Potential (ability) C

Description

The potential predicate is formed through suffixation of the potential suffixes /e/ and /rare/. The allomorph is determined by the phonological shape of the verb root. When the verb root ends with a consonant, /e/ is selected. For the other cases, /rare/ is selected. The allomorph /rare/ optionally undergoes deletion of /ra/ and it is realized as /re/. The potential 1 construction describes the ability of the agent. The case frame of this construction is the same as that of the corresponding active sentence. In Standard Japanese potential constructions, the subject may be case-marked in the dative. On the other hand, in this dialect, this type of case alternation does not occur. This alternation does not change the valency.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
HUG dakituk-u R
(9)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’

(12)
subasikko-i=node
agile-NPST=because
musume=wa
girl=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakituk-e-ru
hug-POT-NPST
‘(Because she is quick,) the girl can hug the man.’
SMELL kag-u R
(20)
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’

(23)
tosi=o
year=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
kuma-dakedo
bear-although
imadani
still.now
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kag-e-ru
smell-POT-NPST
‘Although it is an old bear, it still has a good nose.’
FEAR kowagar-u N
(24)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’
FRIGHTEN kowagarase-ru R
(28)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’

(32)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-rare-ru
frighten-POT-NPST
‘That man can frighten the boy.’
LIKE suki=da N
(34)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’
KNOW sir-u N
(36)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’
THINK kangae-ru R
(39)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’

(42)
otoko={ga/wa}
man={NOM/TOP}
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-rare-ru
think-POT-NPST
‘The man can think about the boy's future.’
SEARCH FOR sagas-u R
(43)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’

(46)
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagas-e-ru
search-POT-NPST
‘The man can search for the boy.’
WASH ara(w)-u R
(48)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’

(52)
sono
that
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
huku=o
cloth=ACC
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wash the clothes.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(54)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’

(58)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-rare-ru
dress-POT-NPST
‘Mother can dress her daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sor-u R
(59)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’

(63)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hige=o
beard=ACC
sor-e-ru
shave-POT-NPST
‘That man can shave his beard.’
HELP tasuke-ru R
(64)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’

(68)
danse:=ni=wa
man=DAT=TOP
syo:zyo=ga
girl=NOM
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘The man can help the girl.’
(325)
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘The man can help the girl.’
HELP tetuda(w)-u R
(70)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’

(73)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
sono
that
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetuda-e-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘I can help the boys.’
FOLLOW tui-te ik-u R
(74)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’

(77)
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
ik-e-ru
go-POT-NPST
‘The man can follow the girl.’
FOLLOW oikake-ru R
(78)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’

(81)
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
oikake-rare-ru
follow-POT-NPST
‘The man can follow the girl.’
MEET a(w)-u R
(82)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’

(84)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
musume={to/ni}
girl={COM/DAT}
a-e-ru
meet-POT-NPST
‘That man can meet the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(85)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
(92)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’

(89)
sono
that
danse:=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘That man can talk to the boy about the girl.’
(95)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanas-e-ru
tell-POT-NPST
‘That man can tell the story to that girl.’
ASK FOR motome-ru R
(6)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’

(8)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-(ra)re-ru
ask.for-POT-NPST
‘The boy can ask the man for money.’
SAY i(w)-u R
(96)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’

(99)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
i-e-ta
say-POT-PST
‘The boy could say something to the girl.’
NAME yob-u R
(100)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’

(103)
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-e-ru
call-POT-NPST
‘The girl can call the boy a fool.’
BUILD tate-ru R
(105)
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’

(110)
kare=wa
he=TOP
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-rare-ru
build-POT-NPST
‘He can build the house.’
BREAK war-u R
(111)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’

(116)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
mado=o
window=ACC
isi=de
stone=INST
war-e-ru
break-POT-NPST
‘The boy can break the window with a stone.’
KILL koros-u R
(118)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’

(121)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-e-ru
kill-POT-NPST
‘The boy can kill the snake with a stick.’
BEAT tatak-u R
(122)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(125)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatak-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘The boy can hit the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH sawar-u R
(127)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’

(130)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawar-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
‘The boy can touch the snake.’
CUT kir-u R
(132)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’

(136)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘That boy can cut the bread.’
TAKE mog-u R
(143)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’

