causative C

Description

The causative predicate is formed through suffixation of /sase/. The causer is case-marked in the nominative. The subject in the corresponding active sentence, i.e., causee, is case-marked in the accusative or the dative. Case-marking of causee depends on the transitivity of the embedded verb. When the embedded verb is intransitive, causee is case-marked in the accusative. When the embedded verb is transitive, causee is case-marked in the dative. The
case-marking of the internal argument of the embedded verb remains intact.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT ku: R
(1)
amakko
girl.NOM
pan
bread.ACC
kut-ta
eat-PST
‘The girl ate bread.’

(2)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
pan
bread.ACC
kase-da
eat.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him eat bread.’
HUG dag-u/dakko su-ru R
(5)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dae-de-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’
(272)
ka:tjan
mother.NOM
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dakko_sj-te-da
hold-GER.be-PST
‘Mother hugged the baby.’

(6)
ore
1sg.NOM
ka:tjan=nge
mother=DAT
agambo=godo
baby=ACC
dag-ase-da
hold-CAUS-PST
‘I made my wife hug the baby.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(10)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-da
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at the boy.’

(11)
ore
1sg.NOM
hono
that
odogo=nge
man=DAT
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
mi-rase-da
look.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made that man look at the boy.’
SEE me:-ru N
(14)
ore=nganja
1sg=EXP.TOP
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
me:-da
see.POT-PST
‘I could see the boy.’
SMELL kang-u nioe R
(15)
nego-me
cat-DIM.NOM
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
ka{e/n}-da
smell-PST
‘The cat caught the mouse's scent.’

(16)
ore
1sg.NOM
nego=nge
cat=DAT
nezumi=nga
mouse=POS
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-ase-da
smell-CAUS-PST
‘I made the cat smell the mouse.’
FEAR okkanangar-u R
(19)
are=wa
3sg=TOP
are=godo
3sg=ACC
okkanangat-te-k=kara
fear-GER.be-NPST=because
‘She/he fears her/him.’

(20)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
okkanangar-ase-da
fear-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him fear that boy.’
LIKE ski-da N
(23)
ore
1sg.NOM
hosingagi
dried_persimmon.ACC
ski-da
like-COP.NPST
‘I like dried persimmon.’
(278)
ore
1sg.NOM
tonari=no
next=GEN
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
ski=da
like=COP.NPST
‘I like the girl next door.’
LIKE ki-ni er-u N
(24)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
hjto=godo
man=ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like that man.’
(280)
ore
1sg.NOM
manzju:
manju.ACC
kini_et-ta
like-PST
‘I like manju.’
KNOW sir-u R
(25)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘I know that man.’

(26)
are=nge
3sg=DAT
sore
that.ACC
sir-ase-naku-tja
know-CAUS-NEG.ADV-GER.TOP
‘(I have to) make her/him know about that.’
THINK kangnge:-ru godo R
(28)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge:-da
think-PST
‘I thought about my son.’

(29)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
sengare=nga
oldest_son=POS
godo
thing.ACC
kangnge-rase-da
think-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him think about her/his son.’
SEARCH FOR mekke-ru R
(30)
are
3sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-de-da
look.for-GER.be-PST
‘She/he searched for a ball.’

(31)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
mekke-rase-da
look.for-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him search for a ball.’
WASH ara: R
(34)
amakko
girl.NOM
hku
clothes.ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘The girl washed the clothes.’

(35)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hku
clothes.ACC
ara:se-da
wash.CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wash the clothes.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(38)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono.ACC
kise-da
dress-PST
‘I dressed the girl in a kimono.’

(39)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
kimono
kimono
kise-rase-da
dress-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dress the girl in a kimono.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sur-u R
(42)
are
3sg.NOM
hinge
mustache.ACC
sut-ta
shave-PST
‘He shaved his beard.’

(43)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
hinge
mustache.ACC
sur-ase-da
shave-CAUS-PST
‘I made him shave his beard.’
HELP taske-ru R
(45)
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-da
help-PST
‘She/he helped a girl.’

(46)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
taske-rase-da
help-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him help the girl.’
HELP ske-ru R
(50)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-da
help-PST
‘I helped the girl.’

(51)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
ske-rase-da
help-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him help the girl.’
FOLLOW okkage-ru R
(54)
amakko
girl.NOM
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-da
follow-PST
‘The girl followed the man.’

