Causative C

Description

A-nom (L-dat) X-acc V <> C-nom A-dat (L-dat) P-acc V-sase
A-nom L/R-dat T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat R/L-dat T-acc V-sase
A-nom L-acc P-inst V <> C-nom A-dat L-acc P-inst V-sase
A-nom L-acc V <> C-nom A-{acc/dat} L-abl V-sase
A-nom L-acc V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc V-sase
A-nom L-dat P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc L-dat V-sase
A-nom L-dat T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat L-dat T-acc V-
sase
A-nom L-dat V <> C-nom A-{dat/acc} L-dat V-
sase
A-nom L-dat V <> C-nom A-acc P-dat V-
sase
A-nom P-acc L-dat V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc L-dat V-
sase
A-nom P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc V-
sase
A-nom P-dat V <> C-nom A-acc P-dat V-
sase
A-nom R-dat P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat R-dat P-acc V-
sase
A-nom R-dat T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat R-dat T-acc V-
sase
A-nom R-gen=
tokoro-dat T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat R-gen=tokoro-dat T-acc V-sase
A-nom R-gen-
tokoro-dat T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat R-gen-tokoro-dat T-acc V-sase
A-nom T-acc V <> C-nom A-dat T-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-{com/dat} V <> C-nom A-acc X-{com/dat} V-
sase
A-nom X-abl P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-abl P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat X-abl P-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-abl P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat X-abl T-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-acc V <> C-nom A-dat X-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-acc Y-com V <> C-nom A-dat X-acc Y-com V-
sase
A-nom X-dat "…" V <> C-nom A-dat X-dat Y-acc V-
sase
A-nom X-
nituite V <> C-nom A-dat X-nituite V-sase
A-nom Y-dat X-acc V <> C-nom A-dat X-acc (*Y-dat) V-
sase
A-nom Y-dat X-acc V <> C-nom A-dat Y-dat X-acc V-
sase
A-nom Y-dat X-gen-
koto-acc V <> C-nom A-dat Y-dat X-gen-koto-acc V-sase
E-nom M-acc V <> C-nom E-dat St-acc V-
sase
E-nom St-acc V <> C-nom E-dat St-acc V-
sase
E-nom St-acc V <> C-nom Exp-dat St-acc V-
sase
E-nom T-acc V <> C-nom E-acc V-
sase
Exp-nom P-acc V <> C-nom A-dat P-acc V-
sase
S-nom L-dat V <> C-nom S-{dat/acc} L-dat V-
sase
S-nom L-dat V <> C-nom S-acc L-dat V-
sase
S-nom V <> ?-
sase
S-nom V <> C-nom A-dat (Path-acc) V-
sase
S-nom V <> C-nom S-{dat/acc} V-
sase
S-nom V <> C-nom S-acc V-
sase
S-nom V <> C-nom S-dat (X-acc) V-
sase
S-nom V <> C-nom S-dat V-
sase
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT tabe-ru R
(1)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’

(3)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-sase-ta
eat-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl eat the bread.’
HUG dakituk-u R
(9)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’

(11)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
musume=o
girl=ACC
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakituk-ase-ta
hug-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl hug the man.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(14)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’

(17)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-sase-ta
look.at-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man look at the boy.’
SMELL kag-u R
(20)
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’

(22)
kare=wa
he=TOP
inu=ni
dog=DAT
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kag-ase-ta
smell-CAUS-PST
‘He made the dog smell (something).’
FEAR kowagar-u R
(24)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’

(27)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagar-ase-ta
fear-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that boy fear that man.’
FRIGHTEN kowagarase-ru R
(28)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’

(29)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ase-ta
frighten-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man frighten the boy.’
LIKE suki=da N
(34)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’
KNOW sir-u N
(36)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’
THINK kangae-ru R
(39)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’

(40)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-sase-ta
think-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man think about the boy's future.’
SEARCH FOR sagas-u R
(43)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’

(44)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagas-ase-ta
search-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man search for the boy.’
WASH ara(w)-u R
(48)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’

(50)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
araw-ase-ta
wash-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl wash the clothes.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(54)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’

(56)
titi=wa
father=TOP
haha=ni
mother=DAT
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-sase-ta
dress-CAUS-PST
‘Father made mother dress the daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sor-u R
(59)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’

(61)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hige=o
beard=ACC
sor-ase-ta
shave-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man shave his beard.’
HELP tasuke-ru R
(64)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’

(65)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-sase-ta
help-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man help the girl.’
HELP tetuda(w)-u R
(70)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’

(71)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudaw-ase-ta
help-CAUS-PST
‘Mother made me help the boys.’
FOLLOW tui-te ik-u R
(74)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’

(75)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=o
man=ACC
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man follow the girl.’
FOLLOW oikake-ru R
(78)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’

(79)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
danse:=ni
man=DAT
syo:zyo=o
girl=ACC
oikake-sase-ta
follow-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man follow the girl.’
MEET a(w)-u R
(82)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’