(148)
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sono
that
kyu:ri=o
cucumber=ACC
mog-e-ru
take-POT-NPST
‘The girl can harvest that cucumber.’
TEAR hikitigir-u R
(150)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’

(154)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
kowaimonosirazu=dakara
reckless=because
donna
any.kind.of
daizi=na
important=ADN
hon=demo
book=even
hikitigir-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘Because she is fearless, that girl can tear even the very expensive books.’
PEEL muk-u R
(156)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’

(161)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
muk-e-ru
peel-POT-NPST
‘That girl can peel the apple.’
HIDE kakus-u R
(162)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(165)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakus-e-ru
hide-POT-NPST
‘That girl can hide the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(167)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’

(171)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-rare-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘That girl can show a book to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(327)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
SEND okur-u R
(176)
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’

(181)
musumesan=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘That girl can send the book to the teacher.’
(334)
musumesan=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘That girl can send the book to the school.’
CARRY hakob-u R
(183)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(188)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’

(187)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry the book to the teacher.’
(192)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-e-ru
carry-POT-NPST
‘That girl can carry the book to school.’
THROW nage-ru R
(193)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’

(196)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
isi=o
stone=ACC
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-(ra)re-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘That man can throw the stone at the window.’
TIE tunag-u R
(198)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’

(203)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘That man can tie the horse to the tree.’
LIKE ki=ni ir-u N
(205)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’
PUT ok-u R
(209)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’

(213)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-e-ru
put-POT-NPST
‘That man can put the book on the desk.’
POUR tug-u R
(215)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’

(219)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tug-e-ru
pour-POT-NPST
‘That man can pour the water into the glass.’
COVER kake-ru R
(220)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’

(225)
uti=no
home=GEN
haha=wa
mother=TOP
sotto
peacefully
sizuka=ni
quiet=ADV
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘My mother can cover the child with the blanket quietly.’
FILL mitas-u (1) R
(227)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’

(232)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
kobosa-zuni
spill.IRR-NEG.ADV
mizu=o
water=ACC
koppu=ni
cup=DAT
mitas-e-ru
fill-POT-NPST
‘That boy can pour the water into the cup without spilling it.’
FILL mitas-u (2) R
(233)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’

(238)
sono
that
akanbo:=wa
baby=TOP
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-e-ru
fill-POT-NPST
‘That baby can fill the glass with water.’
LOAD tum-u R
(239)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’

(243)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘That man can load the hay on the wagon.’
BLINK mabataki=o su-ru N
(245)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
COUGH seki=o su-ru N
(247)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u R
(249)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’

(251)
otoko=wa
man=TOP
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobor-e-ru
climb-POT-NPST
‘The man can climb the hill.’
CLIMB nobor-u (2) R
(252)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’

(254)
otoko=wa
man=TOP
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobor-e-ru
climb-POT-NPST
‘The man can climb the hill.’
RUN hasir-u R
(255)
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’

(257)
sono
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hayaku
fast
hasir-e-ru
run-POT-NPST
‘That child can run fast around the school ground.’
SIT DOWN suwar-u R
(258)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’

(260)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
yuka=ni
floor=DAT
suwar-e-ru
sit-POT-NPST
‘That man can sit on the floor.’
SIT DOWN kosikake-ru R
(261)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’

(263)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
zibunde
by.oneself
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-rare-ru
sit.down-POT-NPST
‘Children can sit down by themselves.’
JUMP hane-ru R
(264)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’

(266)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-rare-ru
jump-POT-NPST
‘The child can bounce on the floor.’
SING uta(w)-u R
(267)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’

(270)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
uta=o
song=ACC
uta-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘The boy can sing a song.’
GO ik-u R
(272)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’

(274)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
ik-e-ru
go-POT-NPST
‘That boy can go to the station.’
LIVE sum-u R
(278)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’

(280)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘The boy can live in that village.’
LAUGH wara(w)-u R
(282)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
SCREAM sakeb-u R
(287)
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’

(289)
otoko=wa
man=TOP
nanzikan=demo
any.hours=even
sakeb-e-ru
scream-POT-NPST
‘The man can scream for long hours.’
FEEL PAIN ita-i/itam-u N
(290)
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL COLD samugar-u N
(292)
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’
DIE sin-u R
(294)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’

(296)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sin-e-ru
die-POT-NPST
‘That man can die.’
PLAY asob-u R
(297)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’