(55)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
odogo=godo
man=ACC
okkage-rase-da
follow-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl follow the man.’
FOLLOW tuede (e)ng-u R
(58)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuedet-ta
follow-PST
‘The girl followed her/him.’

(59)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tuede_eng-ase-da
follow-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl follow her/him.’
MEET egia: R
(61)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’
(284)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=do
girl=COM
egiat-ta=jo
meet-PST=F
‘I met that girl.’

(62)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=ni
girl=LOC
egia:se-da
meet.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him meet the girl.’
(297)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
amakko=do
girl=COM
egia:se-da
meet.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him meet the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(64)
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanasj-ta
talk-PST
‘She/he talked to that boy about that girl.’

(65)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ano
that
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
hanas-ase-da
talk-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him talk to that boy about that girl.’
ASK FOR se:sogu su-ru R
(68)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage.ACC
se:sogu
ask
sj-ta
for-PST
‘That boy asked her/him for the wage.’

(69)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
are=nge
3sg=DAT
tema
wage
se:sogu
ask
s-ase-da
for-CAUS-PST
‘I made that boy ask her/him for the wage.’
TELL hanas-u (2)
(72)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mugasi=no
past=GEN
kodo
thing.ACC
hanasj-ta
tell-PST
‘I told the child an old story.’
SAY sjaber-u R
(74)
ano
that
jaro
man.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
nanimo
anything.ACC
sjaben-nagat-ta
say.IRR-NEG-PST
‘That boy did not say anything to that girl.’
(314)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sonna
such
godo
thing.ACC
sj-tsja
do-COND
oene=na=tte
no.good=F=CIT
it-ta
say-PST
‘I said to the girl "It's not good to do such a thing.".’

(75)
are
3sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=nge
man=DAT
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sore
that.ACC
sjaber-ase-da
say-CAUS-PST
‘She/he made that boy say it to that girl.’
NAME jobar-u R
(78)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
hono
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
jobat-ta
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy Taro.’

(79)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
minna=nge
all=DAT
zibun=godo
self=ACC
taro:=tte
Taro=CIT
job-ase-de-n=da=do
call-CAUS-GER.be-NPST.NMNLZ=COP=F
‘That boy makes everybody call him Taro.’
BUILD tade-ru R
(82)
ore
1sg.NOM
uzi
house.ACC
tade-da
build-PST
‘I built a house.’

(83)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
uzi
house.ACC
tade-rase-da
build-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him build the house.’
BREAK bukkowas-u R
(86)
jarokko
boy.NOM
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowasj-ta
break-PST
‘The boy broke a window.’

(87)
are
3sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
garasumado
glass_window.ACC
bukkowas-ase-da
break-CAUS-PST
‘She/he made the boy break a window.’
KILL koros-u R
(91)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
korosj-ta
kill-PST
‘The boy killed a snake with a stick.’

(92)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
koros-ase-da
kill-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy kill a snake.’
BREAK sjttsag-u R
(95)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsae-ttjat-ta
break-PERF-PST
‘The boy ripped a shoji screen.’

(96)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
sjo:zi
shoji_screen.ACC
sjttsag-ase-da
break-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy rip the shoji screen.’
BEAT buttadag-u R
(100)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadae-da
hit-PST
‘The boy hit a snake with a stick.’

(101)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
buttadag-ase-da
hit-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy hit a snake with a stick.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (1) R
(104)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=kara
give.NPST=because
‘I hit that man.’

(105)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ano
that
jaro=godo
man=ACC
bukkuras-ase-da
hit-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him hit that man.’
HIT bukkurase-ru (2)
(108)
jaro=nga
man=POS
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man's head?’
HIT bukkurase-ru (3)
(109)
jaro=godo
man=ACC
adama
head.ACC
bukkurasj-te
hit-GER
jak=ka
give.NPST=Q
‘Did (someone) hit the man on the head?’
TOUCH sa:r-u R
(110)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’

(111)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
hebi=godo
snake=ACC
sa:r-ase-da
touch-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy touch a snake.’
TOUCH sa:r-u (2) R
(114)
jarokko
boy.NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:t-ta
touch-PST
‘The boy touched a snake with a stick.’

(115)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
hebi=nge
snake=DAT
sa:r-ase-da
touch-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy touch a snake.’
CUT kir-u R
(117)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ho:tsjo=de
knife=INST
de:ko
radish.ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘The boy cut a radish with a knife.’

(118)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
de:ko
radish.ACC
kir-ase-da
cut-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy cut a radish.’
TAKE hindagur-u R
(121)
jarokko
boy.NOM
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagut-ta
take-PST
‘The boy took a pen from the girl.’

