Examples of Hokkaido Japanese

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Sono musumega pano tabeta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(2)
Panwa onnanokoni taberareta.
pan=wa
bread=TOP
onnanoko=ni
girl=DAT
tabe-rare-ta
eat-PASS-PST
‘The bread was eaten by the girl.’
EAT an Alternation:
DO passive
(3)
Darekaga syo:zyoni pano tabesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-sase-ta
eat-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl eat the bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative
(4)
Ano onnanokowa natto:{o/ga} tabe(ra)reru.
ano
that
onnanoko=wa
girl=TOP
natto:={o/ga}
natto={ACC/NOM}
tabe-(ra)re-ru
eat-POT-NPST
‘The girl can eat natto.’
EAT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(5)
Ano kinokowa tabe(ra)reru.
ano
that
kinoko=wa
mushroom=TOP
tabe-(ra)re-ru
eat-POT-NPST
‘That mushroom is edible.’
EAT an Alternation:
potential (property)
(6)
Sono syo:nenga sono otokoni okaneo motometa.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(7)
Otokoga syo:nenni okaneo motomerareta.
otoko=ga
man=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-rare-ta
ask.for-PASS-PST
‘The man was asked for money by the boy.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
IO passive
(8)
Syo:nenwa otokoni okaneo motome(ra)reru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-(ra)re-ru
ask.for-POT-NPST
‘The boy can ask the man for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(9)
Sono musumega sono otokoni dakituita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(10)
Otokoga musumeni dakitukareta.
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume=ni
girl=DAT
dakituk-are-ta
hug-PASS-PST
‘The man was hugged by the girl.’
HUG an Alternation:
IO passive
(11)
Darekaga musumeo otokoni dakitukaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
musume=o
girl=ACC
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakituk-ase-ta
hug-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl hug the man.’
HUG an Alternation:
Causative
(12)
(Subasikkoinode) musumewa otokoni dakitukeru.
subasikko-i=node
agile-NPST=because
musume=wa
girl=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakituk-e-ru
hug-POT-NPST
‘(Because she is quick,) the girl can hug the man.’
HUG an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(13)
(Noromananode) ano otokowa dakitukeru.
noroma=na=node
slow=COPULA.ADN=because
ano
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
dakituk-e-ru
hug-POT-NPST
‘(Because he is slow,) that man is easy to hug.’
HUG an Alternation:
potential (property)
(14)
Sono otokoga sono syo:neno mita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(15)
Syo:nenga mieta.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mie-ta
see-PST
‘The boy was seen.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(16)
Syo:nenwa otokoni mirareta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
mi-rare-ta
look.at-PASS-PST
‘The boy was looked at by the man.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
DO passive
(17)
Darekaga danse:ni syo:neno misaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-sase-ta
look.at-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man look at the boy.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Causative
(18)
Sono danse:(ni)wa yu:re:ga mieru.
sono
that
danse:=ni=wa
man=DAT=TOP
yu:re:=ga
ghost=NOM
mi-e-ru
see-POT-NPST
‘That man can see the ghost.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(19)
Yu:re:wa mieru.
yu:re:=wa
ghost=TOP
mi-e-ru
see-POT-NPST
‘The ghost was seen.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
potential (property)
(20)
Kumawa syo:nenno nioio kaida.
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(21)
Syo:nenwa kumani nioio kagareta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
kuma=ni
bear=DAT
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kag-are-ta
smell-PASS-PST
‘The boy was smelled by the bear.’
SMELL an Alternation:
DO passive
(22)
Karewa inuni nioio kagaseta.
kare=wa
he=TOP
inu=ni
dog=DAT
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kag-ase-ta
smell-CAUS-PST
‘He made the dog smell (something).’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative
(23)
Tosio totta kumadakedo, imadani nioio kageru.
tosi=o
year=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
kuma-dakedo
bear-although
imadani
still.now
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kag-e-ru
smell-POT-NPST
‘Although it is an old bear, it still has a good nose.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(24)
Sono syo:nenwa sono otokoo kowagatte ita.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(25)
Syo:nenwa sono otokoga kowai.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kowa-i
afraid-NPST
‘The boy is afraid of that man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(26)
Sono otokowa syo:nenni kowagarareru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
kowagar-are-ru
fear-PASS-NPST
‘That man will be feared by the boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
DO passive
(27)
Darekaga sono syo:nenni otokoo kowagaraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that boy fear that man.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(28)
Sono otokoga sono syo:neno kowagaraseta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(29)
Darekaga sono otokoni syo:neno kowagaraseaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ase-ta
frighten-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man frighten the boy.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative
(30)
Syo:nenga otokoo kowagatta.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-ta
be.frightened-PST
‘The boy was frightened of the man.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(31)
Syo:nenga otokoniyotte kowagarasareta.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
kowagaras-are-ta
frighten-PASS-PST
‘The boy was frightened by the man.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
DO passive
(32)
Sono otokowa syo:nenwo kowagaraserareru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-rare-ru
frighten-POT-NPST
‘That man can frighten the boy.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(33)
Ano syo:nenwa, okubyo:dakara, kowagaraserareru.
ano
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
okubyo:=dakara
coward=because
kowagarase-rare-ru
frighten-POT-NPST
‘Being a coward, that boy can be frightened.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
potential (property)
(34)
Sono syo:nenwa tonarino onnanokoga sukidatta.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(35)
Tonarino onnanokoga sono syo:nenni sukarete iru.
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
suk-are-te
like-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The girl next door is liked by that boy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
DO passive
(36)
Sono otokowa sono syo:neno sitteru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(37)
Sono musumega sono otokoni syo:nen{no kotoo/nituite} siraseta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen={no
boy={GEN
koto=o/nituite}
thing=ACC/about}
sirase-ta
let.know-PST
‘That girl let that man know about the boy.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(38)
Sono syo:nenga sono otokoni sirarete iru.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sir-are-te
know-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That boy is known to that man.’
KNOW an Alternation:
DO passive
(39)
Sono otokoga sono syo:nenno syo:rainituite kangaeta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2+nituite V
(40)
Darekaga otokoni syo:nenno syo:rainituite kangaesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-sase-ta
think-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man think about the boy's future.’
THINK an Alternation:
Causative
(41)
Byo:kino kansengenga kasitukito minnani kangaerarete iru.
byo:ki=no
desease=GEN
kansengen=ga
cause=NOM
kasituki=to
air.humilifier=COM
minna=ni
all=DAT
kangae-rare-te
think-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The cause of the disease is considered to be the air-humidifier.’
THINK an Alternation:
DO passive
(42)
Otoko{ga/wa} syo:nenno syo:rainituite kangaerareru.
otoko={ga/wa}
man={NOM/TOP}
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-rare-ru
think-POT-NPST
‘The man can think about the boy's future.’
THINK an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(43)
Sono otokoga sono syo:neno sagasite ita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(44)
Darekaga otokoni syo:neno sagasaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagas-ase-ta
search-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man search for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Causative
(45)
Syo:nenga otokoniyotte sagasarete iru.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sagas-are-te
search-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The boy is searched for by the man.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
DO passive
(46)
Otokowa syo:neno sagaseru.
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagas-e-ru
search-POT-NPST
‘The man can search for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(47)
Takutiwa sagaseru.
takuti=wa
building.lot=TOP
sagas-e-ru
search-POT-NPST
‘The building lot can be found.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
potential (property)
(48)
Sono musumega hukuo aratta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(49)
Kono koppuwa arawasatta.
kono
this
koppu=wa
cup=TOP
araw-asat-ta
wash-AC-PST
‘This cup got washed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(50)
Darekaga syo:zyoni hukuo arawaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
araw-ase-ta
wash-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl wash the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative
(51)
Hukuwa syo:zyoni arawareta.
