Examples of Mitsukaido Japanese

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Amakko pan kutta.
amakko
girl.NOM
pan
bread.ACC
kut-ta
eat-PST
‘The girl ate bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(2)
Ore arenge pan kaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
pan
bread.ACC
kase-da
eat.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him eat bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
causative
(3)
Areni pan kuwaretjatta.
are=ni
3sg=LOC
pan
bread.NOM
kuw-are-tjat-ta
eat-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The bread had been eaten by her/him.’
EAT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(4)
Orengani sore kuene.
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
sore
that.ACC
ku-e-ne
eat-POT-NEG.NPST
‘I cannot eat that.’
EAT an Alternation:
potential
(5)
Ka:tjan agambogodo daededa.
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dae-de-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(6)
Ore ka:tjannge agambogodo dagaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
ka:tjan=nge
mother=DAT
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dag-ase-da
hold-CAUS-PST
‘I made my wife hug the baby.’
HUG an Alternation:
causative
(7)
Agambo ka:tjanni dagasatteda.
agambo
baby.NOM
ka:tjan=ni
mother=LOC
dagasat-te-da
be.held-GER.be-PST
‘The baby was hugged in her/his mother's arm.’
HUG an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(8)
Agambo ka:tjannge dakko sarededa.
agambo
baby.NOM
ka:tjan=nge
mother=DAT
dakko_s-are-de-da
hold-PASS-GER.be-PST
‘The baby was hugged by her/his mother.’
HUG an Alternation:
Direct passive
(9)
Imadara ka:tjanngani agambogodo dageru.
ima=dara
now=COND
ka:tjan=ngani
mother=EXP
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dag-e-ru
hold-POT-NPST
‘Now the mother can hug the baby.’
HUG an Alternation:
potential
(10)
Hono odogo jarokkogodo mida.
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(11)
Ore hono odogonge jarokkogodo miraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
hono
that
odogo=nge
man=DAT
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-rase-da
look.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made that man look at the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
causative
(12)
Tukubasan me:ru.
Tukubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.NOM
me:-ru
see.POT-NPST
‘Mt. Tsukuba can be seen.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(13)
Jarokko sagini mirareda.
jarokko
boy.NOM
sagini
early
mi-rare-da
look.at-PASS-PST
‘The boy was seen before.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(14)
Orenganja jarokkogodo me:da.
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
potential
(15)
Negome nezuminga nioe ka{e/n}-da.
nego-me
cat-DIM.NOM
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
ka{e/n}-da
smell-PST
‘The cat caught the mouse's scent.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(16)
Ore negonge nezuminga nioe kangaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
nego=nge
cat=DAT
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-ase-da
smell-CAUS-PST
‘I made the cat smell the mouse.’
SMELL an Alternation:
causative
(17)
Nezumi negoni nioe kangarettsitta.
nezumi
mouse.NOM
nego=ni
cat=LOC
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-are-ttsit-ta
smell-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The mouse was smelled by the cat.’
SMELL an Alternation:
indirect passive
(18)
Kono negonganiwa nioe kangeru.
kono
this
nego=ngani=wa
cat=EXP=TOP
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-e-ru
smell-POT-NPST
‘This cat has a good nose.’
SMELL an Alternation:
potential
(19)
Arewa aregodo okkanangattekkara.
are=wa
3sg=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanangat-te-k=kara
fear-GER.be-NPST=because
‘She/he fears her/him.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(20)
Ore arenge ano jarokkogodo okkanangaraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
okkanangar-ase-da
fear-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him fear that boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
causative
(21)
Orenganja aregodo okkanegane:gara.
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanega-ne:=gara
afraid-NEG.NPST=because
‘I fear her/him.’
FEAR an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(22)
Are minnani okkanangararederu.
are
3sg.NOM
minna=ni
all=LOC
okkanangar-are-de-ru
fear-PASS-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is feared by all.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Direct passive
(23)
Ore hosingagi skida.
ore
1sg.NOM
hosingagi
dried_persimmon.ACC
ski-da
like-COP.NPST
‘I like dried persimmon.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(24)
Ore ano hjtogodo kini etta.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
hjto=godo
man=ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like that man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(25)
Ore ano jarogodo sitteru.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘I know that man.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(26)
Arenge sore sirasenakutja.
are=nge
3sg=DAT
sore
that.ACC
sir-ase-naku-tja
know-CAUS-NEG.ADV-GER.TOP
‘(I have to) make her/him know about that.’
KNOW an Alternation:
causative
(27)
Ano jaro minnani sirarederu.
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
minna=ni
all=LOC
sir-are-de-ru
know-PASS-GER.be-NPST
‘That man is known to all.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Direct passive
(28)
Ore sengarenga godo kangnge:da.
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge:-da
think-PST
‘I thought about my son.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(29)
Ore arenge sengarenga godo kangngeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge-rase-da
think-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him think about her/his son.’
THINK an Alternation:
causative
(30)
Are bo:ru mekkededa.
are
3sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-de-da
look.for-GER.be-PST
‘She/he searched for a ball.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(31)
Ore arenge bo:ru mekkeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-rase-da
look.for-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him search for a ball.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
causative
(32)
Bo:ru mekkatta.
bo:ru
ball.NOM
mekkat-ta
be.found-PST
‘The ball was found.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(33)
Ano amakkonganiwa aregodo mekkerareru.
ano
that
amakko=ngani=wa
girl=EXP=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
mekke-rare-ru
look_for-POT-NPST
‘That girl can search for her/him.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
potential
(34)
Amakko hku aratta.
amakko
girl.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘The girl washed the clothes.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(35)
Ore amakkonge hku ara:seda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hku
clothes.ACC
ara:se-da
wash.CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wash the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
causative
(36)
Amakkoni hku ara:retjatta.
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
hku
clothes.NOM
ara:re-tjat-ta
wash.PASS-PERF-PST
‘The clothes were washed by the girl.’
WASH an Alternation:
Direct passive
(37)
Ano amakkonganja hitonde hku araeru.
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hitonde
alone
hku
clothes.ACC
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wash the clothes by herself.’
WASH an Alternation:
potential
(38)
Ore amakkonge kimono kiseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-da
dress-PST
‘I dressed the girl in a kimono.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(39)
Ore arenge amakkonge kimono kiseraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono
kise-rase-da
dress-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dress the girl in a kimono.’
