potential C

Description

The potential predicate is formed through suffixation of the potential suffixes /e/ and /rare/. The allomorph is determined by the phonological shape of the verb root. When the verb root ends with a consonant, /e/ is selected. For the other cases /rare/ is selected. The potential construction describes the ability of the agent. The agent is case-marked with the experiencer case particle =ngani. The case-marking of the internal argument is the same as that of the corresponding active sentence. A consequence of the existence of the potential construction is the high productivity of the oblique subject constructions in this dialect.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT ku: R
(1)
amakko
girl.NOM
pan
bread.ACC
kut-ta
eat-PST
‘The girl ate bread.’

(4)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
sore
that.ACC
ku-e-ne
eat-POT-NEG.NPST
‘I cannot eat that.’
HUG dag-u/dakko su-ru R
(5)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dae-de-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
(272)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dakko_sj-te-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’

(9)
ima=dara
now=COND
ka:tjan=ngani
mother=EXP
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dag-e-ru
hold-POT-NPST
‘Now the mother can hug the baby.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(10)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’

(14)
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’
SEE me:-ru N
(14)
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’
SMELL kang-u nioe R
(15)
nego-me
cat-DIM.NOM
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
ka{e/n}-da
smell-PST
‘The cat caught the mouse's scent.’

(18)
kono
this
nego=ngani=wa
cat=EXP=TOP
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-e-ru
smell-POT-NPST
‘This cat has a good nose.’
FEAR okkanangar-u N
(19)
are=wa
3sg=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanangat-te-k=kara
fear-GER.be-NPST=because
‘She/he fears her/him.’
LIKE ski-da N
(23)
ore
1sg.NOM
hosingagi
dried_persimmon.ACC
ski-da
like-COP.NPST
‘I like dried persimmon.’
(278)
ore
1sg.NOM
tonari=no
next=GEN
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
ski=da
like=COP.NPST
‘I like the girl next door.’
LIKE ki-ni er-u N
(24)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
hjto=godo
man=ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like that man.’
(280)
ore
1sg.NOM
manzju:
manju.ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like manju.’
KNOW sir-u N
(25)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘I know that man.’
THINK kangnge:-ru godo
(28)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge:-da
think-PST
‘I thought about my son.’
SEARCH FOR mekke-ru R
(30)
are
3sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-de-da
look.for-GER.be-PST
‘She/he searched for a ball.’

(33)
ano
that
amakko=ngani=wa
girl=EXP=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
mekke-rare-ru
look_for-POT-NPST
‘That girl can search for her/him.’
WASH ara: R
(34)
amakko
girl.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘The girl washed the clothes.’

(37)
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hitonde
alone
hku
clothes.ACC
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wash the clothes by herself.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(38)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-da
dress-PST
‘I dressed the girl in a kimono.’

(41)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-rare-ru
dress-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dress (someone) in a kimono well.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sur-u R
(42)
are
3sg.NOM
hinge
mustache.ACC
sut-ta
shave-PST
‘He shaved his beard.’

(44)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
hinge
mustache.ACC
sur-e-ru
shave-POT-NPST
‘He can shave his beard well.’
HELP taske-ru R
(45)
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-da
help-PST
‘She/he helped a girl.’

(49)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-rare-be:
help-POT-may
‘She/he can help the girl.’
HELP ske-ru R
(50)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-da
help-PST
‘I helped the girl.’

(53)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-rare-be:
help-POT-may
‘She/he can help the girl.’
FOLLOW okkage-ru R
(54)
amakko
girl.NOM
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-da
follow-PST
‘The girl followed the man.’

(57)
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
ano
that
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-rare-ru
follow-POT-NPST
‘That girl can follow that man.’
FOLLOW tuede (e)ng-u
(58)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuedet-ta
follow-PST
‘The girl followed her/him.’
MEET egia: R
(61)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
(284)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=do
girl=COM
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’

(63)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
amakko=do
girl=COM
egia-e-ru
meet-POT-NPST
‘She/he can meet the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(64)
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanasj-ta
talk-PST
‘She/he talked to that boy about that girl.’

(67)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘She/he can talk to that boy about that girl.’
ASK FOR se:sogu su-ru R
(68)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
sj-ta
for-PST
‘That boy asked her/him for the wage.’

(71)
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask_for
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘That boy can ask her/him for the wage.’
TELL hanas-u (2) R
(72)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
hanasj-ta
tell-PST
‘I told the child an old story.’

(73)
ano
that
basama=ngani
old_lady=EXP
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
u:nto
many
sit-te-k=kara
know-GER.be-NPST=because
hanas-e-ru
tell-POT-NPST
‘That old lady can tell a story because she knows many old stories.’
SAY sjaber-u R
(74)
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaben-nagat-ta
say.IRR-NEG-PST
‘That boy did not say anything to that girl.’
(314)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sonna
such
godo
thing.ACC
sj-tsja
do-COND
oene=na=tte
no.good=F=CIT
it-ta
say-PST
‘I said to the girl "It's not good to do such a thing.".’

