
ki-ni
tree-loc
uma-o
horse-acc
tunai-da
tie-past
‘The man tied a horse to the tree (with a rope).’
PUT oku N
(46)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
teeburu-ni
table-loc
kappu-o
cup-acc
oi-ta
put-past
‘I put the cup on the table.’
POUR sosogu N
(47)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
gurasu-ni
glass-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
sosoi-da
pour-past
‘Ken poured water into the glass.’
COVER kurumu N
(48)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
akatyan-o
baby-acc
nuno-de
cloth-instr
kurun-da
cover-past
‘Ken covered the baby with a cloth.’
FILL mitasu N
(8)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
koppu-ni
cup-loc
mizu-o
water-acc
mitasi-ta
fill-past
‘Ken filled water into the cup.’
LOAD tumu N
(49)
noohu-ga
farmer-nom
torakku-ni
truck-loc
hosikusa-o
hay-acc
tun-da
load-past
‘Ken loaded hay onto the truck.’
BLINK mabataki-o suru N
(50)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
mabataki-o
blink-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘Mari blinked.’
COUGH seki-o suru N
(51)
roozin-ga
old.man-nom
seki-o
cough-acc
si-ta
do-past
‘The old man coughed.’
CLIMB noboru N
(52)
otoko-ga
man-nom
ki-o
tree-acc
nobot-ta
climb-past
‘The man climbed the tree.’
RUN hasiru N
(2)
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-ru
run-pres
‘The horse runs.’
(53)
uma-ga
horse-nom
hasi-te
run-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The horse is running.’
SIT suwaru N
(54)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
yuka-ni
floor-loc
suwat-ta
sit-past
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT DOWN kosi-o orosu N
(55)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
benti-ni
bench-loc
kosi-o
waist-acc
orosi-ta
lower-past
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
JUMP tobiagaru N
(56)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
tobiagat-ta
jump-past
‘The boy jumped.’
SING utau N
(57)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
uta-o
song-acc
utat-ta
sing-past
‘The girl sang (a song).’
(86)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
uta-o
song-acc
uta-u
sing-pres
‘Mari sings a song.’
GO iku N
(58)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
itiba-ni
market-loc
it-ta
go-past
‘The woman went to the market.’
LEAVE saru N
(59)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
mura-o
village-acc
sat-ta
leave-past
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE sumu N
(60)
tomodati-ga
friend-nom
Tokyo-ni
Tokyo-loc
sun-de
live-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The friend lives in Tokyo.’
LAUGH warau R
(61)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
warat-ta
laugh-past
‘Mari laughed.’
SCREAM sakebi-goe-o ageru N
(62)
otoko-ga
man-nom
sakebi-goe-o
scream-voice-acc
age-ta
raise-past
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN itai N
(63)
watasi-ga
1.sg-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
itakat-ta
painful-past
‘I had a pain on my stomach.’
FEEL COLD samui N
(64)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
samukat-ta
cold-past
‘Ken felt cold.’
DIE sinu N
(65)
musi-ga
insect-nom
sin-da
die-past
‘The insects died.’
PLAY asobu N
(66)
kodomo-ga
child-nom
ason-de
play-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD kanasii N
(67)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
kanasikat-ta
sad-past
‘The girl was sad.’
BE HUNGRY onaka-ga suku R
(68)
akatyan-ga
baby-nom
onaka-ga
stomach-nom
sui-te
reduce-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The baby is hungry.’
ROLL korogaru R
(7)
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-ta
roll-past
‘The ball rolled.’
(69)
booru-ga
ball-nom
korogat-te
roll-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ball is rolling.’

(90)
Ken-ga
Ken-nom
booru-o
ball-acc
korogasi-ta
roll-past
‘Ken rolled the ball.’
SINK sizumu R
(70)
hune-ga
boat-nom
sizun-da
sink-past
‘The boat sank.’
BURN moeru R
(71)
ie-ga
house-nom
moe-te
burn-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawaku R
(72)
zimen-ga
ground-nom
kawai-te
dry-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The ground is dry.’
RAIN (ame-ga) huru N
(73)
ame-ga
rain-nom
hut-ta
fall-past
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
(74)
ano-hito-ga
that-man-nom
ryoosi-da
hunter-cop
‘That man is a hunter.’
GRIND hiku N
(75)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
komugi-o
wheat-acc
hii-ta
grind-past
‘The woman ground the wheat.’
WIPE hukitoru N
(76)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
teeburu-no
table-gen
doro-o
dirt-acc
hukitot-ta
wipe-past
‘Mari wiped dirt off the table.’
DIG horu N
(77)
zyosei-ga
woman-nom
imo-o
potatoes-acc
hot-te
dig-ger
i-ru
be-pres
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH osu N
(78)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
syoozyo-o
girl-acc
osi-ta
push-past
‘The boy pushed the girl.’
BRING mot-te kuru N
(79)
syoozyo-ga
girl-nom
watasi-ni
1.sg-loc
hana-o
flower-acc
mot-te
bring-ger
ki-ta
come-past
‘The girl brought flowers to me.’
STEAL nusumu N
(80)
doroboo-ga
thief-nom
roozin-kara
old.man-abl
okane-o
money-acc
nusun-da
steal-past
‘The thief stole money from the old man.’
TEACH osieru N
(81)
sensei-ga
teacher-nom
seito-ni
student-dat
suugaku-o
math-acc
osie-ta
teach-past
‘The teacher taught the students math.’
HEAR kiku N
(82)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
kuma-no
bear-gen
koe-o
voice-acc
kii-ta
hear-past
‘The boy heard the bear's voice.’
COOK ryoori-suru N
(83)
Mari-ga
Mari-nom
kodomo-no
child-gen
tame-ni
benefit-dat
sakana-o
fish-acc
ryoori-si-ta
cook-do-past
‘Mari cooked the fish (for her child).’
BOIL waku R
(84)
oyu-ga
hot.water-nom
wai-ta
boil-past
‘The water boiled.’
THROW nageru N
(44)
syoonen-ga
boy-nom
booru-o
ball-acc
mado-ni
window-loc
nage-ta
throw-past
‘The boy threw the ball to the window.’