potential (property) C

Description

The potential predicate is formed through suffixation of the potential suffixes /e/ and /rare/. The allomorph is determined by the phonological shape of the verb root. When the verb root ends with a consonant, /e/ is selected. For the other cases, /rare/ is selected. The allomorph /rare/ optionally undergoes deletion of /ra/ and it is realized as /re/. The potential 2 construction describes a property of a certain entity. In this construction, the agent is removed.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT tabe-ru R
(1)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
pan=o
bread=ACC
tabe-ta
eat-PST
‘That girl ate bread.’

(5)
ano
that
kinoko=wa
mushroom=TOP
tabe-(ra)re-ru
eat-POT-NPST
‘That mushroom is edible.’
HUG dakituk-u R
(9)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
dakitui-ta
hug-PST
‘That girl hugged that man.’

(13)
noroma=na=node
slow=COPULA.ADN=because
ano
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
dakituk-e-ru
hug-POT-NPST
‘(Because he is slow,) that man is easy to hug.’
LOOK AT mi-ru R
(14)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
mi-ta
look.at-PST
‘That man looked at that boy.’

(19)
yu:re:=wa
ghost=TOP
mi-e-ru
see-POT-NPST
‘The ghost was seen.’
SMELL kag-u N
(20)
kuma=wa
bear=TOP
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
nioi=o
smell=ACC
kai-da
smell-PST
‘The bear caught the boy's scent.’
FEAR kowagar-u N
(24)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
otoko=o
man=ACC
kowagat-te
fear-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy feared that man.’
FRIGHTEN kowagarase-ru R
(28)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
kowagarase-ta
frighten-PST
‘That man frightened that boy.’

(33)
ano
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
okubyo:=dakara
coward=because
kowagarase-rare-ru
frighten-POT-NPST
‘Being a coward, that boy can be frightened.’
LIKE suki=da N
(34)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
tonari=no
neighbor=GEN
onnanoko=ga
girl=NOM
suki=dat-ta
like=COPULA-PST
‘That boy likes the girl next door.’
KNOW sir-u N
(36)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sit-te-ru
know-GER.be-NPST
‘That man knows that boy.’
THINK kangae-ru N
(39)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=no
boy=GEN
syo:rai=nituite
future=about
kangae-ta
think-PST
‘That man thought about that boy's future.’
SEARCH FOR sagas-u R
(43)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
sagasi-te
search-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That man was searching for that boy.’

(47)
takuti=wa
building.lot=TOP
sagas-e-ru
search-POT-NPST
‘The building lot can be found.’
WASH ara(w)-u R
(48)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
huku=o
cloth=ACC
arat-ta
wash-PST
‘That girl washed the clothes.’

(53)
sono
that
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
ara-e-ru
wash-POT-NPST
‘Those clothes are washable.’
DRESS kise-ru N
(54)
haha=wa
mother=TOP
musume=ni
daughter=DAT
huku=o
cloth=ACC
kise-ta
dress-PST
‘Mother dressed her daughter.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) sor-u N
(59)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hige=o
beard=ACC
sot-ta
shave-PST
‘That man shaved his beard.’
HELP tasuke-ru R
(64)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
tasuke-ta
help-PST
‘That man helped that girl.’

(69)
ano
that
syo:zyo=wa
girl=TOP
tasuke-rare-ru
help-POT-NPST
‘That girl can be helped.’
HELP tetuda(w)-u N
(70)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
syo:nentati=o
boys=ACC
tetudat-ta
help-PST
‘I helped the boys.’
FOLLOW tui-te ik-u N
(74)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
tui-te
follow-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
FOLLOW oikake-ru N
(78)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=o
girl=ACC
oikake-ta
follow-PST
‘That man followed that girl.’
MEET a(w)-u N
(82)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
musume={to/ni}
daughter={COM/DAT}
at-ta
meet-PST
‘That man met the girl.’
TALK hanas-u R
(85)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=o
thing=ACC
hanasi-ta
talk-PST
‘That man talked to that boy about the girl.’
(92)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sono
that
musume=ni
girl=DAT
monogatari=o
story=ACC
hanasi-ta
tell-PST
‘That man told the story to that girl.’

