DO passive C

Description

The passive predicate is formed through suffixation of /rare/. DO passivization causes the promotion of the direct object into subject position and the demotion of the subject. The demoted subject is case-marked with the dative case particle =ni or the complex case particle =niyotte.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT tabe-ru R
(1)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’

(2)
pan=wa
bread=TOP
onnanoko=ni
girl=DAT
tabe-rare-ta
eat-PASS-PST
‘The bread was eaten by the girl.’
HUG dakituk-u R
(9)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(14)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’

(16)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
mi-rare-ta
look.at-PASS-PST
‘The boy was looked at by the man.’
FEAR kowagar-u R
(24)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’

(26)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
kowagar-are-ru
fear-PASS-NPST
‘That man will be feared by the boy.’
FRIGHTEN kowagarase-ru R
(28)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’

(31)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
kowagaras-are-ta
frighten-PASS-PST
‘The boy was frightened by the man.’
LIKE suki=da R
(34)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’

(35)
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
suk-are-te
like-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The girl next door is liked by that boy.’
KNOW sir-u R
(36)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’

(38)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sir-are-te
know-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That boy is known to that man.’
THINK kangae-ru R
(39)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’

(41)
byo:ki=no
desease=GEN
kansengen=ga
cause=NOM
kasituki=to
air.humilifier=COM
minna=ni
all=DAT
kangae-rare-te
think-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The cause of the disease is considered to be the air-humidifier.’
SEARCH FOR sagas-u R
(43)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’

(45)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sagas-are-te
search-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The boy is searched for by the man.’
WASH ara(w)-u R
(48)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’

(51)
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
araw-are-ta
wash-PASS-PST
‘The clothes were washed by the girl.’
DRESS kise-ru R
(54)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sor-u R
(59)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’

(62)
hige=ga
beard=NOM
otoko=ni
man=DAT
sor-are-ta
shave-PASS-PST
‘My beard was shaved by the man.’
HELP tasuke-ru R
(64)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’

(67)
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
danse:=ni
man=DAT
tasuke-rare-ta
help-PASS-PST
‘The girl was helped by the man.’
HELP tetuda(w)-u R
(70)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’

(72)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
kare=ni
he=DAT
tetudaw-are-ta
help-PASS-PST
‘The children are helped by him.’
FOLLOW tui-te ik-u R
(74)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
FOLLOW oikake-ru R
(78)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’

(80)
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
otoko=ni
man=DAT
oikake-rare-ta
follow-PASS-PST
‘The girl was chased by the man.’
MEET a(w)-u N
(82)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(85)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
(92)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’

(88)
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=ga
thing=NOM
danse:=niyotte
man=by
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hanas-are-ta
talk-PASS-PST
‘Something about the girl was told to the boy by the man.’
(94)
monogatari=ga
story=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hanas-are-ta
tell-PASS-PST
‘The story was told to the girl by that man.’
ASK FOR motome-ru R
(6)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’
SAY i(w)-u R
(96)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’
NAME yob-u R
(100)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’

(102)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-are-ta
call-PASS-PST
‘The boy was called a fool by the girl.’
BUILD tate-ru R
(105)
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’

(109)
kare=ni
he=DAT
ie=ga
house=NOM
tate-rare-ta
build-PASS-PST
‘The house was built by him.’
BREAK war-u R
(111)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’

(115)
mado=ga
window=NOM
syo:nen=niyotte
boy=by
isi=de
stone=INST
war-are-ta
break-PASS-PST
‘The window was broken by the boy.’
KILL koros-u R
(118)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’

(120)
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
koros-are-ta
kill-PASS-PST
‘The snake was killed with a stick by the boy.’
BEAT tatak-u R
(122)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(124)
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-are-ta
hit-PASS-PST
‘The snake was hit with a stick by the boy.’
TOUCH sawar-u R
(127)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’
CUT kir-u N
(132)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’
TAKE tor-u R
(138)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’
TAKE mog-u R
(143)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’

(147)
kyu:ri=ga
cucumber=NOM
musume={ni/niyotte}
girl={DAT/by}
mog-are-ta
take-PASS-PST
‘The cucumber was harvested by the girl.’
TEAR hikitigir-u R
(150)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’

(153)
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=ga
page=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
hikitigir-are-ta
tear-PASS-PST
‘The page of the book was torn by that girl.’
PEEL muk-u R
(156)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’

(160)
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=ga
skin=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
muk-are-ta
peel-PASS-PST
‘The apple was peeled by that girl.’
HIDE kakus-u R
(162)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(164)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=ga
book=NOM
kakus-are-ta
hide-PASS-PST
‘The teacher's book was hidden by that man.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(167)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(327)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
SEND okur-u R
(176)
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’

(180)
musumesan=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-are-ta
send-PASS-PST
‘The book was sent to the teacher by the girl.’
(332)
musumesan=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-are-ta
send-PASS-PST
‘The book was sent to the school by the girl.’
CARRY hakob-u R
(183)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(188)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’

(186)
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hakob-are-ta
carry-PASS-PST
‘The book was carried to the teacher by that girl.’
(191)
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hakob-are-ta
carry-PASS-PST
‘The book was carried to school by that girl.’
THROW nage-ru R
(193)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’

(195)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
isi=ga
stone=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-rare-ta
throw-PASS-PST
‘The stone was thrown at the window by that man.’
TIE tunag-u R
(198)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’