DRESS an Alternation:
causative
(40)
Amakko kimono kjta.
amakko
girl.NOM
kimono
kimono.ACC
kj-ta
wear-PST
‘The girl wore a kimono.’
DRESS an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(41)
Arengani mmagu kimono kiserareru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-rare-ru
dress-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dress (someone) in a kimono well.’
DRESS an Alternation:
potential
(42)
Are hinge sutta.
are
3sg.NOM
hinge
mustache.ACC
sut-ta
shave-PST
‘He shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(43)
Ore arenge hinge suraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
hinge
mustache.ACC
sur-ase-da
shave-CAUS-PST
‘I made him shave his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
causative
(44)
Arengani mmagu hinge sureru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
hinge
mustache.ACC
sur-e-ru
shave-POT-NPST
‘He can shave his beard well.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
potential
(45)
Are amakkogodo taskeda.
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-da
help-PST
‘She/he helped a girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(46)
Ore arenge amakkogodo taskeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-rase-da
help-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
causative
(47)
Amakko taskatta.
amakko
girl.NOM
taskat-ta
be.helped-PST
‘A girl was helped.’
HELP an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(48)
Amakko areni taskerareda.
amakko
girl.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
taske-rare-da
help-PASS-PST
‘The girl was helped by her/him.’
HELP an Alternation:
Direct passive
(49)
Arenganiwa amakkogodo taskerarebe:.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-rare-be:
help-POT-may
‘She/he can help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
potential
(50)
Ore amakkonge skeda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-da
help-PST
‘I helped the girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(51)
Ore aregodo amakkonge skeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-rase-da
help-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
causative
(52)
Ore areni skerareda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
ske-rare-da
help-PASS-PST
‘I was helped by her/him.’
HELP an Alternation:
Direct passive
(53)
Arenganiwa amakkonge skerarebe:.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-rare-be:
help-POT-may
‘She/he can help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
potential
(54)
Amakko odogogodo okkageda.
amakko
girl.NOM
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-da
follow-PST
‘The girl followed the man.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(55)
Ore amakkonge odogogodo okkageraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-rase-da
follow-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl follow the man.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
causative
(56)
Odogo amakkoni okkagerareda.
odogo
man.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
okkage-rare-da
follow-PASS-PST
‘The man was followed by the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Direct passive
(57)
Ano amakkonganja ano odogogodo okkagerareru.
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
ano
that
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-rare-ru
follow-POT-NPST
‘That girl can follow that man.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
potential
(58)
Amakko arenge tuedetta.
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuedet-ta
follow-PST
‘The girl followed her/him.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(59)
Ore amakkogodo arenge tuede engaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuede_eng-ase-da
follow-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl follow her/him.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
causative
(60)
Are amakkoni tuede korareda.
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
tuede_ko-rare-da
follow-PASS-PST
‘She/he was followed by the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
indirect passive
(61)
Ore ano amakkoni egiattajo.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc/com V
(62)
Ore aregodo amakkoni egia:seda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egia:se-da
meet.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
causative
(63)
Arengani amakkodo egiaeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
amakko=do
girl=COM
egia-e-ru
meet-POT-NPST
‘She/he can meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
potential
(64)
Are ano jarokkonge ano amakkogodo hanasjta.
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanasj-ta
talk-PST
‘She/he talked to that boy about that girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(65)
Ore arenge ano jarokkonge ano amakkogodo hanasaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanas-ase-da
talk-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him talk to that boy about that girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
causative
(66)
Ano jarokko ano amakkogodo areni hanasareda.
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
are=ni
3sg=LOC
hanas-are-da
talk-PASS-PST
‘That boy was told about that girl by her/him.’
TALK an Alternation:
indirect passive
(67)
Arengani ano jarokkonge ano amakkogodo hanaseru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘She/he can talk to that boy about that girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
potential
(68)
Ano jarokko arenge tema se:sogu sjta.
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
sj-ta
for-PST
‘That boy asked her/him for the wage.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(69)
Ore ano jarokkonge arenge tema se:sogu saseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage
se:sogu
ask
s-ase-da
for-CAUS-PST
‘I made that boy ask her/him for the wage.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
causative
(70)
Are ano jarokkoni tema se:sogu sareda.
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
s-are-da
for-PASS-PST
‘She/he was asked for the wage by that boy.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
indirect passive
(71)
Ano jarokkongani arenge tema se:sogu degiru.
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask_for
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘That boy can ask her/him for the wage.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
potential
(72)
Ore kodomonge mugasino kodo hanasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
hanasj-ta
tell-PST
‘I told the child an old story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(73)
Ano basamangani mugasino kodo u:nto sittekkara hanaseru.
ano
that
basama=ngani
old_lady=EXP
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
u:nto
many
sit-te-k=kara
know-GER.be-NPST=because
hanas-e-ru
tell-POT-NPST
‘That old lady can tell a story because she knows many old stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
potential
(74)
Ano jaro ano amakkonge nanimo sjabeNnagatta.
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaben-nagat-ta
say.IRR-NEG-PST
‘That boy did not say anything to that girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat UTT3 V
(75)
Are ano jaronge ano amakkonge sore sjaberaseda.
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=nge
man=DAT
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sore
that.ACC
sjaber-ase-da
say-CAUS-PST
‘She/he made that boy say it to that girl.’
SAY an Alternation:
causative
(76)
Ano amakko ano jaroni nanimo iwarenagatta.
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
ano
that
jaro=ni
man=LOC
nanimo
anything.ACC
iw-are-nagat-ta
say-PASS-NEG-PST
‘That girl was not told anything by that boy.’
SAY an Alternation:
indirect passive
(77)
Arengani nanimo sjaberenagatta.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaber-e-nagat-ta
say-POT-NEG-PST
‘She/he could not say anything.’
SAY an Alternation:
potential
(78)
Ano amakko hono jarokkogodo taro:tte jobatta.
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
hono
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
jobat-ta
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy Taro.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-cit V
(79)
Ano jarokko minnange zibungodo taro:tte jobasedendado.
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
minna=nge
all=DAT
zibun=godo
self=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
job-ase-de-n=da=do
call-CAUS-GER.be-NPST.NMNLZ=COP=F
‘That boy makes everybody call him Taro.’