(122)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
amakko=gara
girl=ABL
pen
pen.ACC
hindagur-ase-da
take-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy take a pen from the girl.’
TAKE mongir-u R
(125)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongit-ta
take-PST
‘The boy picked a persimmon from a tree.’

(126)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ki=gara
tree=ABL
kagi
persimmon.ACC
mongir-ase-da
take-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy pick a persimmon from a tree.’
TEAR hittsabag-u R
(128)
amakko
girl.NOM
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsabae-da
tear-PST
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’

(129)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi
page.ACC
hittsbag-ase-da
tear-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl tear the page from the book.’
PEEL mug-u R
(131)
amakko
girl.NOM
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mue-da
peel-PST
‘The girl peeled the potato.’

(132)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
emo=no
potato=GEN
ka:
skin.ACC
mug-ase-da
peel-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him peel the potato.’
HIDE kagus-u R
(134)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagusj-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(135)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
kagus-ase-da
hide-CAUS-PST
‘I made that girl hide the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(138)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed the homework to the teacher.’
(286)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-da
show-PST
‘The girl showed a baby to the teacher.’

(139)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
odome=godo
baby=ACC
mise-rase-da
show-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl show a baby to the teacher.’
(287)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
sjkudae
homework.ACC
mise-rase-da
show-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl show the homework to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(143)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
kure-da
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE jar-u N
(144)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=nge
son=DAT
hon
book.ACC
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
SEND ogur-u R
(145)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to the teacher from the post office.’
(290)
musumekko
girl.NOM
kjogu=gara
post_office=ABL
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
ogut-ta
send-PST
‘The girl sent a book to school from the post office.’

(146)
ore
1sg.NOM
musumekko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
ogur-ase-da
send-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl send a book to the teacher.’
(291)
ore
1sg.NOM
musumekko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
ogur-ase-da
send-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl send a book to school.’
BRING motteng-u R
(149)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to the teacher.’
(292)
amakko
girl.NOM
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
hon
book.ACC
mottet-ta
carry-PST
‘The girl carried a book to school.’

(150)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
sense:=nge
teacher=DAT
motteng-ase-da
carry-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl carry a book to the teacher.’
(293)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
hon
book.ACC
gakko:=sa
school=DAT
motteng-ase-da
carry-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl carry a book to school.’
THROW bunnange-ru R
(153)
are
3sg.NOM
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a stone into the river.’

(154)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ka:=sa
river=DAT
esikoro
pebble.ACC
bunnange-rase-da
throw-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him throw a stone into the river.’
THROW butske-ru R
(156)
are
3sg.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-da
throw-PST
‘She/he threw a ball to me.’

(157)
tonarinte
neighbor.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
bo:ru
ball.ACC
butske-rase-da
throw-CAUS-PST
‘The neighbor made her/him throw a ball to me.’
TIE tunang-u R
(160)
are
3sg.NOM
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunae-da
tie-PST
‘She/he tied a horse to the tree.’

(161)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mma=godo
horse=ACC
ki=sa
tree=DAT
tunang-ase-da
tie-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him tie a horse to the tree.’
PUT og-u R
(164)
are
3sg.NOM
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
hon
book.ACC
oe-da
put-PST
‘He put the book on the table.’

(165)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
hon
book.ACC
tsukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=sa
above=DAT
og-ase-da
put-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him put a book on the desk.’
POUR tsung-u R
(167)
are
3sg.NOM
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
eppe:
full
tsue-da
pour-PST
‘She/he poured tea into the cup full.’

(168)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ozja
tea.ACC
tsjawan=sa
cup=DAT
tsung-ase-da
pour-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him pour tea into the cup.’
COVER kage-ru R
(170)
are
3sg.NOM
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kage-da
cover-PST
‘She/he covered a child with a blanket.’

(171)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
mo:hu
blanket.ACC
kodomo=nge
child=DAT
kage-rase-da
cover-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him cover the child with the blanket.’
FILL ktsieppe-ni su-ru R
(175)
are
3sg.NOM
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
sj-ta
do-PST
‘She/he filled the cup with tea.’

(176)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
inomi
cup.ACC
ozja=de
tea=INST
ktsieppe-ni
full-ADV
s-ase-da
do-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him fill the cup with tea.’
LOAD tsum-u R
(178)
are
3sg.NOM
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsun-da
load-PST
‘She/he loaded hay on the wagon full.’