(299)
ano
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
hitoridemo
alone
asob-e-ru
play-POT-NPST
‘That child can play by herself/himself.’
BE SAD kanasi-i N
(300)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT kanasim-u N
(301)
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=ga her-u N
(304)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=o sukase-ru N
(306)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
ROLL korogar-u R
(307)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL (tr) korogas-u R
(309)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’

(314)
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
mo:
already
o:kik-u
big-ADV
nat-ta=node
become-PST=because
hitoride
by.oneself
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-e-ru
roll-POT-NPST
‘The child can roll the ball alone because she/he is already big.’
SINK sizum-u N
(315)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK (tr) sizume-ru R
(318)
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’

(321)
kare=wa
he=TOP
sono
that
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-rare-ru
sink-POT-NPST
‘He can sink that boat.’
BURN yake-ru N
(322)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN (tr) yak-u R
(323)
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’

(331)
uti=no
our=GEN
ko=wa
child=TOP
mo:
already
hitoride
by.oneself
samma=o
saury=ACC
yak-e-ru
burn-POT-NPST
‘Our child can grill the saury alone.’
BURN moe-ru R
(335)
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’

(339)
kono
this
ie=wa
house=TOP
sugu
immediately
moe-ru
burn-NPST
‘This house burns easily.’
BE DRY kawak-u R
(341)
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’
RAIN ame=ga hur-u
(352)
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER karyu:do=da N
(354)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
GRIND sur-u R
(355)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’

(359)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sur-e-ru
grind-POT-NPST
‘That man can grind the yam.’
WIPE huk-u R
(360)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’

(364)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
te:buru=o
table=ACC
kire:ni
cleanly
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wipe the table clean.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(342)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
(366)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’

(350)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That man can dig the ground.’
(370)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That man can dig the hole in the ground.’
DIG hor-u (2) R
(371)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’

(374)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
zyo:zuni
well
imo=o
potato=ACC
hor-e-ru
dig-POT-NPST
‘That woman can dig for potatoes well.’
PUSH os-u R
(375)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’

(378)
sono
that
kodomo=wa
child=TOP
bebi:ka:=o
stroller=ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That child can push the stroller.’
PUSH os-u (2) R
(379)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’

(383)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘That man can press the stamp (on something).’
BRING motteik-u R
(385)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’

(388)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteik-e-ru
bring-POT-NPST
‘That girl can bring the book to the teacher.’
STEAL nusum-u R
(390)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’

(394)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
nusum-e-ru
steal-POT-NPST
‘That girl can steal the book.’
TEACH osie-ru R
(395)
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’

(399)
sono
that
sense:=wa
teacher=TOP
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-rare-ru
teach-POT-NPST
‘That teacher can teach me mathematics.’
HEAR kikoe-ru N
(400)
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
COOK ryo:ri su-ru R
(402)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’

(405)
imo:to=wa
sister=TOP
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
deki-ru
can-NPST
‘My sister can cook the fish.’
BOIL wak-u N
(406)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL (tr) wakas-u R
(408)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’

(411)
imo:to=ga
sister=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakas-e-ru
boil-POT-NPST
‘My sister can boil the water.’
SHOUT AT donar-u R
(415)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’

(416)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-rare-ru
put.on-POT-NPST
‘The woman can shout at the boy.’
GIVE yar-u R
(173)
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’

(174)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
yar-e-ru
give-POT-NPST
‘That girl can give a book to the teacher.’
WIPE huk-u (2) R
(338)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’

(422)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That girl can wipe off the dirt.’
EAT tabe-ru R
(1)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’

(4)
ano
that
onnanoko=wa
girl=TOP
natto:={o/ga}
natto={ACC/NOM}
tabe-(ra)re-ru
eat-POT-NPST
‘The girl can eat natto.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(14)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’

(18)
sono
that
danse:=ni=wa
man=DAT=TOP
yu:re:=ga
ghost=NOM
mi-e-ru
see-POT-NPST
‘That man can see the ghost.’
TAKE tor-u R
(138)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’

(142)
musume=kara
girl=ABL
pen=ga
pen=NOM
tor-e-ta
take-POT-PST
‘(Someone) can take a pen from the girl.’
LEAVE de-te ik-u R
(275)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’

(277)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
mura=kara
village=ABL
de-te
leave-GER
ik-e-ru
be-POT-NPST
‘The boy can leave the village.’