Anticausative with /rasar/ C

Description

Anticausativization in the Hokkaido dialect employs the suffix /rasar/ as a morphological marker. Anticausativization in this dialect applies to the accomplishment transitive verbs. Direct objects in the active sentences correspond to the anticausative subject. Activity verbs can be anticausativized when the combination of verb and object implies a change of state.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT tabe-ru N
(1)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’
HUG dakituk-u N
(9)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’
LOOK AT mi-ru N
(14)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’
SMELL kag-u N
(20)
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’
FEAR kowagar-u N
(24)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’
FRIGHTEN kowagarase-ru N
(28)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’
LIKE suki=da N
(34)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’
KNOW sir-u N
(36)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’
THINK kangae-ru N
(39)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’
SEARCH FOR sagas-u N
(43)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’
WASH ara(w)-u R
(48)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’

(49)
kono
this
koppu=wa
cup=TOP
araw-asat-ta
wash-AC-PST
‘This cup got washed.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sor-u R
(59)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’

(60)
hige=ga
beard=NOM
sor-asat-te-nai
shave-AC-GER.be-NEG.NPST
‘The beard is not shaved.’
HELP tasuke-ru N
(64)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’
HELP tetuda(w)-u N
(70)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’
FOLLOW tui-te ik-u N
(74)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
FOLLOW oikake-ru N
(78)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
MEET a(w)-u N
(82)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’
TALK hanas-u N
(85)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
(92)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’
ASK FOR motome-ru N
(6)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’
SAY i(w)-u N
(96)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’
NAME yob-u N
(100)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’
BUILD tate-ru R
(105)
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’

(106)
bo:kkire=ga
stick=NOM
tat-asat-ta
stand-AC-PST
‘The stick is standing.’
KILL koros-u N
(118)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’
BEAT tatak-u R
(122)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(412)
niku=ga
meat=NOM
tatak-asat-te-ru
beat-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The meat was softened by pounding.’
TOUCH sawar-u N
(127)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’
CUT kir-u R
(132)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’

(133)
pan=ga
bread=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
kir-asat-ta
cut-AC-PST
‘The bread got cut with the knife.’
TAKE tor-u N
(138)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’
TAKE mog-u R
(143)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’

(144)
kyu:ri=ga
cucumber=NOM
mog-asat-ta
take-AC-PST
‘The cucumber got harvested.’
TEAR hikitigir-u R
(150)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’

(151)
hon={no/kara}
book={GEN/ABL}
pe:zi=ga
page=NOM
hikitigir-asat-ta
tear-AC-PST
‘The page of the book got torn.’
PEEL muk-u R
(156)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’

(157)
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=ga
skin=NOM
muk-asat-ta
peel-AC-PST
‘The apple got peeled.’
HIDE kakus-u N
(162)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(167)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’

(168)
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
mise-rasar-u
show-AC-NPST
‘The book will get shown to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(327)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
SEND okur-u R
(176)
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’

(177)
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-asat-ta
send-AC-PST
‘The book got sent to the school.’
(328)
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-asat-ta
send-AC-PST
‘The book got sent to the teacher.’
CARRY hakob-u R
(183)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(188)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’

(184)
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-asat-ta
carry-AC-PST
‘The book got carried to the teacher.’
(189)
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-asat-ta
carry-AC-PST
‘The book got carried to school.’
THROW nage-ru N
(193)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’
TIE tunag-u R
(198)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’

(199)
uma=ga
horse=NOM
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-asat-ta
tie-AC-PST
‘The horse got tied to the tree.’
LIKE ki=ni ir-u N
(205)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’
PUT ok-u R
(209)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’

(210)
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-asat-ta
put-AC-PST
‘The book got put on the desk.’
POUR tug-u R
(215)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’

(216)
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
tug-asat-ta
pour-AC-PST
‘The water got poured into the glass.’
COVER kake-ru N
(220)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’
FILL mitas-u (1) R
(227)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’

(228)
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-at-ta
fill-AC-PST
‘The water got poured into the glass.’
FILL mitas-u (2) R
(233)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’