(179)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ninguruma=sa
wagon=DAT
wara
hay.ACC
eppe
much
tsum-ase-da
load-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him load hay on the wagon full.’
BLINK mabadagi su-ru
(181)
amakko
girl.NOM
mabadagi_sj-ta
blink-PST
‘The girl blinked.’
COUGH segi su-ru N
(182)
are
3sg.NOM
segi_sj-ta
cough-PST
‘She/he coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u R
(183)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan=sa
Mt_Tsukuba=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’
(299)
are
3sg.NOM
tskubasan
Mt_Tsukuba.ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘She/he climbed Mt. Tsukuba.’

(184)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
jane=sa
roof=DAT
nobor-ase-da
climb-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him climb the roof.’
(300)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
jane
roof.ACC
nobor-ase-da
climb-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him climb the roof.’
RUN kage-ru (2) R
(186)
jarokko
boy.NOM
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-da
run-PST
‘The boy ran around the corridor.’

(187)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
ro:ka
corridor.ACC
kage-rase-da
run-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy run around the corridor.’
SIT sa:r-u (3) R
(189)
are
3sg.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:t-te-ru
sit-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is sitting there.’

(190)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sa:r-ase-da
sit-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him sit there.’
SIT DOWN (kosi)kage-ru R
(192)
kodomo
child.NOM
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-da
sit.down-PST
‘The child sat down on the chair.’

(193)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
esu=sa
chair=DAT
(kosi)kage-rase-da
sit.down-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him sit down on the chair.’
JUMP tob-u R
(195)
ano
that
jarokko
boy.NOM
niwa=de
garden=INST
ton-de-da
jump-GER.be-PST
‘That boy was jumping in the garden.’

(196)
ore
1sg.NOM
ano
that
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tob-ase-da
jump-CAUS-PST
‘I made that boy jump.’
SING uda: R
(198)
jarokko
boy.NOM
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang.’

(199)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
uda:se-da
sing.CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy sing.’
(294)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
ko:ka
school_song.ACC
uda:se-da
sing.CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy sing a school song.’
GO eng-u R
(202)
jarokko
boy.NOM
egi=sa
station=DAT
et-ta
go-PST
‘The boy went to the station.’

(203)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
eng-ase-da
go-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him go there.’
LEAVE doge-ru R
(205)
ore
1sg.NOM
sogo=gara
there=ABL
doge-de
leave-GER
jat-ta
give-PST
‘I left there.’

(206)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomo=godo
child=ACC
doge-rase-da
leave-CAUS-PST
‘I made a child leave.’
LIVE sum-u R
(208)
jarokko
boy.NOM
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sun-de-ru
live-GER.be-NPST
‘The boy lives there.’

(209)
ore
1sg.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
sogo=sa
there=DAT
sum-ase-da
live-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy live there.’
LAUGH wara: R
(211)
ano
that
amakko
girl.NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’

(212)
are
3sg.NOM
amakko=godo
girl=ACC
wara:se-da
laugh.CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl laugh.’
SCREAM wameg-u R
(215)
are
3sg.NOM
wame:-da
scream-PST
‘She/he screamed.’

(216)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=godo
3sg=ACC
wameg-ase-da
scream-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him scream.’
FEEL PAIN ede N
(217)
kesa
this_morning
ore
1sg.NOM
kosi
waist.NOM
ede=na
painful.NPST=F
‘This morning my waist hurt.’
FEEL COLD samue/samugar-u N
(301)
are
3sg.NOM
samugat-te-da
feel.cold-GER.be-PST
‘She/he felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(219)
are
3sg.NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘She/he died.’
PLAY asub-u R
(220)
kodomora
child.PL.NOM
asun-de-ru
play-GER.be-NPST
‘The children are playing.’

(221)
ore
1sg.NOM
kodomora=godo
child.PL=ACC
asub-ase-da
play-CAUS-PST
‘I made the children play.’
BE SAD kanasi:/kanasim-u N
(223)
ore
1sg.NOM
kanasi:
sad.NPST
‘I am sad.’
(295)
are
3sg.NOM
kanasin-de-ru
be_sad-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he feels sad.’
BE HUNGRY hara her-u N
(224)
ora
1sg.TOP
hara
stomach.NOM
het-ta
empty-PST
‘I am hungry.’
ROLL korongar-u N
(226)
bo:ru
ball.NOM
korongat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
SINK sizum-u N
(228)
hune
boat.NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
BURN jage-ru N
(234)
ano
that
uzi
house.NOM
jage-de-ru
burn-GER.be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawag-u N
(236)
hku
clothes.NOM
kawae-da
dry-PST
‘The clothes dried.’
RAIN ame hur-u R
(238)
ame
rain.NOM
hut-te
fall-GER
kj-ta=gara
come-PST=because
esoede
in_a_hurry
kom-e=jo
take_(clothes)_in_the_house-IMP=F
‘Because it begins raining, take the clothes into the house!’