NAME an Alternation:
causative
(80)
Ano jaro taro:tte jobarederu.
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
job-are-de-ru
call-PASS-GER.be-NPST
‘The man is called Taro.’
NAME an Alternation:
Direct passive
(81)
Arenganja omegodo name:de jobeppena.
are=nganja
3sg=EXP.TOP
ome=godo
2sg=ACC
name:=de
first_name=INST
job-e-p-pe=na
call-POT-NPST-may=F
‘She/he may be able to call you by your first name.’
NAME an Alternation:
potential
(82)
Ore uzi tadeda.
ore
1sg.NOM
uzi
house.ACC
tade-da
build-PST
‘I built a house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(83)
Ore arenge uzi taderaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
uzi
house.ACC
tade-rase-da
build-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him build the house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
causative
(84)
Uzi tatta.
uzi
house.NOM
tat-ta
be.built-PST
‘The house was built.’
BUILD an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(85)
Orengani uzi taderareru.
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
uzi
house.ACC
tade-rare-ru
build-POT-NPST
‘I can build a house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
potential
(86)
Jarokko garasumado bukkowasjta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowasj-ta
break-PST
‘The boy broke a window.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(87)
Are jarokkonge garasumado bukkowasaseda.
are
3sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowas-ase-da
break-CAUS-PST
‘She/he made the boy break a window.’
BREAK an Alternation:
causative
(88)
Garasumado bukkowareda.
garasumado
glass_window.NOM
bukkoware-da
break-PST
‘The window broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(89)
Jarokkoni garasumado bukkowasareda.
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
garasumado
glass_window.NOM
bukkowas-are-da
break-PASS-PST
‘The window was broken by the boy.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Direct passive
(90)
Ano jaronganja garasumado bukkowaseme:.
ano
that
jaro=nganja
man=EXP.TOP
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowas-e-me:
break-POT-may_not
‘That man may not be able to break a window.’
BREAK an Alternation:
potential
(91)
Jarokko bo:de hebigodo korosjta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
korosj-ta
kill-PST
‘The boy killed a snake with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(92)
Ore jarokkonge hebigodo korosaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
koros-ase-da
kill-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy kill a snake.’
KILL an Alternation:
causative
(93)
Hebi jarokkoni korosareda.
hebi
snake.NOM
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
koros-are-da
kill-PASS-PST
‘The snake was killed by the boy.’
KILL an Alternation:
Direct passive
(94)
Ano jarokkonganja hebigodo koroseru.
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
koros-e-ru
kill-POT-NPST
‘That boy can kill a snake.’
KILL an Alternation:
potential
(95)
Jarokko sjo:zi sjttsaettjatta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsae-ttjat-ta
break-PERF-PST
‘The boy ripped a shoji screen.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(96)
Ore jarokkonge sjo:zi sjttsagaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsag-ase-da
break-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy rip the shoji screen.’
BREAK an Alternation:
causative
(97)
Sjo:zi sjttsageda.
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.NOM
sjttsage-da
break-PST
‘The shoji screen ripped.’
BREAK an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(98)
Jarokkoni sjo:zi sjttsagareda.
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.NOM
sjttsag-are-da
break-PASS-PST
‘The shoji screen was ripped by the boy.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Direct passive
(99)
Ano jarokkonganja sjo:zi sjttsagu godo degiru.
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsag-u
break-POT
godo
thing.ACC
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘That boy can rip a shoji screen.’
BREAK an Alternation:
potential
(100)
Jarokko bo:de hebigodo buttadaeda.
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadae-da
hit-PST
‘The boy hit a snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(101)
Ore jarokkonge bo:de hebigodo buttadagaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadag-ase-da
hit-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy hit a snake with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
causative
(102)
Hebi jarokkoni buttadagareda.
hebi
snake.NOM
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
buttadag-are-da
hit-PASS-PST
‘The snake was hit by the boy.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(103)
Ano jarokkonganja hebigodo buttadageru.
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadag-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘That boy can hit a snake.’
BEAT an Alternation:
potential
(104)
Ore ano jarogodo bukkurasjte jakkara.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=kara
give.NPST=because
‘I hit that man.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(105)
Ore arenge ano jarogodo bukkurasaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkuras-ase-da
hit-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him hit that man.’
HIT an Alternation:
causative
(106)
Ore ano jaroni bukkuraserareda.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=ni
man=LOC
bukkurase-rare-da
hit-PASS-PST
‘I was hit by that man.’
HIT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(107)
Arenganja aregodo bukkuraserammena.
are=nganja
3sg=EXP.TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
bukkurase-ram-me=na
hit-POT-may_not=F
‘She/he may not be able to hit her/him.’
HIT an Alternation:
potential
(108)
Jaronga adama bukkurasjte jakka?
jaro=nga
man=POS
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man's head?’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(109)
Jarogodo adama bukkurasjte jakka?
jaro=godo
man=ACC
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man on the head?’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(110)
Jarokko bo:de hebigodo sa:tta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(111)
Ore jarokkonge hebigodo sa:raseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:r-ase-da
touch-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy touch a snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
causative
(112)
Hebi jarokkoni sa:rareda.
hebi
snake.NOM
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
sa:r-are-da
touch-PASS-PST
‘The snake was touched by a boy.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Direct passive
(113)
Ano jarokkonganja hebigodo sa:reru.
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:r-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘That boy can touch a snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
potential
(114)
Jarokko bo:de hebinge sa:tta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat (3-instr) V
(115)
Ore jarokkogodo hebinge sa:raseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:r-ase-da
touch-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy touch a snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
causative
(116)
Ano jarokkonganja hebinge sa:reru.
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:r-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘That boy can touch a snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
potential
(117)
Jarokko ho:tsjode de:ko kitta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
ho:tsjo=de
knife=INST
de:ko
radish.ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘The boy cut a radish with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(118)
Ore jarokkonge de:ko kiraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
de:ko
radish.ACC
kir-ase-da
cut-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy cut a radish.’
CUT an Alternation:
causative
(119)
Oratsjino jaroni ki: kirarettsjitta.
oratsji=no
my_home=GEN
jaro=ni
boy=LOC
ki:
tree.NOM
kir-are-ttsjit-ta
cut-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The tree was cut by my son.’