(77)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaber-e-nagat-ta
say-POT-NEG-PST
‘She/he could not say anything.’
NAME jobar-u R
(78)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
hono
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
jobat-ta
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy Taro.’

(81)
are=nganja
3sg=EXP.TOP
ome=godo
2sg=ACC
name:=de
first_name=INST
job-e-p-pe=na
call-POT-NPST-may=F
‘She/he may be able to call you by your first name.’
BUILD tade-ru R
(82)
ore
1sg.NOM
uzi
house.ACC
tade-da
build-PST
‘I built a house.’

(85)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
uzi
house.ACC
tade-rare-ru
build-POT-NPST
‘I can build a house.’
BREAK bukkowas-u R
(86)
jarokko
boy.NOM
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowasj-ta
break-PST
‘The boy broke a window.’

(90)
ano
that
jaro=nganja
man=EXP.TOP
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowas-e-me:
break-POT-may_not
‘That man may not be able to break a window.’
KILL koros-u R
(91)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
korosj-ta
kill-PST
‘The boy killed a snake with a stick.’

(94)
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
koros-e-ru
kill-POT-NPST
‘That boy can kill a snake.’
BREAK sjttsag-u R
(95)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsae-ttjat-ta
break-PERF-PST
‘The boy ripped a shoji screen.’

(99)
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsag-u
break-POT
godo
thing.ACC
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘That boy can rip a shoji screen.’
BEAT buttadag-u R
(100)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadae-da
hit-PST
‘The boy hit a snake with a stick.’

(103)
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadag-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘That boy can hit a snake.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (1) R
(104)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=kara
give.NPST=because
‘I hit that man.’

(107)
are=nganja
3sg=EXP.TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
bukkurase-ram-me=na
hit-POT-may_not=F
‘She/he may not be able to hit her/him.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (2)
(108)
jaro=nga
man=POS
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man's head?’
HIT bukkurase-ru (3)
(109)
jaro=godo
man=ACC
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man on the head?’
TOUCH sa:r-u R
(110)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’

(113)
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:r-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘That boy can touch a snake.’
TOUCH sa:r-u (2) R
(114)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’

(116)
ano
that
jarokko=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:r-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘That boy can touch a snake.’
CUT kir-u R
(117)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ho:tsjo=de
knife=INST
de:ko
radish.ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘The boy cut a radish with a knife.’

(120)
oratsji=no
my_home=GEN
jaro=nganja
boy=EXP.TOP
de:ko
radish.ACC
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘My son can cut a radish.’
TAKE hindagur-u R
(121)
jarokko
boy.NOM
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagut-ta
take-PST
‘The boy took a pen from the girl.’

(124)
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
pen
pen.ACC
hindagur-e-ru
take-POT-NPST
‘That boy can take a pen.’
TAKE mongir-u R
(125)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongit-ta
take-PST
‘The boy picked a persimmon from a tree.’

(127)
ome=ngani
2sg=EXP
ue=no
above=GEN
ho:=na
around=ADNLOC
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongir-e-p-pe=na
take-POT-NPST-may=F
‘Can you pick a persimmon from the upper part of the tree?’
TEAR hittsabag-u R
(128)
amakko
girl.NOM
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabae-da
tear-PST
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’

(130)
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabag-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘The girl can tear the page from the book.’
PEEL mug-u R
(131)
amakko
girl.NOM
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mue-da
peel-PST
‘The girl peeled the potato.’

(133)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mug-e-ru
peel-POT-NPST
‘She/he can peel the potato well.’
HIDE kagus-u R
(134)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagusj-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(137)
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hon
book.ACC
kakus-e-be=na
hide-POT-may=F
‘That girl may be able to hide the book.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(138)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed the homework to the teacher.’
(286)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed a baby to the teacher.’

(142)
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-{rare/re}-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘The girl can show the homework to the teacher.’
(289)
ano
that
amakko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-{rare/re}-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘The girl can show a baby to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(143)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
kure-da
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE jar-u N
(144)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nge
son=DAT
hon
book.ACC
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
SEND ogur-u R
(145)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to the teacher from the post office.’
(290)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to school from the post office.’

(148)
musumekko=nganja
girl=EXP.TOP
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
ogur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The girl can send a book to the teacher.’
BRING motteng-u R
(149)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to the teacher.’
(292)
amakko
girl.NOM
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to school.’

(152)
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
motteng-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry a book to the teacher.’
THROW bunnange-ru R
(153)
are
3sg.NOM
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a stone into the river.’