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
araw-are-ta
wash-PASS-PST
‘The clothes were washed by the girl.’
WASH an Alternation:
DO passive
(52)
Sono syo:zyowa hukuo araeru.
sono
that
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
huku=o
cloth=ACC
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wash the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(53)
Sono hukuwa araeru.
sono
that
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘Those clothes are washable.’
WASH an Alternation:
potential (property)
(54)
Hahawa musumeni hukuo kiseta.
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(55)
Manekinga hukuo kiserasatte iru.
manekin=ga
mannequin=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-rasat-te
dress-AC-GER
ir-u
be-NPST
‘The mannequin is dressed up.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(56)
Titiwa hahani musumeni hukuo kisesaseta.
titi=wa
father=TOP
haha=ni
mother=DAT
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-sase-ta
dress-CAUS-PST
‘Father made mother dress the daughter.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative
(57)
Musumewa hukuo kita.
musume=wa
daughter=TOP
huku=o
cloth=ACC
ki-ta
wear-PST
‘The daughter wore the clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(58)
Hahawa musumeni hukuo kiserareru.
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-rare-ru
dress-POT-NPST
‘Mother can dress her daughter.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(59)
Sono otokoga higeo sotta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(60)
Higega sorasattenai.
hige=ga
beard=NOM
sor-asat-te-nai
shave-AC-GER.be-NEG.NPST
‘The beard is not shaved.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(61)
Darekaga sono otokoni higeo soraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hige=o
beard=ACC
sor-ase-ta
shave-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man shave his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Causative
(62)
Higega otokoni sorareta.
hige=ga
beard=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sor-are-ta
shave-PASS-PST
‘My beard was shaved by the man.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
DO passive
(63)
Sono otokowa higeo soreru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hige=o
beard=ACC
sor-e-ru
shave-POT-NPST
‘That man can shave his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(64)
Sono otokoga sono musumeo tasuketa.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(65)
Darekaga danse:ni syo:zyoo tasukesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-sase-ta
help-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
Causative
(66)
Sono musumega tasukatta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
tasukat-ta
be.helped-PST
‘That girl was helped.’
HELP an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(67)
Syo:zyowa danse:ni tasukerareta.
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
danse:=ni
man=DAT
tasuke-rare-ta
help-PASS-PST
‘The girl was helped by the man.’
HELP an Alternation:
DO passive
(68)
Danse:niwa syo:zyoga tasukerareru.
danse:=ni=wa
man=DAT=TOP
syo:zyo=ga
girl=NOM
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘The man can help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(69)
Ano syo:zyowa tasukerareru.
ano
that
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘That girl can be helped.’
HELP an Alternation:
potential (property)
(70)
Watasiwa syo:nentatio tetudatta.
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(71)
Hahawa watasini syo:nentatio tetudawaseta.
haha=wa
mother=TOP
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudaw-ase-ta
help-CAUS-PST
‘Mother made me help the boys.’
HELP an Alternation:
Causative
(72)
Kodomotatiwa kareni tetudawareta.
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
tetudaw-are-ta
help-PASS-PST
‘The children are helped by him.’
HELP an Alternation:
DO passive
(73)
Watasiwa sono syo:nentatio tetudaeru.
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetuda-e-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘I can help the boys.’
HELP an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(74)
Sono otokoga sono musumeni tuite itta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(75)
Darekaga danse:o syo:zyoni tuite ikaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=o
man=ACC
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Causative
(76)
Syo:zyowa otokoni tuite korareta.
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
ko-rare-ta
come-PASS-PST
‘The girl was followed by the man.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
IO passive
(77)
Danse:wa syo:zyoni tuite ikeru.
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
ik-e-ru
go-POT-NPST
‘The man can follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(78)
Sono otokoga sono musumeo oikaketa.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(79)
Darekaga danse:ni syo:zyoo oikakesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
oikake-sase-ta
follow-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Causative
(80)
Syo:zyowa otokoni oikakerareta.
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
oikake-rare-ta
follow-PASS-PST
‘The girl was chased by the man.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
DO passive
(81)
Danse:wa syo:zyoo oikakerareru.
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
oikake-rare-ru
follow-POT-NPST
‘The man can follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(82)
Sono otokoga musume{to/ni} atta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-com/dat V
(83)
Darekaga sono otokoo musume{to/ni} awaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
aw-ase-ta
meet-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative
(84)
Sono otokowa musume{to/ni} aeru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
musume={to/ni}
girl={COM/DAT}
a-e-ru
meet-POT-NPST
‘That man can meet the girl.’
MEET an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(85)
Sono otokoga sono syo:nenni syo:zyono kotoo hanasita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(86)
Darekaga sono otokoni syo:nenni syo:zyono kotoo hanasaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanas-ase-ta
talk-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man talk to the boy about the girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative
(87)
Syo:nenwa danse:ni syo:zyono kotoo hanasareta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanas-are-ta
talk-PASS-PST
‘The boy was told about the girl by the man.’
TALK an Alternation:
IO passive
(88)
Syo:zyono kotoga danse:niyotte syo:nenni hanasareta.
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=ga
thing=NOM
danse:=niyotte
man=by
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hanas-are-ta
talk-PASS-PST
‘Something about the girl was told to the boy by the man.’
TALK an Alternation:
DO passive
(89)
Sono danse:wa syo:nenni syo:zyono kotoo hanaseru.
sono
that
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘That man can talk to the boy about the girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(90)
Syo:zyono kotowa syo:nenni hanaseru.
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=wa
thing=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘Things about the girl can be told to the boy.’
TALK an Alternation:
potential (property)
(91)
Darekaga syo:nenni okaneo motomesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-sase-ta
ask.for-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy ask for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Causative
(92)
Sono otokoga sono musumeni monogatario hanasita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(93)
Darekaga sono otokoni musumeni monogatario hanasaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanas-ase-ta
tell-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man tell the story to the girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative
(94)
Monogatariga sono otokoniyotte musumeni hanasareta.
monogatari=ga
story=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hanas-are-ta
tell-PASS-PST
‘The story was told to the girl by that man.’
TALK an Alternation:
DO passive
(95)
Sono otokowa sono musumeni monogatario hanaseru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanas-e-ru
tell-POT-NPST
‘That man can tell the story to that girl.’
TALK an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(96)
Syo:nenga syo:zyoni nanika itta.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat UTT3 V
(97)
Darekaga syo:nenni nanikao syo:zyoni iwaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
nanika=o
something=ACC
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
iw-ase-ta
say-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy say something to the girl.’
SAY an Alternation:
Causative
(98)
Syo:zyoga syo:nenni nanika iwareta.
syo:zyo=ga
girl=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
nanika
something
iw-are-ta
say-PASS-PST
‘The girl was told something by the boy.’
SAY an Alternation:
IO passive
(99)
Syo:nenwa syo:zyoni nanika ieta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
i-e-ta
say-POT-PST
‘The boy could say something to the girl.’
SAY an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(100)
Sono musumega sono syo:neno bakato yonda.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-com V
(101)
Darekaga syo:zyoni syo:neno bakato yobaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-ase-ta
call-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl call the boy a fool.’
NAME an Alternation:
Causative
(102)
Syo:nenwa syo:zyoni bakato yobareta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-are-ta
call-PASS-PST
‘The boy was called a fool by the girl.’
NAME an Alternation:
DO passive
(103)
Syo:zyowa syo:neno bakato yoberu.
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-e-ru
call-POT-NPST
‘The girl can call the boy a fool.’
NAME an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(104)
Syo:nenwa bakato yoberu (sonzaida).