CUT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(120)
Oratsjino jaronganja de:ko kireru.
oratsji=no
my_home=GEN
jaro=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
de:ko
radish.ACC
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘My son can cut a radish.’
CUT an Alternation:
potential
(121)
Jarokko amakkogara pen hindagutta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagut-ta
take-PST
‘The boy took a pen from the girl.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(122)
Ore jarokkonge amakkogara pen hindaguraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagur-ase-da
take-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy take a pen from the girl.’
TAKE an Alternation:
causative
(123)
Amakko jarokkoni pen hindagurareda.
amakko
girl.NOM
jarokko=ni
boy=LOC
pen
pen.ACC
hindagur-are-da
take-PASS-PST
‘The girl had her pen taken by the boy.’
TAKE an Alternation:
indirect passive
(124)
Ano jarokkongani pen hindagureru.
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
pen
pen.ACC
hindagur-e-ru
take-POT-NPST
‘That boy can take a pen.’
TAKE an Alternation:
potential
(125)
Jarokko kigara kagi mongitta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongit-ta
take-PST
‘The boy picked a persimmon from a tree.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(126)
Ore jarokkonge kigara kagi mongiraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongir-ase-da
take-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy pick a persimmon from a tree.’
TAKE an Alternation:
causative
(127)
Omengani ueno ho:na kagi mongireppena?
ome=ngani
2sg=EXP
ue=no
above=GEN
ho:=na
around=ADNLOC
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongir-e-p-pe=na
take-POT-NPST-may=F
‘Can you pick a persimmon from the upper part of the tree?’
TAKE an Alternation:
potential
(128)
Amakko honno pe:zi hittsabaeda.
amakko
girl.NOM
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabae-da
tear-PST
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-gen 3-acc V
(129)
Ore amakkonge honno pe:zi hittsbagaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsbag-ase-da
tear-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl tear the page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
causative
(130)
Amakkongani honno pe:zi hittsabageru.
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabag-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘The girl can tear the page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
potential
(131)
Amakko emono ka: mueda.
amakko
girl.NOM
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mue-da
peel-PST
‘The girl peeled the potato.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(132)
Ore amakkonge emono ka: mugaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mug-ase-da
peel-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him peel the potato.’
PEEL an Alternation:
causative
(133)
Arengani mmagu emono ka: mugeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mug-e-ru
peel-POT-NPST
‘She/he can peel the potato well.’
PEEL an Alternation:
potential
(134)
Ano amakko sense:nga hon kagusjta.
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagusj-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(135)
Ore ano amakkonge sense:nga hon kagusaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagus-ase-da
hide-CAUS-PST
‘I made that girl hide the teacher's book.’
HIDE an Alternation:
causative
(136)
Sense: ano amakkoni hon kagusareda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
hon
book.ACC
kagus-are-da
hide-PASS-PST
‘The teacher's book was hidden by that girl.’
HIDE an Alternation:
indirect passive
(137)
Ano amakkonganja hon kakusebena.
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hon
book.ACC
kakus-e-be=na
hide-POT-may=F
‘That girl may be able to hide the book.’
HIDE an Alternation:
potential
(138)
Amakko sense:nge sjkudae miseda.
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed the homework to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(139)
Ore amakkonge sense:nge odomegodo miseraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-rase-da
show-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl show a baby to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
causative
(140)
Sense: sjkudae mida.
sense:
teacher.NOM
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mi-da
see-PST
‘The teacher saw the homework.’
SHOW an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(141)
Sense: amakkoni sjkudae miserareda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-rare-da
show-PASS-PST
‘The teacher was shown the homework by the girl.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Direct passive
(142)
Ano amakkonganja sense:nge sjkudae mise-{rare/re}-ru.
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-{rare/re}-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘The girl can show the homework to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
potential
(143)
Sense: orenge hon kureda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
kure-da
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(144)
Ore sengarenge hon jatta.
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nge
son=DAT
hon
book.ACC
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(145)
Musumekko kjogugara sense:nge hon ogutta.
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to the teacher from the post office.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(146)
Ore musumekkonge hon sense:nge oguraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
musumekko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
ogur-ase-da
send-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl send a book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
causative
(147)
Sense: musumekkogara hon ogurareda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
musumekko=gara
girl=ABL
hon
book.ACC
ogur-are-da
send-PASS-PST
‘The teacher was sent a book by the girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
indirect passive
(148)
Musumekkonganja hon sense:nge ogureru.
musumekko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
ogur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The girl can send a book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
potential
(149)
Amakko sense:nge hon mottetta.
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(150)
Ore amakkonge hon sense:nge mottengaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
motteng-ase-da
carry-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl carry a book to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
causative
(151)
Ano hon ano amakkoni sense:n togosa mottengareda.
ano
that
hon
book.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
sense:=n
teacher=GEN
togo=sa
place=DAT
motteng-are-da
carry-PASS-PST
‘That book was carried to the teacher by that girl.’
BRING an Alternation:
Direct passive
(152)
Ano amakkongani sense:nge hon mottengeru.
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
motteng-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry a book to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
potential
(153)
Are ka:sa esikoro bunnangeda.
are
3sg.NOM
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a stone into the river.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(154)
Ore arenge ka:sa esikoro bunnangeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-rase-da
throw-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him throw a stone into the river.’
THROW an Alternation:
causative
(155)
Arenganiwa, go:rigidagara, esi bunnangerareru.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
go:rigi=dagara
powerful=because
esi
stone.ACC
bunnange-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘Because she/he is powerful, she/he can throw a stone.’
THROW an Alternation:
potential
(156)
Are orenge bo:ru butskeda.
are
3sg.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a ball to me.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(157)
Tonarinte arenge orenge bo:ru butskeraseda.
tonarinte
neighbor.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-rase-da
throw-CAUS-PST
‘The neighbor made her/him throw a ball to me.’
THROW an Alternation:
causative
(158)
Ore areniwa bo:ru butskerarettsjaajo.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=ni=wa
3sg=LOC=TOP
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-rare-ttsja-a=jo
throw-PASS-PERF-NPST=F
‘I was thrown a ball by her/him.’
THROW an Alternation:
indirect passive
(159)
Arenganiwa darengedemo bo:ru butskerareru.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
dare=nge-demo
who=DAT-even
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘She/he can throw a ball to anyone.’