(155)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
go:rigi=dagara
powerful=because
esi
stone.ACC
bunnange-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘Because she/he is powerful, she/he can throw a stone.’
THROW butske-ru R
(156)
are
3sg.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a ball to me.’

(159)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
dare=nge-demo
who=DAT-even
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘She/he can throw a ball to anyone.’
TIE tunang-u R
(160)
are
3sg.NOM
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunae-da
tie-PST
‘She/he tied a horse to the tree.’

(163)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mma=godo
horse=ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunang-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘She/he can tie a horse to the tree well.’
PUT og-u R
(164)
are
3sg.NOM
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
oe-da
put-PST
‘He put the book on the table.’

(166)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
kono
this
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
og-e-ru=jo
put-POT-NPST=F
‘She/he can put a book on this desk.’
POUR tsung-u R
(167)
are
3sg.NOM
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
eppe:
full
tsue-da
pour-PST
‘She/he poured tea into the cup full.’

(169)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ozja
tea.ACC
umagu
well.ADV
tsung-e-ne
pour-POT-NEG.NPST
‘She/he can pour tea well.’
COVER kage-ru R
(170)
are
3sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-da
cover-PST
‘She/he covered a child with a blanket.’

(174)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
me:
eye.ACC
same-sase-ne-de
awaken-CAUS-NEG-GER
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘She/he can cover the child with the blanket without letting the child awaken.’
FILL ktsieppe-ni su-ru R
(175)
are
3sg.NOM
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
sj-ta
do-PST
‘She/he filled the cup with tea.’

(177)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
hadaragimon=dagara
hardworker=because
nagaja
barn.ACC
sazuma=de
sweet_potato=INST
eppe-ni
full-ADV
degi-ru
can-NPST
‘Because she/he is a hardworker, she/he can fill the barn with sweet potatoes.’
LOAD tsum-u R
(178)
are
3sg.NOM
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsun-da
load-PST
‘She/he loaded hay on the wagon full.’

(180)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
nimotsu
baggage.ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
tsum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘She/he can load hay on the wagon well.’
BLINK mabadagi su-ru N
(181)
amakko
girl.NOM
mabadagi_sj-ta
blink-PST
‘The girl blinked.’
COUGH segi su-ru N
(182)
are
3sg.NOM
segi_sj-ta
cough-PST
‘She/he coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u R
(183)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
(299)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’

(185)
are=ngani=wa
3sg=EXP=TOP
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobor-e-be=na
climb-POT-may=F
‘She/he may be able to climb Mt. Tsukuba.’
RUN kage-ru (2) R
(186)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-da
run-PST
‘The boy ran around the corridor.’

(188)
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
subajagu
fast
kage-rare-ru
run-POT-NPST
‘The boy can run fast.’
SIT sa:r-u (3) R
(189)
are
3sg.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:t-te-ru
sit-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is sitting there.’

(191)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
ezumademo
forever
sa:r-e-ru
sit-POT-NPST
‘She/he can sit for a long time.’
SIT DOWN (kosi)kage-ru R
(192)
kodomo
child.NOM
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-da
sit.down-PST
‘The child sat down on the chair.’

(194)
ano
that
kodomo=ngani
child=EXP
egagu
big.ADV
nat-ta=nde
become-PST=because
hjtonde
alone
kosikage-rare-ru=jo:ni
sit.down-POT-NPST=like
nat-ta
become-PST
‘The child became big and she/he could sit down by herself/himself.’
JUMP tob-u R
(195)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
niwa=de
garden=INST
ton-de-da
jump-GER.be-PST
‘That boy was jumping in the garden.’

(197)
ano
that
jarokko=ngani=wa
boy=EXP=TOP
tagagu
high
tob-e-be=na
jump-POT-may=F
‘That boy may be able to jump high.’
SING uda: R
(198)
jarokko
boy.NOM
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang.’

(201)
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
uda-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘The boy can sing well.’
GO eng-u R
(202)
jarokko
boy.NOM
egi=sa
station=DAT
et-ta
go-PST
‘The boy went to the station.’

(204)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
sogo=sa
there=DAT
eng-e-ru=jo
go-POT-NPST=F
‘She/he can go there.’
LEAVE doge-ru
(205)
ore
1sg.NOM
sogo=gara
there=ABL
doge-de
leave-GER
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I left there.’
LIVE sum-u R
(208)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sun-de-ru
live-GER.be-NPST
‘The boy lives there.’