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-e-ru
call-POT-NPST
sonzai=da
being=COPULA.NPST
‘The boy can be called a fool.’
NAME an Alternation:
potential (property)
(105)
Karega ieo tateta.
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(106)
Bo:kkirega tatasatta.
bo:kkire=ga
stick=NOM
tat-asat-ta
stand-AC-PST
‘The stick is standing.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(107)
Darekaga kareni ieo tatesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kare=ni
he=DAT
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-sase-ta
build-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made him build the house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Causative
(108)
Iega tatta.
ie=ga
house=NOM
tat-ta
be.built-PST
‘The house got built.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(109)
Kareni iega taterareta.
kare=ni
he=DAT
ie=ga
house=NOM
tate-rare-ta
build-PASS-PST
‘The house was built by him.’
BUILD an Alternation:
DO passive
(110)
Karewa ieo taterareru.
kare=wa
he=TOP
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-rare-ru
build-POT-NPST
‘He can build the house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(111)
Sono syo:nenga iside madoo watta.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(112)
Madoga warasatta.
mado=ga
window=NOM
war-asat-ta
break-AC-PST
‘The window got broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(113)
Darekaga syo:nenni madoo iside waraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
mado=o
window=ACC
isi=de
stone=INST
war-ase-ta
break-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy break the window with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Causative
(114)
Madoga wareta.
mado=ga
window=NOM
ware-ta
break-PST
‘The window broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(115)
Madoga syo:nenniyotte iside warareta.
mado=ga
window=NOM
syo:nen=niyotte
boy=by
isi=de
stone=INST
war-are-ta
break-PASS-PST
‘The window was broken by the boy.’
BREAK an Alternation:
DO passive
(116)
Syo:nenwa madoo iside wareru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
mado=o
window=ACC
isi=de
stone=INST
war-e-ru
break-POT-NPST
‘The boy can break the window with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(117)
Madowa iside wareru.
mado=wa
window=TOP
isi=de
stone=INST
war-e-ru
break-POT-NPST
‘The window is easy to break with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
potential (property)
(118)
Sono syo:nenga bo:de hebio korosita.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(119)
Darekaga syo:nenni hebio bo:de korosaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-ase-ta
kill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy kill the snake with a stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative
(120)
Hebiwa syo:nenni bo:de korosareta.
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-are-ta
kill-PASS-PST
‘The snake was killed with a stick by the boy.’
KILL an Alternation:
DO passive
(121)
Syo:nenwa hebio bo:de koroseru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-e-ru
kill-POT-NPST
‘The boy can kill the snake with a stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(122)
Sono syo:nenga bo:de hebio tataita.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(123)
Darekaga syo:nenni hebio bo:de tatakaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-ase-ta
hit-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy hit the snake with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Causative
(124)
Hebiwa syo:nenni bo:de tatakareta.
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-are-ta
hit-PASS-PST
‘The snake was hit with a stick by the boy.’
BEAT an Alternation:
DO passive
(125)
Syo:nenwa bo:de hebio tatakeru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatak-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘The boy can hit the snake with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(126)
Ano hebiwa, amari ugokanaikara, bo:de tatakeru.
ano
that
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
amari
not.so
ugoka-nai=kara
move.IRR-NEG=because
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘That snake is easy to hit because it does not move a lot.’
BEAT an Alternation:
potential (property)
(127)
Sono syo:nenga hebini sawatta.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(128)
Darekaga syo:neno hebini sawaraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawar-ase-ta
touch-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy touch the snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Causative
(129)
Hebiga syo:nen{ni/niyotte} sawarareta.
hebi=ga
snake=NOM
syo:nen={ni/niyotte}
boy={DAT/by}
sawar-are-ta
touch-PASS-PST
‘The snake was touched by the boy.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
IO passive
(130)
Syo:nenwa hebini sawareru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawar-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘The boy can touch the snake.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(131)
Ano hebiwa sawareru (kowakunaikara).
ano
that
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
sawar-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
kowaku
fearful
nai=kara
NEG.NPST=because
‘That snake is easy to touch (because it is not fearful).’
TOUCH an Alternation:
potential (property)
(132)
Sono syo:nenga naihude pano kitta.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(133)
Panga naihude kirasatta.
pan=ga
bread=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
kir-asat-ta
cut-AC-PST
‘The bread got cut with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(134)
Darekaga sono syo:nenni pano kiraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
pan=o
bread=ACC
kir-ase-ta
cut-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that boy cut the bread.’
CUT an Alternation:
Causative
(135)
Panga kireta.
pan=ga
bread=NOM
kire-ta
cut-PST
‘The bread was cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(136)
Sono syo:nenga pano kireru.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘That boy can cut the bread.’
CUT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(137)
Panga kireru.
pan=ga
bread=NOM
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘The bread cuts easily.’
CUT an Alternation:
potential (property)
(138)
Sono syo:nenga sono musumekara {pen/kobu}o totta.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(139)
Darekaga syo:nenni musumekara peno toraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
musume=kara
girl=ABL
pen=o
pen=ACC
tor-ase-ta
take-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy take a pen from the girl.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Causative
(140)
{posuta:/kobu}ga toreta.
{posuta:/kobu}=ga
{poster/lump}=NOM
tore-ta
take-PST
‘The poster/lump came off.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(141)
Musumega syo:nenkara peno torareta.
musume=ga
girl=NOM
syo:nen=kara
boy=ABL
pen=o
pen=ACC
tor-are-ta
take-PASS-PST
‘The girl had her pen taken by the boy.’
TAKE an Alternation:
IO passive
(142)
Musumekara penga toreta.
musume=kara
girl=ABL
pen=ga
pen=NOM
tor-e-ta
take-POT-PST
‘(Someone) can take a pen from the girl.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(143)
Sono syo:nenga kikara ringoo moida.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(144)
Kyu:riga mogasatta.
kyu:ri=ga
cucumber=NOM
mog-asat-ta
take-AC-PST
‘The cucumber got harvested.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(145)
Darekaga sono musumeni kyu:rio mogaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
kyu:ri=o
cucumber=ACC
mog-ase-ta
take-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl harvest a cucumber.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Causative
(146)
Edaga mogeta.
eda=ga
twig=NOM
moge-ta
take-PST
‘The twig snapped off.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(147)
Kyu:riga musume{ni/niyotte} mogareta.
kyu:ri=ga
cucumber=NOM
musume={ni/niyotte}
girl={DAT/by}
mog-are-ta
take-PASS-PST
‘The cucumber was harvested by the girl.’
TAKE an Alternation:
DO passive
(148)
Musumewa sono kyu:rio mogeru.
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sono
that
kyu:ri=o
cucumber=ACC
mog-e-ru
take-POT-NPST
‘The girl can harvest that cucumber.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(149)
Ano kyu:riwa mo: mogeruyo.
ano
that
kyu:ri=wa
cucumber=TOP
mo:
already
mog-e-ru=yo
take-POT-NPST=PRT
‘That cucumber is ready to be harvested.’
TAKE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(150)
Sono musumega hon{kara/no} pe:zio hikitigitta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl 3-acc V
(151)
Hon{no/kara} pe:ziga hikitigirasatta.
hon={no/kara}
book={GEN/ABL}
pe:zi=ga
page=NOM
hikitigir-asat-ta
tear-AC-PST
‘The page of the book got torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(152)
Darekaga sono musumeni hon{no/kara} pe:zio hikitigiraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon={no/kara}
book={GEN/ABL}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigir-ase-ta
tear-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl tear the page from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(153)
Hon{kara/no} pe:ziga sono musumeni hikitigirareta.
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=ga
page=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hikitigir-are-ta
tear-PASS-PST
‘The page of the book was torn by that girl.’