THROW an Alternation:
potential
(160)
Are mmagodo kisa tunaeda.
are
3sg.NOM
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunae-da
tie-PST
‘She/he tied a horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(161)
Ore arenge mmagodo kisa tunangaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunang-ase-da
tie-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him tie a horse to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
causative
(162)
Ano mma areni kisa tunangareda.
ano
that
mma
horse.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunang-are-da
tie-PASS-PST
‘That horse was tied to the tree by her/him.’
TIE an Alternation:
Direct passive
(163)
Arengani mmagodo mmagu kisa tunangeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mma=godo
horse=ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunang-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘She/he can tie a horse to the tree well.’
TIE an Alternation:
potential
(164)
Are tsukueno uesa hon oeda.
are
3sg.NOM
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
oe-da
put-PST
‘He put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(165)
Ore arenge hon tsukueno uesa ogaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
og-ase-da
put-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him put a book on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
causative
(166)
Arenganiwa kono tsukueno uesa hon ogerujo.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
kono
this
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
og-e-ru=jo
put-POT-NPST=F
‘She/he can put a book on this desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
potential
(167)
Are ozja tsjawansa eppe: tsueda.
are
3sg.NOM
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
eppe:
full
tsue-da
pour-PST
‘She/he poured tea into the cup full.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(168)
Ore arenge ozja tsjawansa tsungaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
tsung-ase-da
pour-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him pour tea into the cup.’
POUR an Alternation:
causative
(169)
Arengani ozja umagu tsungene.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ozja
tea.ACC
umagu
well.ADV
tsung-e-ne
pour-POT-NEG.NPST
‘She/he can pour tea well.’
POUR an Alternation:
potential
(170)
Are kodomonge mo:hu kageda.
are
3sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-da
cover-PST
‘She/he covered a child with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(171)
Ore arenge mo:hu kodomonge kageraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
kage-rase-da
cover-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him cover the child with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
causative
(172)
Kodomonge mo:hu kagatteru.
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.NOM
kagat-te-ru
cover-GER.be-NPST
‘The blanket is covering the child.’
COVER an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(173)
Kodomo areni mo:hu kagerareda.
kodomo
child.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-rare-da
cover-PASS-PST
‘The child was covered with a blanket by her/him.’
COVER an Alternation:
indirect passive
(174)
Arenganiwa, me: samesasenede, kodomonge mo:hu kagerareru.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
me:
eye.ACC
same-sase-ne-de
awaken-CAUS-NEG-GER
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘She/he can cover the child with the blanket without letting the child awaken.’
COVER an Alternation:
potential
(175)
Are inomi ozjade ktsieppeni sjta.
are
3sg.NOM
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
sj-ta
do-PST
‘She/he filled the cup with tea.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(176)
Ore arenge inomi ozjade ktsieppeni saseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
s-ase-da
do-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him fill the cup with tea.’
FILL an Alternation:
causative
(177)
Arenganiwa, hadaragimondagara, nagaja sazumade eppeni degiru.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
hadaragimon=dagara
hardworker=because
nagaja
barn.ACC
sazuma=de
sweet_potato=INST
eppe-ni
full-ADV
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘Because she/he is a hardworker, she/he can fill the barn with sweet potatoes.’
FILL an Alternation:
potential
(178)
Are ningurumasa wara eppe tsunda.
are
3sg.NOM
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsun-da
load-PST
‘She/he loaded hay on the wagon full.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(179)
Ore arenge ningurumasa wara eppe tsumaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsum-ase-da
load-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him load hay on the wagon full.’
LOAD an Alternation:
causative
(180)
Arenganiwa ningurumasa nimotsu mmagu tsumeru.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
nimotsu
baggage.ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
tsum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘She/he can load hay on the wagon well.’
LOAD an Alternation:
potential
(181)
Amakko mabadagi sjta.
amakko
girl.NOM
mabadagi_sj-ta
blink-PST
‘The girl blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(182)
Are segi sjta.
are
3sg.NOM
segi_sj-ta
cough-PST
‘She/he coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(183)
Are tskubasansa nobotta.
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat/acc V
(184)
Ore aregodo janesa noboraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
jane=sa
roof=DAT
nobor-ase-da
climb-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him climb the roof.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
causative
(185)
Arenganiwa tskubasansa noborebena.
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobor-e-be=na
climb-POT-may=F
‘She/he may be able to climb Mt. Tsukuba.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
potential
(186)
Jarokko ro:ka kageda.
jarokko
boy.NOM
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-da
run-PST
‘The boy ran around the corridor.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(187)
Ore jarokkogodo ro:ka kageraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-rase-da
run-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy run around the corridor.’
RUN an Alternation:
causative
(188)
Jarokkongani subajagu kagerareru.
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
subajagu
fast
kage-rare-ru
run-POT-NPST
‘The boy can run fast.’
RUN an Alternation:
potential
(189)
Are sogosa sa:tteru.
are
3sg.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:t-te-ru
sit-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is sitting there.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(190)
Ore aregodo sogosa sa:raseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:r-ase-da
sit-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him sit there.’
SIT an Alternation:
causative
(191)
Arengani ezumademo sa:reru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ezumademo
forever
sa:r-e-ru
sit-POT-NPST
‘She/he can sit for a long time.’
SIT an Alternation:
potential
(192)
Kodomo esusa (kosi)kageda.
kodomo
child.NOM
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-da
sit.down-PST
‘The child sat down on the chair.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(193)
Ore aregodo esusa (kosi)kageraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-rase-da
sit.down-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him sit down on the chair.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
causative
(194)
Ano kodomongani, egagu nattande, hjtonde (kosi)kage(rare)rujo:ni natta.
ano
that
kodomo=ngani
child=EXP
egagu
big.ADV
nat-ta=nde
become-PST=because
hjtonde
alone
kosikage-rare-ru=jo:ni
sit.down-POT-NPST=like
nat-ta
become-PST
‘The child became big and she/he could sit down by herself/himself.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
potential
(195)
Ano jarokko niwade tondeda.
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
niwa=de
garden=INST
ton-de-da
jump-GER.be-PST
‘That boy was jumping in the garden.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(196)
Ore ano jarokkogodo tobaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tob-ase-da
jump-CAUS-PST
‘I made that boy jump.’