(210)
ano
that
jarokko=ngani
boy=EXP
semai
small
heja=de=mo
room=INST=even
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘That boy can live even in the small room.’
LAUGH wara: R
(211)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
SCREAM wameg-u N
(215)
are
3sg.NOM
wame:-da
scream-PST
‘She/he screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ede N
(217)
kesa
this_morning
ore
1sg.NOM
kosi
waist.NOM
ede=na
painful.NPST=F
‘This morning my waist hurt.’
FEEL COLD samue/samugar-u N
(301)
are
3sg.NOM
samugat-te-da
feel.cold-GER.be-PST
‘She/he felt cold.’
DIE sin-u R
(219)
are
3sg.NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘She/he died.’
PLAY asub-u R
(220)
kodomora
child.PL.NOM
asun-de-ru
play-GER.be-NPST
‘The children are playing.’

(222)
ano
that
kodomo=ngani=wa
child=EXP=TOP
hjtonde
alone
asub-e-ru
play-POT-NPST
‘That child can play by herself/himself.’
BE SAD kanasi:/kanasim-u N
(223)
ore
1sg.NOM
kanasi:
sad.NPST
‘I am sad.’
(295)
are
3sg.NOM
kanasin-de-ru
be_sad-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he feels sad.’
BE HUNGRY hara her-u N
(224)
ora
1sg.TOP
hara
stomach.NOM
het-ta
empty-PST
‘I am hungry.’
ROLL korongar-u N
(226)
bo:ru
ball.NOM
korongat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
SINK sizum-u N
(228)
hune
boat.NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
BURN jage-ru N
(234)
ano
that
uzi
house.NOM
jage-de-ru
burn-GER.be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawag-u N
(236)
hku
clothes.NOM
kawae-da
dry-PST
‘The clothes dried.’
RAIN ame hur-u N
(238)
ame
rain.NOM
hut-te
fall-GER
kj-ta=gara
come-PST=because
esoede
in_a_hurry
kom-e=jo
take_(clothes)_in_the_house-IMP=F
‘Because it begins raining, take the clothes into the house!’
HUNT (FOR) no direct counterpart R
(240)
ore
1sg.NOM
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tot-ta
hunt-PST
‘I hunted a rabbit.’
GRIND sur-u (2) R
(244)
are
3sg.NOM
goma
sesame.ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘She/he ground sesame.’

(246)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
goma
sesame.ACC
sur-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘She/he can grind sesame well.’
GRIND hig-u R
(247)
are
3sg.NOM
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hi:-da
grind-PST
‘She/he ground buckwheat with a millstone.’

(249)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hig-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘She/he can grind buckwheat with a millstone.’
WIPE hug-u R
(250)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru
table.ACC
hue-da
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped a table.’

(252)
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
te:buru
table.ACC
hug-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘The girl can wipe the table well.’
WIPE nugu: R
(253)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru=no
table=GEN
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
mizu
water.ACC
nugut-ta
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped the water from the table.’

(255)
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
mizu
water
mmagu
well.ADV
nugu-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘The girl can wipe the water well.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(256)
ore
1sg.NOM
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘I dug a hole in the field above.’

(258)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
sunguni
immediately
medo
hole.ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dig a hole soon.’
DIG hor-u (2) R
(259)
are
3sg.NOM
emo
potato.ACC
hot-te-ru
dig-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is digging for potatoes.’

(261)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
mmagu
well.ADV
emo
potato.ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘She/he can dig for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u R
(262)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
osj-ta
push-PST
‘The girl pushed her/his back.’

(265)
ano
that
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That girl can push her/his back.’
STEAL nusum-u R
(266)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘The girl stole the teacher's book.’

(269)
amakko=ngani
girl=EXP
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusum-e-ru
steal-POT-NPST
‘The girl can steal the teacher's book.’
TEACH ose:-ru R
(271)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
su:ngagu
mathematics.ACC
ose:-da
teach-PST
‘The teacher taught me math.’

(279)
are=ngani
3sg=EXP
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mmagu
well.ADV
kore
this.ACC
ose-rare-ru
teach-POT-NPST
‘She/he can teach this to her/him well.’
HEAR kige-ru N
(281)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
ano
that
odo
sound.NOM
kige-ru
hear-NPST
‘I can hear that sound.’
BOIL wag-u N
(283)
oi
hot_water.NOM
wae-da
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
FRIGHTEN ({ot/but})tamangeragas-u
(302)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragasj-ta
surprise-PST
‘That man surprised the boy.’
SHOUT AT donar-u
(307)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
COOK no verbal counterpart N
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
SHOUT AT zinar-u R
(310)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’

(313)
ore=ngani=wa
1sg=EXP=TOP
zinar-e-ne=na
shout.at-POT-NEG.NPST=F
‘I cannot shout.’
HEAR kig-u
(315)
ore
1sg.NOM
dege:
big.NPST
odo
sound.ACC
ki:-da
hear-PST
‘I heard a big sound.’