TEAR an Alternation:
DO passive
(154)
Sono musumewa, kowaimonosirazudakara, donna daizina hondemo hikitigireru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
kowaimonosirazu=dakara
reckless=because
donna
any.kind.of
daizi=na
important=ADN
hon=demo
book=even
hikitigir-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘Because she is fearless, that girl can tear even the very expensive books.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(155)
Ano honno pe:ziwa hikitigireru.
ano
that
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi=wa
page=TOP
hikitigir-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘That book's pages tear easily.’
TEAR an Alternation:
potential (property)
(156)
Sono musumega ringono kawao muita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(157)
Ringono kawaga mukasatta.
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=ga
skin=NOM
muk-asat-ta
peel-AC-PST
‘The apple got peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(158)
Darekaga sono musumeni ringono kawao mukaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
muk-ase-ta
peel-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl peel the apple.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Causative
(159)
Hiyake site kawaga mukeru.
hiyake
sun.burn
si-te
do-GER
kawa=ga
skin=NOM
muke-ru
peel-NPST
‘Because of the sun burn, the skin is peeling.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(160)
Ringono kawaga sono musumeni mukareta.
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=ga
skin=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
muk-are-ta
peel-PASS-PST
‘The apple was peeled by that girl.’
PEEL an Alternation:
DO passive
(161)
Sono musumewa ringono kawao mukeru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
muk-e-ru
peel-POT-NPST
‘That girl can peel the apple.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(162)
Sono musumega sense:no hono kakusita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(163)
Darekaga musumeni sense:no hono kakusaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakus-ase-ta
hide-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl hide the teacher's book.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative
(164)
Sono otokoniyotte sense:no honga kakusareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=ga
book=NOM
kakus-are-ta
hide-PASS-PST
‘The teacher's book was hidden by that man.’
HIDE an Alternation:
DO passive
(165)
Sono musumewa sense:no hono kakuseru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakus-e-ru
hide-POT-NPST
‘That girl can hide the teacher's book.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(166)
Sono honwa kakuseru.
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
kakus-e-ru
hide-POT-NPST
‘That book is easy to hide.’
HIDE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(167)
Sono musumega sense:ni hono miseta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(168)
Honga sense:ni miserasaru.
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
mise-rasar-u
show-AC-NPST
‘The book will get shown to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(169)
Sense:ga hono miru.
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
mi-ru
see-NPST
‘The teacher will look at the book.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(170)
Sense:wa musumesanni hono miserareta.
sense:=wa
teacher=TOP
musumesan=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-rare-ta
show-PASS-PST
‘The teacher was shown a book by the girl.’
SHOW an Alternation:
IO passive
(171)
Sono musumewa sense:ni hono miserareru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-rare-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘That girl can show a book to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(172)
Kono honwa sense:ni miserareru.
kono
this
hon=wa
book=TOP
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
mise-rare-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘This book can be shown to the teacher.’
SHOW an Alternation:
potential (property)
(173)
Watasiga musukoni hono yatta.
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(174)
Sono musumewa hono sense:ni yareru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
yar-e-ru
give-POT-NPST
‘That girl can give a book to the teacher.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(175)
Sono honwa musukoni yareru.
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
musuko=ni
son=DAT
yar-e-ru
give-POT-NPST
‘That book can be given to my son.’
GIVE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(176)
Sono nusumega {sense:/gakko:}ni hono okutta.
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(177)
Honga gakko:ni okurasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-asat-ta
send-AC-PST
‘The book got sent to the school.’
SEND an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(178)
Darekaga sono musumeni hono sense:no tokoroni okuraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-ase-ta
send-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl send the book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Causative
(179)
{Sense:wa/gakko:wa} musumesanniyotte hono okurareta.
{sense:=wa/gakko:=wa}
{teacher=TOP/school=TOP}
musumesan=niyotte
girl=by
hon=o
book=ACC
okur-are-ta
send-PASS-PST
‘The teacher/school was sent the book by that girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
IO passive
(180)
Musumesanniyotte honga sense:no tokoroni okurareta.
musumesan=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-are-ta
send-PASS-PST
‘The book was sent to the teacher by the girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
DO passive
(181)
Musumesanwa hono sense:no tokoroni hono okureru.
musumesan=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘That girl can send the book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(182)
Honwa sense:no tokoroni okureru.
hon=wa
book=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The book can be sent to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
potential (property)
(183)
Sono musumega sense:no tokoroni hono hakonda.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(184)
Honga sense:no tokoroni hakobasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-asat-ta
carry-AC-PST
‘The book got carried to the teacher.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(185)
Darekaga sono musumeni hono sense:no tokoroni hakobaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-ase-ta
carry-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl carry the book to the teacher.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Causative
(186)
Sono musumeniyotte honga sense:no tokoroni hakobareta.
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-are-ta
carry-PASS-PST
‘The book was carried to the teacher by that girl.’
CARRY an Alternation:
DO passive
(187)
Sono musumewa hono sense:no tokoroni hakoberu.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry the book to the teacher.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(188)
Sono musumega gakko:ni hono hakonda.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(189)
Honga gakko:ni hakobasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-asat-ta
carry-AC-PST
‘The book got carried to school.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(190)
Darekaga sono musumeni hono gakko:ni hakobaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-ase-ta
carry-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl carry the book to school.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Causative
(191)
Sono musumeniyotte honga gakko:ni hakobareta.
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-are-ta
carry-PASS-PST
‘The book was carried to school by that girl.’
CARRY an Alternation:
DO passive
(192)
Sono musumewa hono gakko:ni hakoberu.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry the book to school.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(193)
Sono otokoga madoni isio nageta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(194)
Darekaga sono otokoni isio madoni nagesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-sase-ta
throw-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man throw the stone at the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
Causative
(195)
Sono otokoniyotte isiga madoni nagerareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
isi=ga
stone=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-rare-ta
throw-PASS-PST
‘The stone was thrown at the window by that man.’
THROW an Alternation:
DO passive
(196)
Sono otokowa isio madoni nage(ra)reru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
isi=o
stone=ACC
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-(ra)re-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘That man can throw the stone at the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(197)
Omotakunaikara sono isiwa madoni nagerareru.
omotaku
heavy
nai=kara
NEG.NPST=because
sono
that
isi=wa
stone=TOP
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘Because it is not heavy, that stone can be thrown at the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
potential (property)
(198)
Sono otokoga umao kini tunaida.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(199)
Umaga kini tunagasatta.
uma=ga
horse=NOM
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-asat-ta
tie-AC-PST
‘The horse got tied to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(200)
Darekaga sono otokoni umao kini tunagaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-ase-ta
tie-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man tie the horse to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Causative
(201)
Umaga kini tunagatteru.
uma=ga
horse=NOM
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunagat-te-ru
tie-GER.be-NPST
‘The horse is tied to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(202)
Umaga sono otokoniyotte kini tunagareta.
uma=ga
horse=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-are-ta
tie-PASS-PST
‘The horse was tied to the tree by that man.’
TIE an Alternation:
DO passive
(203)
Sono otokowa umao kini tunageru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘That man can tie the horse to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(204)
Sono umawa kini tunageru.
sono
that
uma=wa
horse=TOP
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘The horse is easy to tie to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(205)
Kodomoga sono omotyao kini itte iru.
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(206)
Titiwa kodomoni omotyao kini iraseta.
titi=wa
father=TOP
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
ir-ase-ta
enter-CAUS-PST
‘Father made the child like the toy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative
(207)
Sono omotyawa dono kodomonimo kini irareru.
sono
that
omotya=wa
toy=TOP
dono
any
kodomo=ni=mo
child=DAT=even
ki=ni
mind=DAT
ir-are-ru
enter-PASS-NPST
‘This toy is liked by any children.’