JUMP an Alternation:
causative
(197)
Ano jarokkonganiwa tagagu tobebena.
ano
that
jarokko=ngani=wa
boy=EXP=TOP
tagagu
high
tob-e-be=na
jump-POT-may=F
‘That boy may be able to jump high.’
JUMP an Alternation:
potential
(198)
Jarokko udatta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(199)
Ore jarokkogodo uda:seda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
uda:se-da
sing.CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy sing.’
SING an Alternation:
causative
(200)
Jarokko ko:ka mmagu udatta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
ko:ka
school_song.ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a school song.’
SING an Alternation:
Object insertion
(201)
Jarokkongani mmagu udaeru.
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
uda-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘The boy can sing well.’
SING an Alternation:
potential
(202)
Jarokko egisa etta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
egi=sa
station=DAT
et-ta
go-PST
‘The boy went to the station.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(203)
Ore aregodo sogosa engaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
eng-ase-da
go-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him go there.’
GO an Alternation:
causative
(204)
Arengani sogosa engerujo.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
sogo=sa
there=DAT
eng-e-ru=jo
go-POT-NPST=F
‘She/he can go there.’
GO an Alternation:
potential
(205)
Ore sogogara dogede jatta.
ore
1sg.NOM
sogo=gara
there=ABL
doge-de
leave-GER
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I left there.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-abl) V
(206)
Ore kodomogodo dogeraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=godo
child=ACC
doge-rase-da
leave-CAUS-PST
‘I made a child leave.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
causative
(207)
Ore kodomogodo dogasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=godo
child=ACC
dogasj-ta
let.leave-PST
‘I made a child leave.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Object insertion
(208)
Jarokko sogosa sunderu.
jarokko
boy.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sun-de-ru
live-GER.be-NPST
‘The boy lives there.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(209)
Ore jarokkogodo sogosa sumaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sum-ase-da
live-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy live there.’
LIVE an Alternation:
causative
(210)
Ano jarokkongani semai hejademo sumeru.
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
semai
small
heja=de=mo
room=INST=even
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘That boy can live even in the small room.’
LIVE an Alternation:
potential
(211)
Ano amakko waratta.
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(212)
Are amakkogodo wara:seda.
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
wara:se-da
laugh.CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
causative
(213)
Ano amakko aregodo warattedaganna.
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
warat-te-da=ganna
laugh-GER.be-PST=because.PRT
‘That girl was laughing at her/him.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Object insertion
(214)
Are ano amakkoni wara:reda.
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
wara:re-da
laugh.PASS-PST
‘She/he was laughed at by that girl.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Direct passive
(215)
Are wame:da.
are
3sg.NOM
wame:-da
scream-PST
‘She/he screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(216)
Ore aregodo wamegaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
wameg-ase-da
scream-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him scream.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
causative
(217)
Kesa ore kosi edena.
kesa
this_morning
ore
1sg.NOM
kosi
waist.NOM
ede=na
painful.NPST=F
‘This morning my waist hurt.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(218)
Orengani samue.
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
samue
cold.NPST
‘I feel cold.’
FEEL COLD the Verb form samue/samugar-u
(219)
Are sinda.
are
3sg.NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘She/he died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(220)
Kodomora asunderu.
kodomora
child.PL.NOM
asun-de-ru
play-GER.be-NPST
‘The children are playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(221)
Ore kodomoragodo asubaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomora=godo
child.PL=ACC
asub-ase-da
play-CAUS-PST
‘I made the children play.’
PLAY an Alternation:
causative
(222)
Ano kodomonganiwa hjtonde asuberu.
ano
that
kodomo=ngani=wa
child=EXP=TOP
hjtonde
alone
asub-e-ru
play-POT-NPST
‘That child can play by herself/himself.’
PLAY an Alternation:
potential
(223)
Ore kanasi:.
ore
1sg.NOM
kanasi:
sad.NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(224)
Ora hara hetta.
ora
1sg.TOP
hara
stomach.NOM
het-ta
empty-PST
‘I am hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(225)
Kodomo hara herasjte kaette kjta.
kodomo
child.NOM
hara
stomach.ACC
herasj-te
empty-GER
kaet-te
return-GER
kj-ta
come-PST
‘The child came home hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(226)
Bo:ru korongatta.
bo:ru
ball.NOM
korongat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(227)
Ore bo:ru korongasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
korongasj-ta
roll-PST
‘I rolled a ball.’
ROLL an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(228)
Hune sizunda.
hune
boat.NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(229)
Ore hune sizumeda.
ore
1sg.NOM
hune
boat.ACC
sizume-da
sink-PST
‘I sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(230)
Samma jageda.
samma
saury.NOM
jage-da
burn-PST
‘A saury was grilled.’
BURN the Verb form jage-ru
(231)
Ore arenge samma jagaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
samma
saury.ACC
jag-ase-da
burn-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him grill a saury.’
BURN the Verb form jage-ru
(232)
Ore samma jaeda.
ore
1sg.NOM
samma
saury.ACC
jae-da
burn-PST
‘I grilled a saury.’
BURN the Verb form jage-ru
(233)
Arengani umagu sagana jagera.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
umagu
well.ADV
sagana
fish.ACC
jag-e-ra
burn-POT-NPST.F
‘She/he can grill a saury well.’
BURN the Verb form jage-ru
(234)
Ano uzi jagederu.
ano
that
uzi
house.NOM
jage-de-ru
burn-GER.be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(235)
Are, hino husimazude, uzi jaetsitta.
are
3sg.NOM
hi=no
fire=GEN
husimazu=de
carelessness=INST
uzi
house.ACC
jae-tsit-ta
let.burn-PERF-PST
‘She/he got her/his house burned because she/he did not watch the fire properly.’
BURN an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(236)
Hku kawaeda.
hku
clothes.NOM
kawae-da
dry-PST
‘The clothes dried.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(237)
Ore hku kawagasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
kawagasj-ta
dry-PST
‘I dried the clothes.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(238)
Ame hutte kjtagara esoede komejo!
ame
rain.NOM
hut-te
fall-GER
kj-ta=gara
come-PST=because
esoede
in_a_hurry
kom-e=jo
take_(clothes)_in_the_house-IMP=F
‘Because it begins raining, take the clothes into the house!’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(239)
Tuzituzide omaeri sjte, ame huraseru.
tuzituzi=de
crossroads=INST
omaeri
ceremony.ACC
sj-te
do-GER
ame
rain.ACC
hur-ase-ru
fall-CAUS-NPST
‘We will make it rain, by performing a ceremony at the crossroads.’