(83)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
aw-ase-ta
meet-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man meet the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(85)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
(92)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’

(86)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanas-ase-ta
talk-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man talk to the boy about the girl.’
(93)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanas-ase-ta
tell-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man tell the story to the girl.’
SAY i(w)-u R
(96)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’

(97)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
nanika=o
something=ACC
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
iw-ase-ta
say-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy say something to the girl.’
NAME yob-u R
(100)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’

(101)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-ase-ta
call-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl call the boy a fool.’
BUILD tate-ru R
(105)
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’

(107)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kare=ni
he=DAT
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-sase-ta
build-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made him build the house.’
BREAK war-u R
(111)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’

(113)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
mado=o
window=ACC
isi=de
stone=INST
war-ase-ta
break-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy break the window with a stone.’
KILL koros-u R
(118)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’

(119)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-ase-ta
kill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy kill the snake with a stick.’
BEAT tatak-u R
(122)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(123)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hebi=o
snake=ACC
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-ase-ta
hit-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy hit the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH sawar-u R
(127)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’

(128)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawar-ase-ta
touch-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy touch the snake.’
CUT kir-u R
(132)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’

(134)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
pan=o
bread=ACC
kir-ase-ta
cut-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that boy cut the bread.’
TAKE tor-u R
(138)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’

(139)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
musume=kara
girl=ABL
pen=o
pen=ACC
tor-ase-ta
take-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy take a pen from the girl.’
TAKE mog-u R
(143)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’

(145)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
kyu:ri=o
cucumber=ACC
mog-ase-ta
take-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl harvest a cucumber.’
TEAR hikitigir-u R
(150)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’

(152)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon={no/kara}
book={GEN/ABL}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigir-ase-ta
tear-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl tear the page from the book.’
PEEL muk-u R
(156)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’

(158)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
muk-ase-ta
peel-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl peel the apple.’
HIDE kakus-u R
(162)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(163)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakus-ase-ta
hide-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the girl hide the teacher's book.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(167)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(327)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
SEND okur-u R
(176)
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’

(178)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-ase-ta
send-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl send the book to the teacher.’
(330)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-ase-ta
send-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl send the book to the school.’
CARRY hakob-u R
(183)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(188)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’

(185)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-ase-ta
carry-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl carry the book to the teacher.’
(190)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-ase-ta
carry-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl carry the book to school.’
THROW nage-ru R
(193)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’

(194)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-sase-ta
throw-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man throw the stone at the window.’
TIE tunag-u R
(198)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’

(200)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-ase-ta
tie-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man tie the horse to the tree.’
LIKE ki=ni ir-u R
(205)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’

(206)
titi=wa
father=TOP
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
ir-ase-ta
enter-CAUS-PST
‘Father made the child like the toy.’
PUT ok-u R
(209)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’

(211)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-ase-ta
put-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man put the book on the desk.’
POUR tug-u R
(215)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’

(217)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tug-ase-ta
pour-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man pour the water into the glass.’
COVER kake-ru R
(220)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’

(221)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-sase-ta
cover-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man cover the child with the blanket.’
FILL mitas-u (1) R
(227)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’

(229)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-ase-ta
fill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man fill the glass with water.’
FILL mitas-u (2) R
(233)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’

(235)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-ase-ta
fill-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man fill the glass with water.’
LOAD tum-u R
(239)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’

(241)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-ase-ta
load-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man load the hay on the wagon.’
CLIMB nobor-u R
(249)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’

(250)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobor-ase-ta
climb-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man climb the hill.’
CLIMB nobor-u (2) R
(252)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’

(253)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobor-ase-ta
climb-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man climb the hill.’
RUN hasir-u R
(255)
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’

(256)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasir-ase-ta
run-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children run around the school ground.’
SIT DOWN suwar-u R
(258)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’

(259)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
yuka=ni
floor=DAT
suwar-ase-ta
sit-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man sit down on the floor.’
SIT DOWN kosikake-ru R
(261)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’

(262)
otonatati=wa
grown.ups=TOP
kodomotati={o/ni}
children={ACC/DAT}
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-sase-ta
sit.down-CAUS-PST
‘The grown-ups made the children sit down on the bench.’
JUMP hane-ru R
(264)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’

(265)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kodomo=o
child=ACC
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-sase-ta
jump-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the child bounce on the floor.’
SING uta(w)-u R
(267)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’

(268)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
uta=o
song=ACC
utaw-ase-ta
sing-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy sing a song.’
GO ik-u R
(272)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’

(273)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
eki=ni
station=DAT
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy go to the station.’
LIVE sum-u R
(278)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’

(279)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen={ni/o}
boy={DAT/ACC}
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sum-ase-ta
live-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy live in that village.’
LAUGH wara(w)-u R
(282)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’

