Alternations of Mitsukaido Japanese

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y The causative predicate is formed through suffixation of /sase/. The causer is case-marked in the nominative. The subject in the corresponding active sentence, i.e., causee, is case-marked in the accusative or the dative. Case-marking of causee depends on the transitivity of the embedded verb. When the embedded verb is intransitive, causee is case-marked in the accusative. When the embedded verb is transitive, causee is case-marked in the dative. The
case-marking of the internal argument of the embedded verb remains intact.
(2)
Ore arenge pan kaseda.
ore
1sg.NOM
are=nge
3sg=DAT
pan
bread.ACC
kase-da
eat.CAUS-PST
‘I made her/him eat bread.’
70
C
y Suffixation of lexical transitivity alternation suffixes -e and -ar
results in this alternation. The agent argument is removed and the internal argument (in most cases, theme argument) is promoted to subject position.
(7)
Agambo ka:tjanni dagasatteda.
agambo
baby.NOM
ka:tjan=ni
mother=LOC
dagasat-te-da
be.held-GER.be-PST
‘The baby was hugged in her/his mother's arm.’
13
C
y Suffixation of lexical transitivity alternation suffixes -e and -as
results in this alternation. The agent argument is introduced into the subject position and the theme argument of the corresponding intransitive verb is demoted to direct object.
(227)
Ore bo:ru korongasjta.
ore
1sg.NOM
bo:ru
ball.ACC
korongasj-ta
roll-PST
‘I rolled a ball.’
6
C
y The passive predicate is formed through suffixation of /rare/. The external argument is demoted to oblique status and it is case-marked with the locative case particle =ni. The elements promoting into the subject position are elements other than the objects of the corresponding active sentences. The semantic role of the subject in the indirect passive construction is maleficiary.
(17)
Nezumi negoni nioe kangarettsitta.
nezumi
mouse.NOM
nego=ni
cat=LOC
nioe
smell.ACC
kang-are-ttsit-ta
smell-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The mouse was smelled by the cat.’
36
C
y The potential predicate is formed through suffixation of the potential suffixes /e/ and /rare/. The allomorph is determined by the phonological shape of the verb root. When the verb root ends with a consonant, /e/ is selected. For the other cases /rare/ is selected. The potential construction describes the ability of the agent. The agent is case-marked with the experiencer case particle =ngani. The case-marking of the internal argument is the same as that of the corresponding active sentence. A consequence of the existence of the potential construction is the high productivity of the oblique subject constructions in this dialect.
(4)
Orengani sore kuene.
ore=ngani
1sg=EXP
sore
that.ACC
ku-e-ne
eat-POT-NEG.NPST
‘I cannot eat that.’
64
U
n Some unergative verbs have their transitive counterparts. In this case, a direct object is added. This alternation is not accompanied by any morphological change.
(200)
Jarokko ko:ka mmagu udatta.
jarokko
boy.NOM
ko:ka
school_song.ACC
mmagu
well.ADV
udat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a school song.’
3
C
y The passive predicate is formed through suffixation of /rare/. The external argument is demoted into oblique status and it is case-marked with the locative case particle =ni. The elements promoting into the subject position are direct object, indirect object of the corresponding transitive and ditransitive sentences.
(3)
Areni pan kuwaretjatta.
are=ni
3sg=LOC
pan
bread.NOM
kuw-are-tjat-ta
eat-PASS-PERF-PST
‘The bread had been eaten by her/him.’
31