(90)
syo:zyo=no
girl=GEN
koto=wa
thing=TOP
syo:nen=ni
boy=DAT
hanas-e-ru
talk-POT-NPST
‘Things about the girl can be told to the boy.’
ASK FOR motome-ru N
(6)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
otoko=ni
man=DAT
okane=o
money=ACC
motome-ta
ask.for-PST
‘That boy asked that man for money.’
SHOUT AT donar-u N
(415)
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
donar-i
shout-ADV
tuke-ta
put.on-PST
‘The woman shouted at the boy.’
SAY i(w)-u N
(96)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
syo:zyo=ni
girl=DAT
nanika
something
it-ta
say-PST
‘The boy said something to the girl.’
NAME yob-u R
(100)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
syo:nen=o
boy=ACC
baka-to
fool-COM
yon-da
call-PST
‘That girl called that boy a fool.’

(104)
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
baka=to
fool=COM
yob-e-ru
call-POT-NPST
sonzai=da
being=COPULA.NPST
‘The boy can be called a fool.’
BUILD tate-ru N
(105)
kare=ga
he=NOM
ie=o
house=ACC
tate-ta
build-PST
‘He built the house.’
BREAK war-u R
(111)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
isi=de
stone=INST
mado=o
window=ACC
wat-ta
break-PST
‘That boy broke the window with a stone.’

(117)
mado=wa
window=TOP
isi=de
stone=INST
war-e-ru
break-POT-NPST
‘The window is easy to break with a stone.’
KILL koros-u N
(118)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
korosi-ta
kill-PST
‘That boy killed the snake with a stick.’
BEAT tatak-u R
(122)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
bo:=de
stick=INST
hebi=o
snake=ACC
tatai-ta
hit-PST
‘That boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(126)
ano
that
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
amari
not.so
ugoka-nai=kara
move.IRR-NEG=because
bo:=de
stick=INST
tatak-e-ru
hit-POT-NPST
‘That snake is easy to hit because it does not move a lot.’
TOUCH sawar-u R
(127)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
hebi=ni
snake=DAT
sawat-ta
touch-PST
‘That boy touched the snake.’

(131)
ano
that
hebi=wa
snake=TOP
sawar-e-ru
touch-POT-NPST
kowaku
fearful
nai=kara
NEG.NPST=because
‘That snake is easy to touch (because it is not fearful).’
CUT kir-u R
(132)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
naihu=de
knife=INST
pan=o
bread=ACC
kit-ta
cut-PST
‘That boy cut the bread with a knife.’

(137)
pan=ga
bread=NOM
kir-e-ru
cut-POT-NPST
‘The bread cuts easily.’
TAKE tor-u N
(138)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
sono
that
musume=kara
girl=ABL
{pen/kobu}=o
{pen/lump}=ACC
tot-ta
take-PST
‘That boy took a pen/lump from that girl.’
TAKE mog-u R
(143)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
ki=kara
tree=ABL
ringo=o
apple=ACC
moi-da
take-PST
‘That boy picked an apple from the tree.’

(149)
ano
that
kyu:ri=wa
cucumber=TOP
mo:
already
mog-e-ru=yo
take-POT-NPST=PRT
‘That cucumber is ready to be harvested.’
TEAR hikitigir-u R
(150)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
hon={kara/no}
book={ABL/GEN}
pe:zi=o
page=ACC
hikitigit-ta
tear-PST
‘That girl tore the page from the book.’

(155)
ano
that
hon=no
book=GEN
pe:zi=wa
page=TOP
hikitigir-e-ru
tear-POT-NPST
‘That book's pages tear easily.’
PEEL muk-u N
(156)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
ringo=no
apple=GEN
kawa=o
skin=ACC
mui-ta
peel-PST
‘That girl peeled the apple.’
HIDE kakus-u R
(162)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
kakusi-ta
hide-PST
‘That girl hid the teacher's book.’