(283)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume={o/ni}
girl={ACC/DAT}
waraw-ase-ta
laugh-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl laugh.’
FEEL PAIN ita-i/itam-u N
(290)
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL COLD samugar-u R
(292)
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’

(293)
mahuyu=nanoni
midwinter=though
wazato
on.purpose
sohutokuri:mu=o
soft.cream=ACC
dasi-te
serve-GER
samugar-ase-ta
feel.cold-CAUS-PST
‘(Someone) made (someone) feel cold by giving them ice cream although it was in the midst of winter.’
DIE sin-u R
(294)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’

(295)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
sin-ase-ta
die-CAUS-PST
‘Someone let that man die.’
PLAY asob-u R
(297)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’

(298)
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
kodomo=o
child=ACC
asob-ase-ta
play-CAUS-PST
‘I made the child play.’
BE SAD kanasi-i N
(300)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=ga her-u N
(304)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
ROLL korogar-u R
(307)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’

(308)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
matto=no
mat=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
kodomo=o
child=ACC
korogar-ase-ta
roll-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children roll on the mat.’
ROLL (tr) korogas-u R
(309)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’

(312)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-ase-ta
roll-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the man roll the ball.’
SINK sizum-u R
(315)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’

(317)
kare=ga
he=NOM
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizum-ase-ta
sink-CAUS-PST
‘He made the boat sank.’
SINK (tr) sizume-ru R
(318)
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’

(319)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
kare=ni
he=DAT
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-sase-ta
sink-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made him sink the boat.’
BURN yake-ru N
(322)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN (tr) yak-u R
(323)
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’

(326)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
oka:san=ni
mother=DAT
samma=o
saury=ACC
yak-ase-ta
burn-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made my mother grill the saury.’
BURN moe-ru N
(335)
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE A HUNTER karyu:do=da N
(354)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
GRIND sur-u R
(355)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’

(357)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sur-ase-ta
grind-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man ground the yam.’
WIPE huk-u R
(360)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’

(362)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
te:buru=o
table=ACC
huk-ase-ta
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl wipe the table.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(342)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
(366)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’

(346)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man dig the ground.’
(368)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man dig the hole in the ground.’
DIG hor-u (2) R
(371)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’

(373)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
zyose:=ni
woman=DAT
imo=o
potato=ACC
hor-ase-ta
dig-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that woman dig potatoes.’
PUSH os-u R
(375)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’

(376)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
os-ase-ta
push-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl push that man's back.’
PUSH os-u (2) R
(379)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’

(381)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
os-ase-ta
push-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man press the stamp (on something).’
BRING motteik-u R
(385)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’

(386)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteik-ase-ta
bring-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl bring the book to the teacher.’
STEAL nusum-u R
(390)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’

(392)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusum-ase-ta
steal-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that girl steal the book.’
TEACH osie-ru R
(395)
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’

(396)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
sono
that
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-sase-ta
teach-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that teacher teach me mathematics.’
HEAR kikoe-ru N
(400)
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
COOK ryo:ri su-ru R
(402)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’

(403)
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
imo:to=ni
sister=DAT
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
s-ase-ta
do-CAUS-PST
‘I made my sister cook the fish.’
BOIL wak-u N
(406)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL (tr) wakas-u R
(408)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’

(410)
boku=wa
1sg=TOP
imo:to=ni
sister=DAT
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakas-ase-ta
boil-CAUS-PST
‘I made my sister boil the water.’
SHOUT AT donar-u R
(415)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’

(414)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-sase-ta
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The woman made him shout at the boy.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=o sukase-ru
(306)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
GIVE yar-u N
(173)
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
WIPE huk-u (2) R
(338)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’

(421)
sono
that
musume=wa
girl=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
huk-ase-ta
wipe-CAUS-PST
‘That girl made him wipe off the dirt.’
ASK FOR motome-ru R
(6)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’

(91)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-sase-ta
ask.for-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy ask for money.’
(418)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
*otoko=ni
*man=DAT
motome-sase-ta
ask.for-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy ask the man for money.’
BLINK mabataki=o su-ru M
(245)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
COUGH seki=o su-ru M
(247)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
LEAVE de-te ik-u R
(275)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’

(276)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
syo:nen={o/ni}
boy={ACC/DAT}
mura=kara
village=ABL
de-te
leave-GER
ik-ase-ta
go-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made the boy leave the village.’
SCREAM sakeb-u R
(287)
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’

(288)
dareka=ga
someone=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sakeb-ase-ta
scream-CAUS-PST
‘Someone made that man scream.’
BE SAD ABOUT kanasim-u M
(301)
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’
BE DRY kawak-u M
(341)
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’
RAIN ame=ga hur-u R
(352)
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’

(353)
amagoisi=ga
prayer.for.rain=NOM
ame=o
rain=ACC
hur-ase-ta
fall-CAUS-PST
‘Thanks to the ceremony, it rained.’