Object insertion U

Description

Some unergative verbs have their transitive counterparts. In this case, a direct object is added. This alternation is not accompanied by any morphological change.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT ku: N
(1)
amakko
girl.NOM
pan
bread.ACC
kut-ta
eat-PST
‘The girl ate bread.’
HUG dag-u/dakko su-ru N
(5)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dae-de-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
(272)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dakko_sj-te-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
LOOK AT mi-ru N
(10)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’
SEE me:-ru N
(14)
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’
SMELL kang-u nioe N
(15)
nego-me
cat-DIM.NOM
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
ka{e/n}-da
smell-PST
‘The cat caught the mouse's scent.’
FEAR okkanangar-u N
(19)
are=wa
3sg=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanangat-te-k=kara
fear-GER.be-NPST=because
‘She/he fears her/him.’
FRIGHTEN ({ot/but})tamangeragas-u N
(302)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragasj-ta
surprise-PST
‘That man surprised the boy.’
LIKE ski-da N
(23)
ore
1sg.NOM
hosingagi
dried_persimmon.ACC
ski-da
like-COP.NPST
‘I like dried persimmon.’
(278)
ore
1sg.NOM
tonari=no
next=GEN
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
ski=da
like=COP.NPST
‘I like the girl next door.’
LIKE ki-ni er-u N
(24)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
hjto=godo
man=ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like that man.’
(280)
ore
1sg.NOM
manzju:
manju.ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like manju.’
KNOW sir-u N
(25)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘I know that man.’
THINK kangnge:-ru godo N
(28)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge:-da
think-PST
‘I thought about my son.’
SEARCH FOR mekke-ru N
(30)
are
3sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-de-da
look.for-GER.be-PST
‘She/he searched for a ball.’
WASH ara: N
(34)
amakko
girl.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘The girl washed the clothes.’
DRESS kise-ru N
(38)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-da
dress-PST
‘I dressed the girl in a kimono.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sur-u N
(42)
are
3sg.NOM
hinge
mustache.ACC
sut-ta
shave-PST
‘He shaved his beard.’
HELP taske-ru N
(45)
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-da
help-PST
‘She/he helped a girl.’
HELP ske-ru N
(50)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-da
help-PST
‘I helped the girl.’
FOLLOW okkage-ru N
(54)
amakko
girl.NOM
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-da
follow-PST
‘The girl followed the man.’
FOLLOW tuede (e)ng-u N
(58)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuedet-ta
follow-PST
‘The girl followed her/him.’
MEET egia: N
(61)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
(284)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=do
girl=COM
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
TALK hanas-u N
(64)
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanasj-ta
talk-PST
‘She/he talked to that boy about that girl.’
ASK FOR se:sogu su-ru N
(68)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
sj-ta
for-PST
‘That boy asked her/him for the wage.’
SHOUT AT donar-u N
(307)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
TELL hanas-u (2) N
(72)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
hanasj-ta
tell-PST
‘I told the child an old story.’
SAY sjaber-u N
(74)
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaben-nagat-ta
say.IRR-NEG-PST
‘That boy did not say anything to that girl.’
(314)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sonna
such
godo
thing.ACC
sj-tsja
do-COND
oene=na=tte
no.good=F=CIT
it-ta
say-PST
‘I said to the girl "It's not good to do such a thing.".’
NAME jobar-u N
(78)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
hono
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
jobat-ta
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy Taro.’
BUILD tade-ru N
(82)
ore
1sg.NOM
uzi
house.ACC
tade-da
build-PST
‘I built a house.’
BREAK bukkowas-u N
(86)
jarokko
boy.NOM
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowasj-ta
break-PST
‘The boy broke a window.’
KILL koros-u N
(91)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
korosj-ta
kill-PST
‘The boy killed a snake with a stick.’
BREAK sjttsag-u N
(95)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsae-ttjat-ta
break-PERF-PST
‘The boy ripped a shoji screen.’
BEAT buttadag-u N
(100)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadae-da
hit-PST
‘The boy hit a snake with a stick.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (1) N
(104)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=kara
give.NPST=because
‘I hit that man.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (2) N
(108)
jaro=nga
man=POS
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man's head?’
HIT bukkurase-ru (3) N
(109)
jaro=godo
man=ACC
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man on the head?’
TOUCH sa:r-u N
(110)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
TOUCH sa:r-u (2) N
(114)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
CUT kir-u N
(117)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ho:tsjo=de
knife=INST
de:ko
radish.ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘The boy cut a radish with a knife.’
TAKE hindagur-u N
(121)
jarokko
boy.NOM
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagut-ta
take-PST
‘The boy took a pen from the girl.’
TAKE mongir-u N
(125)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongit-ta
take-PST
‘The boy picked a persimmon from a tree.’
TEAR hittsabag-u N
(128)
amakko
girl.NOM
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabae-da
tear-PST
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
PEEL mug-u N
(131)
amakko
girl.NOM
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mue-da
peel-PST
‘The girl peeled the potato.’
HIDE kagus-u N
(134)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagusj-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru N
(138)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed the homework to the teacher.’
(286)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed a baby to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(143)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
kure-da
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE jar-u N
(144)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nge
son=DAT
hon
book.ACC
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
SEND ogur-u N
(145)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to the teacher from the post office.’
(290)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to school from the post office.’
BRING motteng-u N
(149)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to the teacher.’
(292)
amakko
girl.NOM
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to school.’
THROW bunnange-ru N
(153)
are
3sg.NOM
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a stone into the river.’
THROW butske-ru N
(156)
are
3sg.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a ball to me.’
TIE tunang-u N
(160)
are
3sg.NOM
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunae-da
tie-PST
‘She/he tied a horse to the tree.’
PUT og-u N
(164)
are
3sg.NOM
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
oe-da
put-PST
‘He put the book on the table.’
POUR tsung-u N
(167)
are
3sg.NOM
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
eppe:
full
tsue-da
pour-PST
‘She/he poured tea into the cup full.’
COVER kage-ru N
(170)
are
3sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-da
cover-PST
‘She/he covered a child with a blanket.’
FILL ktsieppe-ni su-ru N
(175)
are
3sg.NOM
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
sj-ta
do-PST
‘She/he filled the cup with tea.’
LOAD tsum-u N
(178)
are
3sg.NOM
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsun-da
load-PST
‘She/he loaded hay on the wagon full.’
BLINK mabadagi su-ru N
(181)
amakko
girl.NOM
mabadagi_sj-ta
blink-PST
‘The girl blinked.’
COUGH segi su-ru N
(182)
are
3sg.NOM
segi_sj-ta
cough-PST
‘She/he coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u N
(183)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
(299)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
RUN kage-ru (2) N
(186)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-da
run-PST
‘The boy ran around the corridor.’
SIT sa:r-u (3) N
(189)
are
3sg.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:t-te-ru
sit-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is sitting there.’
SIT DOWN (kosi)kage-ru N
(192)
kodomo
child.NOM
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-da
sit.down-PST
‘The child sat down on the chair.’
JUMP tob-u N
(195)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
niwa=de
garden=INST
ton-de-da
jump-GER.be-PST
‘That boy was jumping in the garden.’
SING uda: R
(198)
jarokko
boy.NOM
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang.’

