lexical argument increasing alternation C

Description

Suffixation of lexical transitivity alternation suffixes -e and -as
results in this alternation. The agent argument is introduced into the subject position and the theme argument of the corresponding intransitive verb is demoted to direct object.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT ku: N
(1)
amakko
girl.NOM
pan
bread.ACC
kut-ta
eat-PST
‘The girl ate bread.’
HUG dag-u/dakko su-ru N
(5)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dae-de-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
(272)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dakko_sj-te-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
LOOK AT mi-ru N
(10)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’
SMELL kang-u nioe N
(15)
nego-me
cat-DIM.NOM
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
ka{e/n}-da
smell-PST
‘The cat caught the mouse's scent.’
FEAR okkanangar-u N
(19)
are=wa
3sg=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanangat-te-k=kara
fear-GER.be-NPST=because
‘She/he fears her/him.’
LIKE ski-da N
(23)
ore
1sg.NOM
hosingagi
dried_persimmon.ACC
ski-da
like-COP.NPST
‘I like dried persimmon.’
(278)
ore
1sg.NOM
tonari=no
next=GEN
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
ski=da
like=COP.NPST
‘I like the girl next door.’
LIKE ki-ni er-u N
(24)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
hjto=godo
man=ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like that man.’
(280)
ore
1sg.NOM
manzju:
manju.ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like manju.’
KNOW sir-u N
(25)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘I know that man.’
THINK kangnge:-ru godo N
(28)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge:-da
think-PST
‘I thought about my son.’
SEARCH FOR mekke-ru N
(30)
are
3sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-de-da
look.for-GER.be-PST
‘She/he searched for a ball.’
WASH ara: N
(34)
amakko
girl.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘The girl washed the clothes.’
DRESS kise-ru N
(38)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-da
dress-PST
‘I dressed the girl in a kimono.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sur-u N
(42)
are
3sg.NOM
hinge
mustache.ACC
sut-ta
shave-PST
‘He shaved his beard.’
HELP taske-ru N
(45)
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-da
help-PST
‘She/he helped a girl.’
HELP ske-ru N
(50)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-da
help-PST
‘I helped the girl.’
FOLLOW okkage-ru N
(54)
amakko
girl.NOM
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-da
follow-PST
‘The girl followed the man.’
FOLLOW tuede (e)ng-u N
(58)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuedet-ta
follow-PST
‘The girl followed her/him.’
MEET egia: N
(61)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
(284)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=do
girl=COM
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
TALK hanas-u N
(64)
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanasj-ta
talk-PST
‘She/he talked to that boy about that girl.’
ASK FOR se:sogu su-ru N
(68)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
sj-ta
for-PST
‘That boy asked her/him for the wage.’
TELL hanas-u (2) N
(72)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
hanasj-ta
tell-PST
‘I told the child an old story.’
SAY sjaber-u N
(74)
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaben-nagat-ta
say.IRR-NEG-PST
‘That boy did not say anything to that girl.’
(314)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sonna
such
godo
thing.ACC
sj-tsja
do-COND
oene=na=tte
no.good=F=CIT
it-ta
say-PST
‘I said to the girl "It's not good to do such a thing.".’
NAME jobar-u N
(78)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
hono
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
jobat-ta
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy Taro.’
BUILD tade-ru N
(82)
ore
1sg.NOM
uzi
house.ACC
tade-da
build-PST
‘I built a house.’
BREAK bukkowas-u N
(86)
jarokko
boy.NOM
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowasj-ta
break-PST
‘The boy broke a window.’
KILL koros-u N
(91)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
korosj-ta
kill-PST
‘The boy killed a snake with a stick.’
BREAK sjttsag-u N
(95)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsae-ttjat-ta
break-PERF-PST
‘The boy ripped a shoji screen.’
BEAT buttadag-u N
(100)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadae-da
hit-PST
‘The boy hit a snake with a stick.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (1) N
(104)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=kara
give.NPST=because
‘I hit that man.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (2) N
(108)
jaro=nga
man=POS
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man's head?’
HIT bukkurase-ru (3) N
(109)
jaro=godo
man=ACC
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man on the head?’
TOUCH sa:r-u N
(110)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
TOUCH sa:r-u (2) N
(114)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’
CUT kir-u N