(202)
uma=ga
horse=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-are-ta
tie-PASS-PST
‘The horse was tied to the tree by that man.’
LIKE ki=ni ir-u R
(205)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’

(207)
sono
that
omotya=wa
toy=TOP
dono
any
kodomo=ni=mo
child=DAT=even
ki=ni
mind=DAT
ir-are-ru
enter-PASS-NPST
‘This toy is liked by any children.’
PUT ok-u R
(209)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’

(212)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-are-ta
put-PASS-PST
‘The book was put on the table by that man.’
POUR tug-u R
(215)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’

(218)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
tug-are-ta
pour-PASS-PST
‘The water was poured into the glass by that man.’
COVER kake-ru R
(220)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’

(224)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
mo:hu=ga
blanket=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
kake-rare-ta
cover-PASS-PST
‘The blanket was put on the child by that man.’
FILL mitas-u (1) R
(227)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’

(231)
mizu=ga
water=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mitas-are-ta
fill-PASS-PST
‘Water was poured into the glass until it was filled.’
FILL mitas-u (2) R
(233)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’

(237)
gurasu=ga
glass=NOM
mizu=de
water=INST
mitas-are-ta
fill-PASS-PST
‘The glass was filled with water.’
LOAD tum-u R
(239)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’

(242)
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hosikusa=ga
hay=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-are-ta
load-PASS-PST
‘The hay was loaded on the wagon by that man.’
BLINK mabataki=o su-ru N
(245)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
COUGH seki=o su-ru N
(247)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u N
(249)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
CLIMB nobor-u (2) N
(252)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
RUN hasir-u N
(255)
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’
SIT DOWN suwar-u N
(258)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’
SIT DOWN kosikake-ru N
(261)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
JUMP hane-ru N
(264)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’
SING uta(w)-u R
(267)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’

(269)
sono
that
uta=ga
song=NOM
minna=ni
everybody=DAT
utaw-are-te
sing-PASS-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That song is sung by everybody.’
GO ik-u N
(272)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’
LEAVE de-te ik-u N
(275)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE sum-u N
(278)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’
LAUGH wara(w)-u R
(282)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’
SCREAM sakeb-u N
(287)
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ita-i/itam-u N
(290)
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL COLD samugar-u N
(292)
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(294)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’
PLAY asob-u N
(297)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD kanasi-i N
(300)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT kanasim-u R
(301)
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’

(303)
kare=no
he=GEN
si=wa
death=TOP
koibito=ni
lover=DAT
kanasim-are-ta
feel.sad-PASS-PST
‘His death was grieved by his lover.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=ga her-u N
(304)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=o sukase-ru N
(306)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
ROLL korogar-u R
(307)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’
ROLL (tr) korogas-u R
(309)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’

(313)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
otoko={ni/niyotte}
man={DAT/by}
korogas-are-ta
roll-PASS-PST
‘The ball was rolled by the man.’
SINK sizum-u N
(315)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK (tr) sizume-ru R
(318)
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’

(320)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
kare=niyotte
he=by
sizume-rare-ta
sink-PASS-PST
‘The boat was sunk by him.’
BURN yake-ru N
(322)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN moe-ru N
(335)
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawak-u R
(341)
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’
RAIN ame=ga hur-u N
(352)
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER karyu:do=da N
(354)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
GRIND sur-u R
(355)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’

(358)
yamaimo=ga
yam=NOM
sono
that
otoko=niyotte
man=by
sur-are-ta
grind-PASS-PST
‘The yam was ground by that man.’
DIG hor-u (1) R
(342)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
(366)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’

(348)
zimen=ga
ground=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hor-are-ta
dig-PASS-PST
‘The ground was dug by the man.’
(369)
ana=ga
hole=NOM
otoko=niyotte
man=by
hor-are-ta
dig-PASS-PST
‘The hole was dug by the man.’
DIG hor-u (2) N
(371)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u R
(375)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’

(377)
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
senaka=ga
back=NOM
os-are-ta
push-PASS-PST
‘My back was pushed by that girl.’
BRING motteik-u R
(385)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’

(387)
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
musume=niyotte
girl=by
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
motteik-are-ta
bring-PASS-PST
‘That book was brought to the teacher by the girl.’
STEAL nusum-u R
(390)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’

(393)
hon=ga
book=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
nusum-are-ta
steal-PASS-PST
‘The book was stolen by that girl.’
TEACH osie-ru R
(395)
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’
HEAR kikoe-ru N
(400)
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
COOK ryo:ri su-ru R
(402)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’

(404)
sakana=ga
fish=NOM
imo:to=niyotte
sister=by
ryo:ri
cook
s-are-ta
do-PASS-PST
‘The fish was cooked by my sister.’
BOIL wak-u N
(406)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL (tr) wakas-u N
(408)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’
SHOUT AT donar-u R
(415)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’

(413)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
zyose:=ni
woman=DAT
donari-i
shout-ADV
tuke-rare-ta
put.on-PASS-PST
‘The boy was shouted at by the woman.’
GIVE yar-u N
(173)
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’
WIPE huk-u (2) R
(338)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’

(420)
yogore=wa
dirt=TOP
sono
that
musume=niyotte
girl=by
huk-are-ta
wipe-PASS-PST
‘The dirt was wiped off by the girl.’
SMELL kag-u M
(20)
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’
BURN (tr) yak-u M
(323)
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’
WIPE huk-u M
(360)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’
PUSH os-u (2) M
(379)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’