LIKE an Alternation:
DO passive
(208)
Musumewa hahani hukuo kiserareta.
musume=wa
daughter=TOP
haha=ni
mother=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-rare-ta
dress-PASS-PST
‘The daughter was dressed with the clothes by her mother.’
DRESS an Alternation:
IO passive
(209)
Sono otokoga hono tukueno ueni oita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(210)
Honga tukueno ueni okasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-asat-ta
put-AC-PST
‘The book got put on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(211)
Darekaga sono otokoni hono tukueno ueni okaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-ase-ta
put-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man put the book on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
Causative
(212)
Sono otokoniyotte honga tukueno ueni okareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-are-ta
put-PASS-PST
‘The book was put on the table by that man.’
PUT an Alternation:
DO passive
(213)
Sono otokoga hono tukueno ueni okeru.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-e-ru
put-POT-NPST
‘That man can put the book on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(214)
Honga tukueno ueni okeru.
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-e-ru
put-POT-NPST
‘The book can be put on the desk.’
PUT an Alternation:
potential (property)
(215)
Sono otokoga gurasuni mizuo tuida.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(216)
Mizuga gurasuni tugasatta.
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
tug-asat-ta
pour-AC-PST
‘The water got poured into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(217)
Darekaga sono otokoni gurasuni mizuo tugaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tug-ase-ta
pour-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man pour the water into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative
(218)
Sono otokoniyotte mizuga gurasuni tugareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
tug-are-ta
pour-PASS-PST
‘The water was poured into the glass by that man.’
POUR an Alternation:
DO passive
(219)
Sono otokowa gurasuni mizuo tugeru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tug-e-ru
pour-POT-NPST
‘That man can pour the water into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(220)
Sono otokoga kodomoni mo:huo kaketa.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(221)
Darekaga sono otokoni kodomoni mo:huo kakesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-sase-ta
cover-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man cover the child with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative
(222)
Mo:huga kodomoni kakatteru.
mo:hu=ga
blanket=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
kakat-te-ru
cover-GER.be-NPST
‘The blanket is covering the child.’
COVER an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(223)
Kodomoga mo:huo sono otoko{ni/niyotte} kakerareta.
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
sono
that
otoko={ni/niyotte}
man={DAT/by}
kake-rare-ta
cover-PASS-PST
‘The child was covered with a blanket by that man.’
COVER an Alternation:
IO passive
(224)
Sono otokoniyotte mo:huga kodomoni kakerareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
mo:hu=ga
blanket=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
kake-rare-ta
cover-PASS-PST
‘The blanket was put on the child by that man.’
COVER an Alternation:
DO passive
(225)
Utino hahawa sotto sizukani kodomoni mo:huo kakerareru.
uti=no
home=GEN
haha=wa
mother=TOP
sotto
peacefully
sizuka=ni
quiet=ADV
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘My mother can cover the child with the blanket quietly.’
COVER an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(226)
Mo:huga kodomoni kakerareru.
mo:hu=ga
blanket=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
kake-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘The blanket is suitable for covering the child.’
COVER an Alternation:
potential (property)
(227)
Sono otokoga gurasuni mizuo mitasita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(228)
Mizuga gurasuni mitasatta.
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-at-ta
fill-AC-PST
‘The water got poured into the glass.’
FILL an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(229)
Darekaga sono otokoni mizuo gurasuni mitasaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-ase-ta
fill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man fill the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative
(230)
Mizuga gurasuni mitite ita.
mizu=ga
water=NOM
guras=uni
glass=DAT
miti-te
fill-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘The glass is full of water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(231)
Mizuga gurasuni mitasareta.
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-are-ta
fill-PASS-PST
‘Water was poured into the glass until it was filled.’
FILL an Alternation:
DO passive
(232)
Sono syo:nenwa, kobosazuni, mizuo koppuni mitaseru.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
kobosa-zuni
spill.IRR-NEG.ADV
mizu=o
water=ACC
koppu=ni
cup=DAT
mitas-e-ru
fill-POT-NPST
‘That boy can pour the water into the cup without spilling it.’
FILL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(233)
Sono otokoga gurasuo mizude mitasita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-instr) V
(234)
Gurasuga mizude mitasatta.
gurasu=ga
glass=NOM
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-at-ta
fill-AC-PST
‘The glass got filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(235)
Darekaga sono otokoni gurasuo mizude mitasaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-ase-ta
fill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man fill the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative
(236)
Gurasuga mizude mitite ita.
gurasu=ga
glass=NOM
mizu=de
water=INST
miti-te
fill-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘The glass is full of water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(237)
Gurasuga mizude mitasareta.
gurasu=ga
glass=NOM
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-are-ta
fill-PASS-PST
‘The glass was filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
DO passive
(238)
Sono akanbo:wa gurasuo mizude mitaseru.
sono
that
akanbo:=wa
baby=TOP
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-e-ru
fill-POT-NPST
‘That baby can fill the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(239)
Sono otokoga nigurumani hosikusao tunda.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(240)
Hosikusaga nigurumani tumasatta.
hosikusa=ga
hay=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-asat-ta
load-AC-PST
‘The hay got loaded on the wagon.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(241)
Darekaga sono otokoni hosikusao nigurumani tumaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-ase-ta
load-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man load the hay on the wagon.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative
(242)
Sono otokoniyotte hosikusaga nigurumani tumareta.
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hosikusa=ga
hay=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-are-ta
load-PASS-PST
‘The hay was loaded on the wagon by that man.’
LOAD an Alternation:
DO passive
(243)
Sono otokowa hosikusao nigurumani tumeru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘That man can load the hay on the wagon.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(244)
Sono hosikusawa nigurumani tumeru.
sono
that
hosikusa=wa
hay=TOP
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘That hay can be loaded on the wagon.’
LOAD an Alternation:
potential (property)
(245)
Sono musumega mabatakio sita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(246)
Kantokuga zyoyu:ni mabatakio saseta.
kantoku=ga
director=NOM
zyoyu:=ni
actress=DAT
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
s-ase-ta
do-CAUS-PST
‘The director made the actress blink.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Causative
(247)
Sono otokoga sekio sita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(248)
Darekaga sono otokoni sekio saseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
seki=o
cough=ACC
s-ase-ta
do-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(249)
Sono otodoga okani nobotta.
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(250)
Darekaga sono otokoo okani noboraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobor-ase-ta
climb-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man climb the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(251)
Otokowa okani noboreru.
otoko=wa
man=TOP
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobor-e-ru
climb-POT-NPST
‘The man can climb the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(252)
Sono otodoga okao nobotta.
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(253)
Darekaga sono otokoni okao noboraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobor-ase-ta
climb-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man climb the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Causative
(254)
Otokowa okao noboreru.
otoko=wa
man=TOP
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobor-e-ru
climb-POT-NPST
‘The man can climb the hill.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(255)
Sono kodomoga ko:te:o hasitta.
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(256)
Sense:ga kodomoni ko:te:o hasiraseta.
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasir-ase-ta
run-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children run around the school ground.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative
(257)
Sono kodomowa ko:te:o hayaku hasireru.
sono
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hayaku
fast
hasir-e-ru
run-POT-NPST
‘That child can run fast around the school ground.’
RUN an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(258)
Sono otokoga suwatta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(259)
Darekaga sono otokoo yukani suwaraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
yuka=ni
floor=DAT
suwar-ase-ta
sit-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man sit down on the floor.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative
(260)
Sono otokowa yukani suwareru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
yuka=ni
floor=DAT
suwar-e-ru
sit-POT-NPST
‘That man can sit on the floor.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(261)
Kodomotatiwa bentini kosikaketa.