RAIN an Alternation:
causative
(240)
Ore usangigodo totta.
ore
1sg.NOM
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tot-ta
hunt-PST
‘I hunted a rabbit.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
N/A
(241)
Ore arenge usangigodo toraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tor-ase-da
hunt-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him hunt a rabbit.’
HUNT (FOR) an Alternation:
causative
(242)
Areni usangi torarettjtta.
are=ni
3sg=LOC
usangi
rabbit.NOM
tor-are-ttjt-ta
hunt-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The rabbit was hunted by her/him.’
HUNT (FOR) an Alternation:
Direct passive
(243)
Orenganja usangi tonno mmaedo.
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
usangi
rabbit.ACC
ton=no
hunt=GEN.NOM
mmae=do
good.NPST=F
‘I'm good at hunting a rabbit.’
HUNT (FOR) an Alternation:
potential
(244)
Are goma sutta.
are
3sg.NOM
goma
sesame.ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘She/he ground sesame.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(245)
Ore arenge goma suraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
goma
sesame.ACC
sur-ase-da
grind-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him grind sesame.’
GRIND an Alternation:
causative
(246)
Arengani mmagu goma sureru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
goma
sesame.ACC
sur-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘She/he can grind sesame well.’
GRIND an Alternation:
potential
(247)
Are esusude soba hi:da.
are
3sg.NOM
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hi:-da
grind-PST
‘She/he ground buckwheat with a millstone.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(248)
Ore arenge esusude soba higaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hig-ase-da
grind-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him grind buckwheat with a millstone.’
GRIND an Alternation:
causative
(249)
Arengani mmagu soba higeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hig-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘She/he can grind buckwheat with a millstone.’
GRIND an Alternation:
potential
(250)
Amakko te:buru hueda.
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru
table.ACC
hue-da
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped a table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(251)
Ore amakkonge te:buru hugaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
te:buru
table.ACC
hug-ase-da
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wipe the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
causative
(252)
Ano amakkongani mmagu te:buru hugeru.
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
te:buru
table.ACC
hug-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘The girl can wipe the table well.’
WIPE an Alternation:
potential
(253)
Amakko te:buruno uena mizu nugutta.
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru=no
table=GEN
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
mizu
water.ACC
nugut-ta
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped the water from the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(254)
Ore amakkonge mizu nuguwaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
mizu
water.ACC
nuguw-ase-da
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wipe the water.’
WIPE an Alternation:
causative
(255)
Ano amakkongani mizu mmagu nugueru.
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
mizu
water
mmagu
well.ADV
nugu-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘The girl can wipe the water well.’
WIPE an Alternation:
potential
(256)
Ore uena hadagesa medo hotta.
ore
1sg.NOM
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘I dug a hole in the field above.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(257)
Ore arenge uena hadagesa medo horaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hor-ase-da
dig-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dig a hole in the field above.’
DIG an Alternation:
causative
(258)
Arengani sunguni medo horeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
sunguni
immediately
medo
hole.ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dig a hole soon.’
DIG an Alternation:
potential
(259)
Are emo hotteru.
are
3sg.NOM
emo
potato.ACC
hot-te-ru
dig-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(260)
Ore arenge emo horaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
emo
potato.ACC
hor-ase-da
dig-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dig for potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
causative
(261)
Arengani mmagu emo horeru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
emo
potato.ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dig for potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
potential
(262)
Amakko arenga senaga osjta.
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
osj-ta
push-PST
‘The girl pushed her/his back.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(263)
Ore amakkonge arenga senaga osaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
os-ase-da
push-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl push her/his back.’
PUSH an Alternation:
causative
(264)
Are amakkoni senaga osareda.
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
senaga
back.ACC
os-are-da
push-PASS-PST
‘She/he had her/his back pushed by the girl.’
PUSH an Alternation:
indirect passive
(265)
Ano amakkongani arenga senaga oseru.
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That girl can push her/his back.’
PUSH an Alternation:
potential
(266)
Amakko sense:nga hon nusunda.
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘The girl stole the teacher's book.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(267)
Ore amakkonge sense:nga hon nusumaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusum-ase-da
steal-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl steal the teacher's book.’
STEAL an Alternation:
causative
(268)
Sense: amakkoni hon nusumareda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
hon
book.ACC
nusum-are-da
steal-PASS-PST
‘The teacher was stolen her/his book by the girl.’
STEAL an Alternation:
indirect passive
(269)
Amakkongani sense:nga hon nusumeru.
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusum-e-ru
steal-POT-NPST
‘The girl can steal the teacher's book.’
STEAL an Alternation:
potential
(270)
Areni pan kuttjawareda.
are=ni
3sg=LOC
pan
bread.NOM
kut-tjaw-are-da
eat-PERF-PASS-PST
‘The bread had been eaten by her/him.’
EAT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(271)
Sense: orenge su:ngagu ose:da.
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
su:ngagu
mathematics.ACC
ose:-da
teach-PST
‘The teacher taught me math.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(272)
Ka:tjan agambogodo dakko sjteda.
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dakko_sj-te-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(273)
Ore arenge jarokkonge kore oseraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
kore
this.ACC
ose-rase-da
teach-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him teach this to the boy.’
TEACH an Alternation:
causative
(274)
Agambo ka:tjannge dagasatteda.
agambo
baby.NOM
ka:tjan=nge
mother=DAT
dagasat-te-da
be.held-GER.be-PST
‘The baby was hugged in her/his mother's arm.’
HUG an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(275)
Ore sense:ni kore osatta.
ore
1sg.NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=LOC
kore
this.ACC
osat-ta
be.taught-PST
‘I learnt this from the teacher.’
TEACH an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(276)
Agambo ka:tjanni dakko sarededa.
agambo
baby.NOM
ka:tjan=ni
mother=LOC
dakko_s-are-de-da
hold-PASS-GER.be-PST
‘The baby was hugged by her/his mother.’
HUG an Alternation:
Direct passive
(277)
Ore areni kore oserareda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
kore
this.ACC
ose-rare-da
teach-PASS-PST
‘I was taught this by her/him.’