(166)
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
kakus-e-ru
hide-POT-NPST
‘That book is easy to hide.’
SHOW mise-ru R
(167)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
mise-ta
show-PST
‘That girl showed a book to the teacher.’

(172)
kono
this
hon=wa
book=TOP
sense:=ni
teacher=DAT
mise-rare-ru
show-POT-NPST
‘This book can be shown to the teacher.’
GIVE kure-ru N
(327)
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
kure-ta
give-PST
‘The teacher gave me a book.’
SEND okur-u R
(176)
sono
that
nusume=ga
girl=NOM
{sense:/gakko:}=ni
{teacher/school}=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
okut-ta
send-PST
‘That girl sent the book to the teacher/school.’

(182)
hon=wa
book=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The book can be sent to the teacher.’
(336)
hon=wa
book=TOP
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
okur-e-ru
send-POT-NPST
‘The book can be sent to the school.’
CARRY hakob-u N
(183)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(188)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
gakko:=ni
school=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
hakon-da
carry-PST
‘That girl carried the book to school.’
THROW nage-ru R
(193)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
mado=ni
window=DAT
isi=o
stone=ACC
nage-ta
throw-PST
‘That man threw a stone at the window.’

(197)
omotaku
heavy
nai=kara
NEG.NPST=because
sono
that
isi=wa
stone=TOP
mado=ni
window=DAT
nage-rare-ru
throw-POT-NPST
‘Because it is not heavy, that stone can be thrown at the window.’
TIE tunag-u R
(198)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
uma=o
horse=ACC
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunai-da
tie-PST
‘That man tied the horse to the tree.’

(204)
sono
that
uma=wa
horse=TOP
ki=ni
tree=DAT
tunag-e-ru
tie-POT-NPST
‘The horse is easy to tie to the tree.’
LIKE ki=ni ir-u N
(205)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
sono
that
omotya=o
toy=ACC
ki=ni
mind=DAT
it-te
enter-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child likes that toy.’
PUT ok-u R
(209)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hon=o
book=ACC
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
oi-ta
put-PST
‘That man put the book on the desk.’

(214)
hon=ga
book=NOM
tukue=no
desk=GEN
ue=ni
above=DAT
ok-e-ru
put-POT-NPST
‘The book can be put on the desk.’
POUR tug-u N
(215)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
tui-da
pour-PST
‘That man poured the water into the glass.’
COVER kake-ru R
(220)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
mo:hu=o
blanket=ACC
kake-ta
cover-PST
‘That man covered the child with a blanket.’

(226)
mo:hu=ga
blanket=NOM
kodomo=ni
child=DAT
kake-rare-ru
cover-POT-NPST
‘The blanket is suitable for covering the child.’
FILL mitas-u (1) N
(227)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=ni
glass=DAT
mizu=o
water=ACC
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with water.’
FILL mitas-u (2) N
(233)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
gurasu=o
glass=ACC
mizu=de
water=INST
mitasi-ta
fill-PST
‘That man filled the glass with the water.’
LOAD tum-u R
(239)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
hosikusa=o
hay=ACC
tun-da
load-PST
‘That man loaded the hay on the wagon.’

(244)
sono
that
hosikusa=wa
hay=TOP
niguruma=ni
cart=DAT
tum-e-ru
load-POT-NPST
‘That hay can be loaded on the wagon.’
BLINK mabataki=o su-ru N
(245)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
mabataki=o
blink=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That girl blinked.’
COUGH seki=o su-ru N
(247)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
seki=o
cough=ACC
si-ta
do-PST
‘That man coughed.’
CLIMB nobor-u N
(249)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=ni
hill=DAT
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
CLIMB nobor-u (2) N
(252)
sono
that
otodo=ga
man=NOM
oka=o
hill=ACC
nobot-ta
climb-PST
‘That man climbed the hill.’
RUN hasir-u N
(255)
sono
that
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ko:te:=o
ground=ACC
hasit-ta
run-PST
‘That child ran around the school ground.’
SIT DOWN suwar-u N
(258)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
suwat-ta
sit-PST
‘That man sat down.’
SIT DOWN kosikake-ru N
(261)
kodomotati=wa
children=TOP
benti=ni
bench=DAT
kosikake-ta
sit.down-PST
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
JUMP hane-ru N
(264)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
yuka=no
floor=GEN
ue=de
above=INST
hane-ta
jump-PST
‘The child bounced on the floor.’
GO ik-u N
(272)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
eki=ni
station=DAT
it-ta
go-PST
‘That boy went to the station.’
LEAVE de-te ik-u N
(275)
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
mura=o
village=ACC
de-te
leave-GER
it-ta
go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
LIVE sum-u R
(278)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
sono
that
mura=ni
village=DAT
sun-de
live-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy lived in that village.’