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(262)
Otonatatiwa kodomotati{o/ni} bentini kosikakesaseta.
otonatati=wa
grown.ups=TOP
kodomotati={o/ni}
children={ACC/DAT}
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-sase-ta
sit.down-CAUS-PST
‘The grown-ups made the children sit down on the bench.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Causative
(263)
Kodomotatiwa zibunde bentini kosikakerareru.
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
zibunde
by.oneself
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-rare-ru
sit.down-POT-NPST
‘Children can sit down by themselves.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(264)
Kodomoga yukano uede haneta.
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(265)
Darekaga kodomoo yukano uede hanesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kodomo=o
child=ACC
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-sase-ta
jump-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the child bounce on the floor.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative
(266)
Kodomoga yukano uede hanerareru.
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-rare-ru
jump-POT-NPST
‘The child can bounce on the floor.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(267)
Sono syo:nenga utao utatta.
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(268)
Darekaga syo:nenni utao utawaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
uta=o
song=ACC
utaw-ase-ta
sing-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy sing a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Causative
(269)
Sono utaga minnani utawarete iru.
sono
that
uta=ga
song=NOM
minna=ni
everybody=DAT
utaw-are-te
sing-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That song is sung by everybody.’
SING an Alternation:
DO passive
(270)
Syo:nenwa utao utaeru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
uta=o
song=ACC
uta-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘The boy can sing a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(271)
Sono utawa kodomonimo utaeru.
sono
that
uta=wa
song=TOP
kodomo=ni=mo
child=DAT=also
uta-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘Even children can sing that song.’
SING an Alternation:
potential (property)
(272)
Sono syo:nenwa ekini itta.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(273)
Darekaga sono syo:neno ekini ikaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
eki=ni
station=DAT
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy go to the station.’
GO an Alternation:
Causative
(274)
Sono syo:nenwa ekini ikeru.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
ik-e-ru
go-POT-NPST
‘That boy can go to the station.’
GO an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(275)
Syo:nenga murao dete itta.
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(276)
Darekaga syo:nen{o/ni} murakara dete ikaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen={o/ni}
boy={ACC/DAT}
mura=kara
village=ABL
de-te
leave-GER
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy leave the village.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Causative
(277)
Syo:nenwa murakara dete ikeru.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
mura=kara
village=ABL
de-te
leave-GER
ik-e-ru
be-POT-NPST
‘The boy can leave the village.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(278)
Sono syo:nenwa sono murani sunde ita.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(279)
Darekaga sono syo:nen{ni/o} sono murani sumaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen={ni/o}
boy={DAT/ACC}
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sum-ase-ta
live-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy live in that village.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative
(280)
Sono syo:nenwa sono murani sumeru.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘The boy can live in that village.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(281)
Sono murawa, ko:kyo:ryo:kinga yasuinode, sigotoga nai hitonimo sumeru.
sono
that
mura=wa
village=TOP
ko:kyo:ryo:kin=ga
cost.of.living=NOM
yasu-i=node
cheep-NPST=because
sigoto=ga
job=NOM
na-i
not.exist-NPST
hito=ni=mo
man=DAT=also
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘Because the public utility rates are low, that village is easy to live in even for the poor people.’
LIVE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(282)
Sono musumega waratta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(283)
Darekaga sono musume{o/ni} warawaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume={o/ni}
girl={ACC/DAT}
waraw-ase-ta
laugh-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative
(284)
Sono musumega bokuno kotoo waratta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
boku=no
1sg=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed at me.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(285)
Bokuwa sono musumeni warawareta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
waraw-are-ta
laugh-PASS-PST
‘I was laughed at by that girl.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
DO passive
(286)
Sono e:gawa waraeru.
sono
that
e:ga=wa
movie=TOP
wara-e-ru
laugh-POT-NPST
‘That movie makes you laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
potential (property)
(287)
Otokoga sakenda.
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(288)
Darekaga otokoni sakebaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sakeb-ase-ta
scream-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man scream.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Causative
(289)
Otokowa nanzikandemo sakeberu.
otoko=wa
man=TOP
nanzikan=demo
any.hours=even
sakeb-e-ru
scream-POT-NPST
‘The man can scream for long hours.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(290)
Orewa udega {itai/itamu}.
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-nom V
(291)
Orewa udeo itameta.
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=o
arm=ACC
itame-ta
hurt-PST
‘I hurt my arm.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(292)
Kanozyoga samugatta.
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(293)
Mahuyunanoni wazato sohutokuri:muo dasite samugaraseta.
mahuyu=nanoni
midwinter=though
wazato
on.purpose
sohutokuri:mu=o
soft.cream=ACC
dasi-te
serve-GER
samugar-ase-ta
feel.cold-CAUS-PST
‘(Someone) made (someone) feel cold by giving them ice cream although it was in the midst of winter.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative
(294)
Sono otokoga sinda.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(295)
Darekaga sono otokoo sinaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
sin-ase-ta
die-CAUS-PST
‘Someone let that man die.’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative
(296)
Sono otokowa sineru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sin-e-ru
die-POT-NPST
‘That man can die.’
DIE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(297)
Kodomoga asonde iru.
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(298)
Bokuwa kodomoo asobaseta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
kodomo=o
child=ACC
asob-ase-ta
play-CAUS-PST
‘I made the child play.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative
(299)
Ano kodomowa hitoridemo asoberu.
ano
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
hitoridemo
alone
asob-e-ru
play-POT-NPST
‘That child can play by herself/himself.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(300)
Watasiwa kanasi.
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(301)
Koibitowa kareno sio kanasinda.
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’
BE SAD ABOUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(302)
Darekaga kareo kanasimaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kare=o
he=ACC
kanasim-ase-ta
feel.sad-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made him feel sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT an Alternation:
Causative
(303)
Kareno siwa koibitoni kanasimareta.
kare=no
he=GEN
si=wa
death=TOP
koibito=ni
lover=DAT
kanasim-are-ta
feel.sad-PASS-PST
‘His death was grieved by his lover.’
BE SAD ABOUT an Alternation:
DO passive
(304)
Sono syo:nenwa onakaga hetta.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(305)
Sono syo:nenwa onakao herasite ita.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
herasi-te
decrease-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was starving himself.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(306)
Sono syo:nenwa onakao sukasete ita.
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(307)
Bo:ruga korogatta.
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(308)
Sense:ga mattono uede kodomoo korogaraseta.
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
matto=no
mat=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
kodomo=o
child=ACC
korogar-ase-ta
roll-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children roll on the mat.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative
(309)
Sono otokoga bo:ruo korogasu.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(310)
Sono ko:enniwa suro:puga arunode, korogareru.
sono
that
ko:en=ni=wa
park=DAT=TOP
suro:pu=ga
slope=NOM
ar-u=node
exist-NPST=because
korogar-e-ru
roll-POT-NPST
‘Because there is a slope in the park, we can roll there.’
ROLL an Alternation:
potential (property)
(311)
Bo:ruga korogasatteru.
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogas-at-te-ru
roll-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The ball is there after rolling.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(312)
Darekaga sono otokoni bo:ruo koroga(sa)seta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-ase-ta
roll-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man roll the ball.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Causative
(313)
Bo:ruga otoko{ni/niyotte} korogasareta.
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
otoko={ni/niyotte}
man={DAT/by}
korogas-are-ta
roll-PASS-PST
‘The ball was rolled by the man.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
DO passive
(314)
Kodomowa, mo: o:kiku nattanode, hitoride bo:ruo korogaseru.
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
mo:
already
o:kik-u
big-ADV
nat-ta=node
become-PST=because
hitoride
by.oneself
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-e-ru
roll-POT-NPST
‘The child can roll the ball alone because she/he is already big.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(315)
Hunega sizunda.