TEACH an Alternation:
indirect passive
(278)
Ore tonarino amakkogodo skida.
ore
1sg.NOM
tonari=no
next=GEN
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
ski=da
like=COP.NPST
‘I like the girl next door.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(279)
Arengani arenge mmagu kore oserareru.
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mmagu
well.ADV
kore
this.ACC
ose-rare-ru
teach-POT-NPST
‘She/he can teach this to her/him well.’
TEACH an Alternation:
potential
(280)
Ore manzju: kini etta.
ore
1sg.NOM
manzju:
manju.ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like manju.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(281)
Orengani ano odo kigeru.
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
ano
that
odo
sound.NOM
kige-ru
hear-NPST
‘I can hear that sound.’
HEAR an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(282)
Amakkoni hku arattja:reda.
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
hku
clothes.NOM
ara-ttja:re-da
wash-PERF.PASS-PST
‘The clothes were washed by the girl.’
WASH an Alternation:
Direct passive
(283)
Oi waeda.
oi
hot_water.NOM
wae-da
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(284)
Ore ano amakkodo egiattajo.
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=do
girl=COM
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc/com V
(285)
Ore oi wagasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
oi
hot_water.ACC
wagasj-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(286)
Amakko sense:nge odomegodo miseda.
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed a baby to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(287)
Ore amakkonge sense:nge sjkudae miseraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-rase-da
show-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl show the homework to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
causative
(288)
Sense: amakkoni odomegodo miserareda.
sense:
teacher.NOM
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-rare-da
show-PASS-PST
‘The teacher was shown a baby by the girl.’
SHOW an Alternation:
indirect passive
(289)
Ano amakkonganja sense:nge odomegodo mise-{rare/re}-ru.
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-{rare/re}-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘The girl can show a baby to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
potential
(290)
Musumekko kjogugara gakko:sa hon ogutta.
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to school from the post office.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(291)
Ore musumekkonge hon gakko:sa oguraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
musumekko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
ogur-ase-da
send-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl send a book to school.’
SEND an Alternation:
causative
(292)
Amakko gakko:sa hon mottetta.
amakko
girl.NOM
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to school.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(293)
Ore amakkonge hon gakko:sa mottengaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
motteng-ase-da
carry-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl carry a book to school.’
BRING an Alternation:
causative
(294)
Ore jarokkonge ko:ka uda:seda.
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ko:ka
school_song.ACC
uda:se-da
sing.CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy sing a school song.’
SING an Alternation:
causative
(295)
Are kanasinderu.
are
3sg.NOM
kanasin-de-ru
be_sad-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he feels sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(296)
Areni usangi tottjareda.
are=ni
3sg=LOC
usangi
rabbit.NOM
tot-tjare-da
hunt-PERF.PASS-PST
‘The rabbit was hunted by her/him.’
HUNT (FOR) an Alternation:
Direct passive
(297)
Ore aregodo amakkodo egia:seda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=do
girl=COM
egia:se-da
meet.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
causative
(298)
Sense: odomegodo mida.
sense:
teacher.NOM
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mi-da
see-PST
‘The teacher saw a baby.’
SHOW an Alternation:
lexical argument decreasing alternation
(299)
Are tskubasan nobotta.
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat/acc V
(300)
Ore aregodo jane noboraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
jane
roof.ACC
nobor-ase-da
climb-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him climb the roof.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
causative
(301)
Are samugatteda.
are
3sg.NOM
samugat-te-da
feel.cold-GER.be-PST
‘She/he felt cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(302)
Hono odogo jarokkogodo tamangeragasjta.
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragasj-ta
surprise-PST
‘That man surprised the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(303)
Jarokko ({ot/but})tamangeda.
jarokko
boy.NOM
({ot/but})tamange-da
be.surprised-PST
‘The boy was surprised.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form ({ot/but})tamangeragas-u
(304)
Jarokko hono odogoni tamangeragasareda.
jarokko
boy.NOM
hono
that
odogo=ni
man=LOC
tamangeragas-are-da
surprise-PASS-PST
‘The boy was surprised by that man.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Direct passive
(305)
Ore hono odogonge jarokkogodo tamangeragasaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
hono
that
odogo=nge
man=DAT
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragas-ase-da
surprise-CAUS-PST
‘I made that man surprise the boy.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
causative
(306)
Orenganja aregodo tamangeragaseru.
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
tamangeragas-e-ru
surprise-POT-NPST
‘I can surprise her/him.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
potential
(307)
Ore arenge donatta.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(308)
Ore areni donarareda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
donar-are-da
shout.at-PASS-PST
‘I was shouted at by her/him.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Direct passive
(309)
Ore areni zinarareda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=ni
3sg=LOC
zinar-are-da
shout.at-PASS-PST
‘I was shouted at by her/him.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
indirect passive
(310)
Ore arenge zinatta.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(311)
Ore sengaregodo arenge donaraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=godo
son=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donar-ase-da
shout.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made my son shout at her/him.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
causative
(312)
Ore sengaregodo arenge zinaraseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=godo
son=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinar-ase-da
shout.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made my son shout at her/him.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
causative
(313)
Orenganiwa zinarenena.
ore=ngani=wa
1sg=EXP=TOP
zinar-e-ne=na
shout.at-POT-NEG.NPST=F
‘I cannot shout.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
potential
(314)
Ore amakkonge sonna godo sjtsja oenenatte itta.
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sonna
such
godo
thing.ACC
sj-tsja
do-COND
oene=na=tte
no.good=F=CIT
it-ta
say-PST
‘I said to the girl "It's not good to do such a thing.".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat UTT3 V
(315)
Ore dege: odo ki:da.
ore
1sg.NOM
dege:
big.NPST
odo
sound.ACC
ki:-da
hear-PST
‘I heard a big sound.’
HEAR an Alternation:
lexical argument increasing alternation
(316)
Ore tonarinteni naesjobanasji kigarettsjtta.
ore
1sg.NOM
tonarinte=ni
neighbor=LOC
naesjobanasji
secret.story.ACC
kig-are-ttsjt-ta
hear-PASS-PERF-PST
‘I was affected by my neighbor's hearing of my secret story.’
HEAR the Verb form kig-u
(317)
Ore kodomonge hanasji kigaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
hanasji
story.ACC
kig-ase-da
hear-CAUS-PST
‘I made the child listen to the story.’
HEAR an Alternation:
causative