(239)
tuzituzi=de
crossroads=INST
omaeri
ceremony.ACC
sj-te
do-GER
ame
rain.ACC
hur-ase-ru
fall-CAUS-NPST
‘We will make it rain, by performing a ceremony at the crossroads.’
HUNT (FOR) no direct counterpart R
(240)
ore
1sg.NOM
usangi=godo
rabbit=ACC
tot-ta
hunt-PST
‘I hunted a rabbit.’
GRIND sur-u (2) R
(244)
are
3sg.NOM
goma
sesame.ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘She/he ground sesame.’

(245)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
goma
sesame.ACC
sur-ase-da
grind-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him grind sesame.’
GRIND hig-u R
(247)
are
3sg.NOM
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hi:-da
grind-PST
‘She/he ground buckwheat with a millstone.’

(248)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
esusu=de
millstone=INST
soba
buckwheat.ACC
hig-ase-da
grind-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him grind buckwheat with a millstone.’
WIPE hug-u R
(250)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru
table.ACC
hue-da
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped a table.’

(251)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
te:buru
table.ACC
hug-ase-da
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wipe the table.’
WIPE nugu: R
(253)
amakko
girl.NOM
te:buru=no
table=GEN
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
mizu
water.ACC
nugut-ta
wipe-PST
‘The girl wiped the water from the table.’

(254)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
mizu
water.ACC
nuguw-ase-da
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl wipe the water.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(256)
ore
1sg.NOM
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘I dug a hole in the field above.’

(257)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
ue=na
above=ADNLOC
hadage=sa
field=DAT
medo
hole.ACC
hor-ase-da
dig-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dig a hole in the field above.’
DIG hor-u (2) R
(259)
are
3sg.NOM
emo
potato.ACC
hot-te-ru
dig-GER.be-NPST
‘She/he is digging for potatoes.’

(260)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
emo
potato.ACC
hor-ase-da
dig-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him dig for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u R
(262)
amakko
girl.NOM
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
osj-ta
push-PST
‘The girl pushed her/his back.’

(263)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
are=nga
3sg=POS
senaga
back.ACC
os-ase-da
push-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl push her/his back.’
STEAL nusum-u R
(266)
amakko
girl.NOM
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘The girl stole the teacher's book.’

(267)
ore
1sg.NOM
amakko=nge
girl=DAT
sense:=nga
teacher=POS
hon
book.ACC
nusum-ase-da
steal-CAUS-PST
‘I made the girl steal the teacher's book.’
TEACH ose:-ru R
(271)
sense:
teacher.NOM
ore=nge
1sg=DAT
su:ngagu
mathematics.ACC
ose:-da
teach-PST
‘The teacher taught me math.’

(273)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
jarokko=nge
boy=DAT
kore
this.ACC
ose-rase-da
teach-CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him teach this to the boy.’
HEAR kige-ru N
(281)
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
ano
that
odo
sound.NOM
kige-ru
hear-NPST
‘I can hear that sound.’
BOIL wag-u N
(283)
oi
hot_water.NOM
wae-da
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
FRIGHTEN ({ot/but})tamangeragas-u M
(302)
hono
that
odogo
man.NOM
jarokko=godo
boy=ACC
tamangeragasj-ta
surprise-PST
‘That man surprised the boy.’
SHOUT AT donar-u R
(307)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’

(311)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=godo
son=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
donar-ase-da
shout.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made my son shout at her/him.’
COOK no verbal counterpart N
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
SHOUT AT zinar-u R
(310)
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinat-ta
shout.at-PST
‘I shouted at her/him.’

(312)
ore
1sg.NOM
sengare=godo
son=ACC
are=nge
3sg=DAT
zinar-ase-da
shout.at-CAUS-PST
‘I made my son shout at her/him.’
HEAR kig-u
(315)
ore
1sg.NOM
dege:
big.NPST
odo
sound.ACC
ki:-da
hear-PST
‘I heard a big sound.’