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(316)
Hunega sizumasatta.
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizum-asat-ta
sink-AC-PST
‘The boat is sunken.’
SINK an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(317)
Karega huneo sizumaseta.
kare=ga
he=NOM
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizum-ase-ta
sink-CAUS-PST
‘He made the boat sank.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative
(318)
Karewa huneo sizumeta.
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(319)
Darekaga kareni huneo sizumesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kare=ni
he=DAT
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-sase-ta
sink-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made him sink the boat.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Causative
(320)
Hunega kareniyotte sizumerareta.
hune=ga
boat=NOM
kare=niyotte
he=by
sizume-rare-ta
sink-PASS-PST
‘The boat was sunk by him.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
DO passive
(321)
Karewa sono huneo sizumerareru.
kare=wa
he=TOP
sono
that
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-rare-ru
sink-POT-NPST
‘He can sink that boat.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(322)
Sammaga yaketa.
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(323)
Oka:sanga sammao yaita.
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’
BURN an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(324)
Sammaga yakasatta.
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yak-asat-ta
burn-AC-PST
‘The saury got grilled.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(325)
Danse:wa syo:zyoo tasukerareru.
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘The man can help the girl.’
HELP an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(326)
Darekaga oka:sanni sammao yakaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
oka:san=ni
mother=DAT
samma=o
saury=ACC
yak-ase-ta
burn-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made my mother grill the saury.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Causative
(327)
Sense:ga watasini hono kureta.
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(328)
Honga sense:no tokoroni okurasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-asat-ta
send-AC-PST
‘The book got sent to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(329)
Hosite okitakattanoni, darekani samma{ga/o} yakareta.
hosi-te
dry-GER
oki-takat-ta=noni
put.ADV-want-PST=though
dareka=ni
someone=DAT
samma={ga/o}
saury={NOM/ACC}
yak-are-ta
burn-PASS-PST
‘Although I wanted to dry it, someone grilled my saury.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
DO passive
(330)
Darekaga sono musumeni hono gakko:ni okuraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-ase-ta
send-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl send the book to the school.’
SEND an Alternation:
Causative
(331)
Utino kowa mo: hitoride sammao yakeru.
uti=no
our=GEN
ko=wa
child=TOP
mo:
already
hitoride
by.oneself
samma=o
saury=ACC
yak-e-ru
burn-POT-NPST
‘Our child can grill the saury alone.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(332)
Musumesanniyotte honga gakko:ni okurareta.
musumesan=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-are-ta
send-PASS-PST
‘The book was sent to the school by the girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
DO passive
(333)
Samma, toketakara, yakeruyo.
samma
saury
toke-ta=kara
melt-PST=because
yak-e-ru=yo
burn-POT-NPST=PRT
‘Because it has thawed, the saury is ready to grill.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
potential (property)
(334)
Musumesanwa hono gakko:ni hono okureru.
musumesan=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘That girl can send the book to the school.’
SEND an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(335)
Iega moete iru.
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(336)
Honwa gakko:ni okureru.
hon=wa
book=TOP
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The book can be sent to the school.’
SEND an Alternation:
potential (property)
(337)
Darekaga ieo moyasita.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
moyasi-ta
burn-PST
‘Someone burned the house.’
BURN an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(338)
Sono musumega yogoreo huita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(339)
Kono iewa sugu moeru.
kono
this
ie=wa
house=TOP
sugu
immediately
moe-ru
burn-NPST
‘This house burns easily.’
BURN an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(340)
Te:buruga hukasatteru.
te:buru=ga
table=NOM
huk-asat-te-ru
wipe-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The table got wiped.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(341)
Hukuga kawaite iru.
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(342)
Sono otokoga zimeno hotta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(343)
Hankatiga kawakasatta.
hankati=ga
handkerchief=NOM
kawakas-at-ta
dry-AC-PST
‘The handkerchief got dry.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(344)
Zimenga horasatta.
zimen=ga
ground=NOM
hor-asat-ta
dig-AC-PST
‘The ground got dug.’
DIG an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(345)
Bokuwa syo:nenni hukuo kawakasaseta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kawakas-ase-ta
dry-CAUS-PST
‘I made the boy dry the clothes.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative
(346)
Darekaga sono otokoni zimeno horaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man dig the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative
(347)
Sono otokoga hukuo kawakasita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kawakasi-ta
dry-PST
‘That man dried the clothes.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(348)
Zimenga otokoniyotte horareta.
zimen=ga
ground=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hor-are-ta
dig-PASS-PST
‘The ground was dug by the man.’
DIG an Alternation:
DO passive
(349)
Hukuga syo:nenni kawakasareta.
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
kawakas-are-ta
dry-PASS-PST
‘The clothes were dried by the boy.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
DO passive
(350)
Sono otokowa zimeno horeru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That man can dig the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(351)
Sono hukuwa sugu kawakaseru.
sono
that
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
sugu
immediately
kawakas-e-ru
dry-POT-NPST
‘Those clothes dry easily.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
potential (property)
(352)
Amega hutta.
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(353)
Amagoisiga ameo huraseta.
amagoisi=ga
prayer.for.rain=NOM
ame=o
rain=ACC
hur-ase-ta
fall-CAUS-PST
‘Thanks to the ceremony, it rained.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Causative
(354)
Sono otokowa karyu:dodatta.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(355)
Sono otokoga yamaimoo sutta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(356)
Yamaimoga surasatta.
yamaimo=ga
yam=NOM
sur-asat-ta
grind-AC-PST
‘The yam got ground.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(357)
Darekaga otokoni yamaimoo suraseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sur-ase-ta
grind-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man ground the yam.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Causative
(358)
Yamaimoga sono otokoniyotte surareta.
yamaimo=ga
yam=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sur-are-ta
grind-PASS-PST
‘The yam was ground by that man.’
GRIND an Alternation:
DO passive
(359)
Sono otokowa yamaimoo sureru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sur-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘That man can grind the yam.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(360)
Sono musumega te:buruo huita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(361)
Yogorega hukasatteru.
yogore=ga
dirt=NOM
huk-asat-te-ru
wipe-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The dirt got wiped.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(362)
Darekaga sono musumeni te:buruo hukaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
te:buru=o
table=ACC
huk-ase-ta
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl wipe the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Causative
(363)
Sono musumeni te:buru{ga/o} hukareta.
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
te:buru={ga/o}
table={NOM/ACC}
huk-are-ta
wipe-PASS-PST
‘The table was wiped by that girl.’
WIPE an Alternation:
DO passive
(364)
Sono musumewa te:buruo kire:ni hukeru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
te:buru=o
table=ACC
kire:ni
cleanly
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wipe the table clean.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(365)
Ano te:buruwa kantanni hukeru.
ano
that
te:buru=wa
table=TOP
kantanni
easily
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That table is easy to wipe.’
WIPE an Alternation:
potential (property)
(366)
Sono otokoga zimenni anao hotta.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(367)
Zimenni anaga horasatta.
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=ga
hole=NOM
hor-asat-ta
dig-AC-PST
‘The hole got dug in the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(368)
Darekaga sono otokoni zimenni anao horaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man dig the hole in the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative
(369)
Anaga otokoniyotte horareta.
ana=ga
hole=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hor-are-ta
dig-PASS-PST
‘The hole was dug by the man.’
DIG an Alternation:
DO passive
(370)
Sono otokowa zimenni anao horeru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That man can dig the hole in the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(371)
Sono zyose:wa imoo hotte iru.
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(372)
Imowa mo: horasatteru.
imo=wa
potato=TOP
mo:
already
hor-asat-te-ru
dig-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The potatoes have already been dug.’