(200)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ko:ka
school_song.ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a school song.’
GO eng-u N
(202)
jarokko
boy.NOM
egi=sa
station=DAT
et-ta
go-PST
‘The boy went to the station.’
LEAVE doge-ru R
(205)
ore
1sg.NOM
sogo=gara
there=ABL
doge-de
leave-GER
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I left there.’

(207)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=godo
child=ACC
dogasj-ta
let.leave-PST
‘I made a child leave.’
LIVE sum-u N
(208)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sun-de-ru
live-GER.be-NPST
‘The boy lives there.’
LAUGH wara: R
(211)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’

(213)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
warat-te-da=ganna
laugh-GER.be-PST=because.PRT
‘That girl was laughing at her/him.’
SCREAM wameg-u N
(215)
are
3sg.NOM
wame:-da
scream-PST
‘She/he screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ede N
(217)
kesa
this_morning
ore
1sg.NOM
kosi
waist.NOM
ede=na
painful.NPST=F
‘This morning my waist hurt.’
FEEL COLD samue/samugar-u N
(301)
are
3sg.NOM
samugat-te-da
feel.cold-GER.be-PST
‘She/he felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(219)
are
3sg.NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘She/he died.’
PLAY asub-u N
(220)
kodomora
child.PL.NOM
asun-de-ru
play-GER.be-NPST
‘The children are playing.’
BE SAD kanasi:/kanasim-u N
(223)
ore
1sg.NOM
kanasi:
sad.NPST
‘I am sad.’
(295)
are
3sg.NOM
kanasin-de-ru
be_sad-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he feels sad.’
BE HUNGRY hara her-u N
(224)
ora
1sg.TOP
hara
stomach.NOM
het-ta
empty-PST
‘I am hungry.’
ROLL korongar-u N
(226)
bo:ru
ball.NOM
korongat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
SINK sizum-u N
(228)
hune
boat.NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
BURN jage-ru N
(234)
ano
that
uzi
house.NOM
jage-de-ru
burn-GER.be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawag-u N
(236)
hku
clothes.NOM
kawae-da
dry-PST
‘The clothes dried.’
RAIN ame hur-u N
(238)
ame
rain.NOM
hut-te
fall-GER
kj-ta=gara
come-PST=because
esoede
in_a_hurry
kom-e=jo
take_(clothes)_in_the_house-IMP=F
‘Because it begins raining, take the clothes into the house!’
HUNT (FOR) no direct counterpart N
(240)
ore
1sg.NOM
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tot-ta
hunt-PST
‘I hunted a rabbit.’
GRIND sur-u (2) N
(244)
are
3sg.NOM
goma
sesame.ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘She/he ground sesame.’
GRIND hig-u N
(247)
are
3sg.NOM
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hi:-da
grind-PST
‘She/he ground buckwheat with a millstone.’
WIPE hug-u N
(250)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru
table.ACC
hue-da
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped a table.’
WIPE nugu: N
(253)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru=no
table=GEN
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
mizu
water.ACC
nugut-ta
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped the water from the table.’
DIG hor-u (1) N
(256)
ore
1sg.NOM
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘I dug a hole in the field above.’
DIG hor-u (2) N
(259)
are
3sg.NOM
emo
potato.ACC
hot-te-ru
dig-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u N
(262)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
osj-ta
push-PST
‘The girl pushed her/his back.’
STEAL nusum-u N
(266)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘The girl stole the teacher's book.’
TEACH ose:-ru N
(271)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
su:ngagu
mathematics.ACC
ose:-da
teach-PST
‘The teacher taught me math.’
HEAR kige-ru N
(281)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
ano
that
odo
sound.NOM
kige-ru
hear-NPST
‘I can hear that sound.’
COOK no verbal counterpart N
BOIL wag-u N
(283)
oi
hot_water.NOM
wae-da
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
SHOUT AT zinar-u N
(310)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
HEAR kig-u N
(315)
ore
1sg.NOM
dege:
big.NPST
odo
sound.ACC
ki:-da
hear-PST
‘I heard a big sound.’