(234)
gurasu=ga
glass=NOM
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-at-ta
fill-AC-PST
‘The glass got filled with water.’
LOAD tum-u R
(239)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’

(240)
hosikusa=ga
hay=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-asat-ta
load-AC-PST
‘The hay got loaded on the wagon.’
BLINK mabataki=o su-ru N
(245)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
COUGH seki=o su-ru N
(247)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u N
(249)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
CLIMB nobor-u (2) N
(252)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
RUN hasir-u N
(255)
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’
SIT DOWN suwar-u N
(258)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’
SIT DOWN kosikake-ru
(261)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
JUMP hane-ru N
(264)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’
SING uta(w)-u N
(267)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’
GO ik-u N
(272)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’
LEAVE de-te ik-u N
(275)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE sum-u N
(278)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’
LAUGH wara(w)-u N
(282)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
SCREAM sakeb-u N
(287)
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ita-i/itam-u N
(290)
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL COLD samugar-u N
(292)
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(294)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’
PLAY asob-u N
(297)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD kanasi-i N
(300)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT kanasim-u N
(301)
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=ga her-u N
(304)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=o sukase-ru N
(306)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
ROLL korogar-u N
(307)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL (tr) korogas-u R
(309)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’

(311)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogas-at-te-ru
roll-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The ball is there after rolling.’
SINK sizum-u R
(315)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’

(316)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizum-asat-ta
sink-AC-PST
‘The boat is sunken.’
SINK (tr) sizume-ru R
(318)
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’
BURN yake-ru N
(322)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN (tr) yak-u R
(323)
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’

(324)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yak-asat-ta
burn-AC-PST
‘The saury got grilled.’
BURN moe-ru N
(335)
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawak-u R
(341)
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’

(343)
hankati=ga
handkerchief=NOM
kawakas-at-ta
dry-AC-PST
‘The handkerchief got dry.’
RAIN ame=ga hur-u N
(352)
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER karyu:do=da N
(354)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
GRIND sur-u R
(355)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’

(356)
yamaimo=ga
yam=NOM
sur-asat-ta
grind-AC-PST
‘The yam got ground.’
WIPE huk-u R
(360)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’

(340)
te:buru=ga
table=NOM
huk-asat-te-ru
wipe-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The table got wiped.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(342)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
(366)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’

(344)
zimen=ga
ground=NOM
hor-asat-ta
dig-AC-PST
‘The ground got dug.’
(367)
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=ga
hole=NOM
hor-asat-ta
dig-AC-PST
‘The hole got dug in the ground.’
DIG hor-u (2) R
(371)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’

(372)
imo=wa
potato=TOP
mo:
already
hor-asat-te-ru
dig-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The potatoes have already been dug.’
PUSH os-u N
(375)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’
PUSH os-u (2) R
(379)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’

(380)
hanko=ga
stamp=NOM
os-asat-ta
push-AC-PST
‘The stamp got pressed (on something).’
BRING motteik-u N
(385)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’
STEAL nusum-u M
(390)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’
TEACH osie-ru N
(395)
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’
HEAR kikoe-ru N
(400)
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
COOK ryo:ri su-ru N
(402)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’
BOIL wak-u R
(406)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’

(407)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wak-asat-ta
boil-AC-PST
‘The water got boiled.’
BOIL (tr) wakas-u R
(408)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’

(409)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wakas-at-ta
boil-AC-PST
‘The water got boiled.’
SHOUT AT donar-u
(415)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’
GIVE yar-u N
(173)
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
WIPE huk-u (2) R
(338)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’

(361)
yogore=ga
dirt=NOM
huk-asat-te-ru
wipe-AC-GER.be-NPST
‘The dirt got wiped.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(54)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’

(55)
manekin=ga
mannequin=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-rasat-te
dress-AC-GER
ir-u
be-NPST
‘The mannequin is dressed up.’
BREAK war-u R
(111)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’

(112)
mado=ga
window=NOM
war-asat-ta
break-AC-PST
‘The window got broken.’
(417)
mado=ga
window=NOM
*isi=de
*stone=INST
war-asat-ta
break-AC-PST
‘The window got broken.’