(117)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ho:tsjo=de
knife=INST
de:ko
radish.ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘The boy cut a radish with a knife.’
TAKE hindagur-u N
(121)
jarokko
boy.NOM
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagut-ta
take-PST
‘The boy took a pen from the girl.’
TAKE mongir-u N
(125)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongit-ta
take-PST
‘The boy picked a persimmon from a tree.’
TEAR hittsabag-u N
(128)
amakko
girl.NOM
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabae-da
tear-PST
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
PEEL mug-u N
(131)
amakko
girl.NOM
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mue-da
peel-PST
‘The girl peeled the potato.’
HIDE kagus-u N
(134)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagusj-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru N
(138)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed the homework to the teacher.’
(286)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed a baby to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(143)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
kure-da
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE jar-u N
(144)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nge
son=DAT
hon
book.ACC
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
SEND ogur-u N
(145)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to the teacher from the post office.’
(290)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to school from the post office.’
BRING motteng-u N
(149)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to the teacher.’
(292)
amakko
girl.NOM
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to school.’
THROW bunnange-ru N
(153)
are
3sg.NOM
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a stone into the river.’
THROW butske-ru N
(156)
are
3sg.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a ball to me.’
TIE tunang-u N
(160)
are
3sg.NOM
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunae-da
tie-PST
‘She/he tied a horse to the tree.’
PUT og-u N
(164)
are
3sg.NOM
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
oe-da
put-PST
‘He put the book on the table.’
POUR tsung-u N
(167)
are
3sg.NOM
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
eppe:
full
tsue-da
pour-PST
‘She/he poured tea into the cup full.’
COVER kage-ru N
(170)
are
3sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-da
cover-PST
‘She/he covered a child with a blanket.’
FILL ktsieppe-ni su-ru N
(175)
are
3sg.NOM
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
sj-ta
do-PST
‘She/he filled the cup with tea.’
LOAD tsum-u N
(178)
are
3sg.NOM
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsun-da
load-PST
‘She/he loaded hay on the wagon full.’
BLINK mabadagi su-ru N
(181)
amakko
girl.NOM
mabadagi_sj-ta
blink-PST
‘The girl blinked.’
COUGH segi su-ru N
(182)
are
3sg.NOM
segi_sj-ta
cough-PST
‘She/he coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u N
(183)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
(299)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
RUN kage-ru (2) N
(186)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-da
run-PST
‘The boy ran around the corridor.’
SIT sa:r-u (3) N
(189)
are
3sg.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:t-te-ru
sit-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is sitting there.’
SIT DOWN (kosi)kage-ru N
(192)
kodomo
child.NOM
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-da
sit.down-PST
‘The child sat down on the chair.’
JUMP tob-u N
(195)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
niwa=de
garden=INST
ton-de-da
jump-GER.be-PST
‘That boy was jumping in the garden.’
SING uda: N
(198)
jarokko
boy.NOM
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang.’
GO eng-u N
(202)
jarokko
boy.NOM
egi=sa
station=DAT
et-ta
go-PST
‘The boy went to the station.’
LEAVE doge-ru N
(205)
ore
1sg.NOM
sogo=gara
there=ABL
doge-de
leave-GER
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I left there.’
LIVE sum-u N
(208)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sun-de-ru
live-GER.be-NPST
‘The boy lives there.’
LAUGH wara: N
(211)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
SCREAM wameg-u N
(215)
are
3sg.NOM
wame:-da
scream-PST
‘She/he screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ede N
(217)
kesa
this_morning
ore
1sg.NOM
kosi
waist.NOM
ede=na
painful.NPST=F
‘This morning my waist hurt.’
FEEL COLD samue/samugar-u N
(301)
are
3sg.NOM
samugat-te-da
feel.cold-GER.be-PST
‘She/he felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(219)
are
3sg.NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘She/he died.’
PLAY asub-u N
(220)
kodomora
child.PL.NOM
asun-de-ru
play-GER.be-NPST
‘The children are playing.’
BE SAD kanasi:/kanasim-u N
(223)
ore
1sg.NOM
kanasi:
sad.NPST
‘I am sad.’
(295)
are
3sg.NOM
kanasin-de-ru
be_sad-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he feels sad.’
BE HUNGRY hara her-u M
(224)
ora
1sg.TOP
hara
stomach.NOM
het-ta
empty-PST
‘I am hungry.’
ROLL korongar-u R
(226)
bo:ru
ball.NOM
korongat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’