(281)
sono
that
mura=wa
village=TOP
ko:kyo:ryo:kin=ga
cost.of.living=NOM
yasu-i=node
cheep-NPST=because
sigoto=ga
job=NOM
na-i
not.exist-NPST
hito=ni=mo
man=DAT=also
sum-e-ru
live-POT-NPST
‘Because the public utility rates are low, that village is easy to live in even for the poor people.’
LAUGH wara(w)-u R
(282)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
warat-ta
laugh-PST
‘That girl laughed.’

(286)
sono
that
e:ga=wa
movie=TOP
wara-e-ru
laugh-POT-NPST
‘That movie makes you laugh.’
SCREAM sakeb-u N
(287)
otoko=ga
man=NOM
saken-da
scream-PST
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN ita-i/itam-u N
(290)
ore=wa
1sg=TOP
ude=ga
arm=NOM
{itai/itam-u}
hurt-NPST
‘My arm hurts.’
FEEL COLD samugar-u N
(292)
kanozyo=ga
she=NOM
samugat-ta
feel.cold-PST
‘She felt cold.’
DIE sin-u N
(294)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
sin-da
die-PST
‘That man died.’
PLAY asob-u N
(297)
kodomo=ga
child=NOM
ason-de
play-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD kanasi-i N
(300)
watasi=wa
1sg=TOP
kanasi-i
sad-NPST
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT kanasim-u N
(301)
koibito=wa
lover=TOP
kare=no
he=GEN
si=o
death=ACC
kanasin-da
feel.sad-PST
‘The lover felt sad about his death.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=ga her-u N
(304)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=ga
stomach=NOM
het-ta
decrease-PST
‘That boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY onaka=o sukase-ru N
(306)
sono
that
syo:nen=wa
boy=TOP
onaka=o
stomach=ACC
sukase-te
empty-GER
i-ta
be-PST
‘That boy was hungry.’
ROLL korogar-u R
(307)
bo:ru=ga
ball=NOM
korogat-ta
roll-PST
‘The ball rolled.’

(310)
sono
that
ko:en=ni=wa
park=DAT=TOP
suro:pu=ga
slope=NOM
ar-u=node
exist-NPST=because
korogar-e-ru
roll-POT-NPST
‘Because there is a slope in the park, we can roll there.’
ROLL (tr) korogas-u N
(309)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
bo:ru=o
ball=ACC
korogas-u
roll-NPST
‘That man will roll the ball.’
SINK sizum-u N
(315)
hune=ga
boat=NOM
sizun-da
sink-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK (tr) sizume-ru N
(318)
kare=wa
he=TOP
hune=o
boat=ACC
sizume-ta
sink-PST
‘He sank the boat.’
BURN yake-ru N
(322)
samma=ga
saury=NOM
yake-ta
burn-PST
‘The saury was grilled.’
BURN (tr) yak-u R
(323)
oka:san=ga
mother=NOM
samma=o
saury=ACC
yai-ta
burn-PST
‘Mother grilled the saury.’

(333)
samma
saury
toke-ta=kara
melt-PST=because
yak-e-ru=yo
burn-POT-NPST=PRT
‘Because it has thawed, the saury is ready to grill.’
BURN moe-ru N
(335)
ie=ga
house=NOM
moe-te
burn-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY kawak-u R
(341)
huku=ga
cloth=NOM
kawai-te
dry-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘The clothes are dry.’