DIG an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(373)
Darekaga sono zyose:ni imoo horaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
zyose:=ni
woman=DAT
imo=o
potato=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that woman dig potatoes.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative
(374)
Sono zyose:wa zyo:zuni imoo horeru.
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
zyo:zuni
well
imo=o
potato=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That woman can dig for potatoes well.’
DIG an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(375)
Sono musumega sono otokono senakao osita.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(376)
Darekaga sono musumeni sono otokono senakao osaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
os-ase-ta
push-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl push that man's back.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative
(377)
Sono musumeni senakaga osareta.
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
senaka=ga
back=NOM
os-are-ta
push-PASS-PST
‘My back was pushed by that girl.’
PUSH an Alternation:
DO passive
(378)
Sono kodomowa bebi:ka:o oseru.
sono
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
bebi:ka:=o
stroller=ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That child can push the stroller.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(379)
Sono otokoga hankoo osita.
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(380)
Hankoga osasatta.
hanko=ga
stamp=NOM
os-asat-ta
push-AC-PST
‘The stamp got pressed (on something).’
PUSH an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(381)
Darekaga sono otokoni hankoo osaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
os-ase-ta
push-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man press the stamp (on something).’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative
(382)
Titini katteni hankoo osareta.
titi=ni
father=DAT
katteni
without.permission
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
os-are-ta
push-PASS-PST
‘I had the stamp pressed by my father.’
PUSH an Alternation:
IO passive
(383)
Sono otokowa hankoo oseru.
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That man can press the stamp (on something).’
PUSH an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(384)
Kono hankowa rakuni oseru.
kono
this
hanko=wa
stamp=TOP
rakuni
easily
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘This stamp is easy to press.’
PUSH an Alternation:
potential (property)
(385)
Sono musumega sense:no tokoroni hono motteitta.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(386)
Darekaga sono musumeni sense:no tokoroni hono motteikaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteik-ase-ta
bring-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl bring the book to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
Causative
(387)
Sono honwa musumeniyotte sense:no tokoroni motteikareta.
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
musume=niyotte
girl=by
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
motteik-are-ta
bring-PASS-PST
‘That book was brought to the teacher by the girl.’
BRING an Alternation:
DO passive
(388)
Sono musumewa sense:no tokoroni hono motteikeru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteik-e-ru
bring-POT-NPST
‘That girl can bring the book to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(389)
Sono syukudaiwa sense:no tokoroni motteikeru.
sono
that
syukudai=wa
homework=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
motteik-e-ru
bring-POT-NPST
‘That homework can be brought to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
potential (property)
(390)
Sono musumega sense:no hono nusunda.
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(391)
Honga nusumasatta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
nusum-asat-ta
steal-AC-PST
‘The book got stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(392)
Darekaga sono musumeni sense:no hono nusumaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusum-ase-ta
steal-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl steal the book.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Causative
(393)
Honga sono musumeni nusumareta.
hon=ga
book=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
nusum-are-ta
steal-PASS-PST
‘The book was stolen by that girl.’
STEAL an Alternation:
DO passive
(394)
Sono musumewa hono nusumeru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
nusum-e-ru
steal-POT-NPST
‘That girl can steal the book.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(395)
Sono sense:ga watasini su:gakuo osieta.
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat 3-acc V
(396)
Darekaga sono sense:ni watasini su:gakuo osiesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-sase-ta
teach-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that teacher teach me mathematics.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Causative
(397)
Watasiwa sono sense:{ni/kara} su:gakuo osowatta.
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
sense:={ni/kara}
teacher={DAT/ABL}
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osowat-ta
learn-PST
‘I learnt mathematics from that teacher.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(398)
Watasiwa sono sense:ni su:gakuo osierareta.
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-rare-ta
teach-PASS-PST
‘I was taught mathematics by that teacher.’
TEACH an Alternation:
IO passive
(399)
Sono sense:wa watasini su:gakuo osierareru.
sono
that
sense:=wa
teacher=TOP
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-rare-ru
teach-POT-NPST
‘That teacher can teach me mathematics.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(400)
Bokuniwa sono otoga kikoeta.
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(401)
Bokuwa sono otoo ki:ta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
oto=o
sound=ACC
ki:-ta
listen-PST
‘I listened to the sound.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(402)
Bokuga sakanao ryo:ri sita.
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(403)
Bokuwa imo:toni sakanao ryo:ri saseta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
imo:to=ni
sister=DAT
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
s-ase-ta
do-CAUS-PST
‘I made my sister cook the fish.’
COOK an Alternation:
Causative
(404)
Sakanaga imo:toniyotte ryo:ri sareta.
sakana=ga
fish=NOM
imo:to=niyotte
sister=by
ryo:ri
cook
s-are-ta
do-PASS-PST
‘The fish was cooked by my sister.’
COOK an Alternation:
DO passive
(405)
Imo:towa sakanao ryo:ri dekiru.
imo:to=wa
sister=TOP
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
deki-ru
can-NPST
‘My sister can cook the fish.’
COOK an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(406)
Oyuga waita.
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(407)
Oyuga wakasatta.
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wak-asat-ta
boil-AC-PST
‘The water got boiled.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(408)
Bokuga oyuo wakasita.
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Lexical argument increasing alternation
(409)
Oyuga wakasatta.
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wakas-at-ta
boil-AC-PST
‘The water got boiled.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(410)
Bokuwa imo:toni oyuo wakasaseta.
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
imo:to=ni
sister=DAT
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakas-ase-ta
boil-CAUS-PST
‘I made my sister boil the water.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Causative
(411)
Imo:toga oyuo wakaseru.
imo:to=ga
sister=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakas-e-ru
boil-POT-NPST
‘My sister can boil the water.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(412)
Nikuga tatakasatteru.
niku=ga
meat=NOM
tatak-asat-te-ru
beat-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The meat was softened by pounding.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(413)
Syo:nenwa zyose:ni donarii tukerareta.
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
zyose:=ni
woman=DAT
donari-i
shout-ADV
tuke-rare-ta
put.on-PASS-PST
‘The boy was shouted at by the woman.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
DO passive
(414)
Zyose:wa kareni syo:neno donari tukesaseta.
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-sase-ta
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The woman made him shout at the boy.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Causative
(415)
Zyose:wa syo:neno donari tuketa.
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(416)
Zyose:wa syo:neno donari tukerareru.
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-rare-ru
put.on-POT-NPST
‘The woman can shout at the boy.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(417)
*Madoga iside warasatta.
mado=ga
window=NOM
*isi=de
*stone=INST
war-asat-ta
break-AC-PST
‘The window got broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative with /rasar/
(418)
*Darekaga syo:nenni okaneo otokoni motomesaseta.
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
*otoko=ni
*man=DAT
motome-sase-ta
ask.for-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy ask the man for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Causative
(419)
*Madoga iside wareta.
mado=ga
window=NOM
*isi=de
*stone=INST
ware-ta
break-PST
‘The window broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Lexical argument decreasing alternation
(420)
Yogorewa sono musumeniyotte hukareta.
yogore=wa
dirt=TOP
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
huk-are-ta
wipe-PASS-PST
‘The dirt was wiped off by the girl.’
WIPE an Alternation:
DO passive
(421)
Sono musumewa kareni yogoreo hukaseta.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
huk-ase-ta
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘That girl made him wipe off the dirt.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Causative
(422)
Sono musumewa yogoreo hukeru.
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wipe off the dirt.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Potential (ability)
(423)
Kono yogorewa kantanni hukeru.
kono
this
yogore=wa
dirt=TOP
kantanni
easily
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘This dirt is easy to wipe off.’
WIPE an Alternation:
potential (property)