(227)
ore
1sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
korongasj-ta
roll-PST
‘I rolled a ball.’
SINK sizum-u R
(228)
hune
boat.NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’

(229)
ore
1sg.NOM
hune
boat.ACC
sizume-da
sink-PST
‘I sank the boat.’
BURN jage-ru R
(234)
ano
that
uzi
house.NOM
jage-de-ru
burn-GER.be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’

(235)
are
3sg.NOM
hi=no
fire=GEN
husimazu=de
carelessness=INST
uzi
house.ACC
jae-tsit-ta
let.burn-PERF-PST
‘She/he got her/his house burned because she/he did not watch the fire properly.’
BE DRY kawag-u R
(236)
hku
clothes.NOM
kawae-da
dry-PST
‘The clothes dried.’

(237)
ore
1sg.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
kawagasj-ta
dry-PST
‘I dried the clothes.’
RAIN ame hur-u N
(238)
ame
rain.NOM
hut-te
fall-GER
kj-ta=gara
come-PST=because
esoede
in_a_hurry
kom-e=jo
take_(clothes)_in_the_house-IMP=F
‘Because it begins raining, take the clothes into the house!’
HUNT (FOR) no direct counterpart N
(240)
ore
1sg.NOM
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tot-ta
hunt-PST
‘I hunted a rabbit.’
GRIND sur-u (2) N
(244)
are
3sg.NOM
goma
sesame.ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘She/he ground sesame.’
GRIND hig-u N
(247)
are
3sg.NOM
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hi:-da
grind-PST
‘She/he ground buckwheat with a millstone.’
WIPE hug-u N
(250)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru
table.ACC
hue-da
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped a table.’
WIPE nugu: N
(253)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru=no
table=GEN
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
mizu
water.ACC
nugut-ta
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped the water from the table.’
DIG hor-u (1) N
(256)
ore
1sg.NOM
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘I dug a hole in the field above.’
DIG hor-u (2) N
(259)
are
3sg.NOM
emo
potato.ACC
hot-te-ru
dig-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u N
(262)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
osj-ta
push-PST
‘The girl pushed her/his back.’
STEAL nusum-u N
(266)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘The girl stole the teacher's book.’
TEACH ose:-ru N
(271)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
su:ngagu
mathematics.ACC
ose:-da
teach-PST
‘The teacher taught me math.’
HEAR kige-ru M
(281)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
ano
that
odo
sound.NOM
kige-ru
hear-NPST
‘I can hear that sound.’
BOIL wag-u R
(283)
oi
hot_water.NOM
wae-da
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’

(285)
ore
1sg.NOM
oi
hot_water.ACC
wagasj-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’
FRIGHTEN ({ot/but})tamangeragas-u
(302)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragasj-ta
surprise-PST
‘That man surprised the boy.’
SHOUT AT donar-u
(307)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
COOK no verbal counterpart N
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
SEE me:-ru R
(14)
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’

(10)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’
SHOUT AT zinar-u
(310)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’
HEAR kig-u
(315)
ore
1sg.NOM
dege:
big.NPST
odo
sound.ACC
ki:-da
hear-PST
‘I heard a big sound.’