(351)
sono
that
huku=wa
cloth=TOP
sugu
immediately
kawakas-e-ru
dry-POT-NPST
‘Those clothes dry easily.’
RAIN ame=ga hur-u
(352)
ame=ga
rain=NOM
hut-ta
fall-PST
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER karyu:do=da N
(354)
sono
that
otoko=wa
man=TOP
karyu:do=dat-ta
hunter=COPULA-PST
‘That man was a hunter.’
GRIND sur-u N
(355)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
yamaimo=o
yam=ACC
sut-ta
grind-PST
‘That man ground the yam.’
WIPE huk-u R
(360)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
te:buru=o
table=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the table.’

(365)
ano
that
te:buru=wa
table=TOP
kantanni
easily
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘That table is easy to wipe.’
DIG hor-u (1) N
(342)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=o
ground=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug the ground.’
(366)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
zimen=ni
ground=DAT
ana=o
hole=ACC
hot-ta
dig-PST
‘That man dug a hole in the ground.’
DIG hor-u (2) N
(371)
sono
that
zyose:=wa
woman=TOP
imo=o
potato=ACC
hot-te
dig-GER
i-ru
be-NPST
‘That woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH os-u N
(375)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sono
that
otoko=no
man=GEN
senaka=o
back=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That girl pushed that man's back.’
PUSH os-u (2) R
(379)
sono
that
otoko=ga
man=NOM
hanko=o
stamp=ACC
osi-ta
push-PST
‘That man pressed the stamp (on something).’

(384)
kono
this
hanko=wa
stamp=TOP
rakuni
easily
os-e-ru
push-POT-NPST
‘This stamp is easy to press.’
BRING motteik-u R
(385)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
motteit-ta
bring-PST
‘That girl brought the book to the teacher.’

(389)
sono
that
syukudai=wa
homework=TOP
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
tokoro=ni
place=DAT
motteik-e-ru
bring-POT-NPST
‘That homework can be brought to the teacher.’
STEAL nusum-u N
(390)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
sense:=no
teacher=GEN
hon=o
book=ACC
nusun-da
steal-PST
‘That girl stole the teacher's book.’
TEACH osie-ru N
(395)
sono
that
sense:=ga
teacher=NOM
watasi=ni
1sg=DAT
su:gaku=o
mathematics=ACC
osie-ta
teach-PST
‘That teacher taught me mathematics.’
HEAR kikoe-ru N
(400)
boku=ni=wa
1sg=DAT=TOP
sono
that
oto=ga
sound=NOM
kikoe-ta
hear-PST
‘I heard that sound.’
COOK ryo:ri su-ru N
(402)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
sakana=o
fish=ACC
ryo:ri
cook
si-ta
do-PST
‘I cooked the fish.’
BOIL wak-u N
(406)
oyu=ga
hot.water=NOM
wai-ta
boil-PST
‘The water boiled.’
BOIL (tr) wakas-u N
(408)
boku=ga
1sg=NOM
oyu=o
hot.water=ACC
wakasi-ta
boil-PST
‘I boiled the water.’
GIVE yar-u R
(173)
watasi=ga
1sg=NOM
musuko=ni
son=DAT
hon=o
book=ACC
yat-ta
give-PST
‘I gave a book to my son.’

(175)
sono
that
hon=wa
book=TOP
musuko=ni
son=DAT
yar-e-ru
give-POT-NPST
‘That book can be given to my son.’
WIPE huk-u (2) R
(338)
sono
that
musume=ga
girl=NOM
yogore=o
dirt=ACC
hui-ta
wipe-PST
‘That girl wiped the dirt.’

(423)
kono
this
yogore=wa
dirt=TOP
kantanni
easily
huk-e-ru
wipe-POT-NPST
‘This dirt is easy to wipe off.’
SING uta(w)-u R
(267)
sono
that
syo:nen=ga
boy=NOM
uta=o
song=ACC
utat-ta
sing-PST
‘The boy sang a song.’

(271)
sono
that
uta=wa
song=TOP
kodomo=ni=mo
child=DAT=also
uta-e-ru
sing-POT-NPST
‘Even children can sing that song.’