Examples of Jaminjung

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Yulang ganimindiya warrbani.
yulang
flower
gani-mindi-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-eat-PRS
warrba-ni
flying.fox-ERG
‘The flying fox eats flowers.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(2)
Ganantha <na> warrgi, jalig wuju-ni.
gan-antha
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PRS
na
now
warrgi
hold.in.front
jalig
child
wuju-ni
small-ERG
‘He's hugging him now, the little child is.’
TAKE the Verb form ganuga
(3)
Jalig warrgi ganamaya (gujardingni).
jalig
child
warrgi
hold.in.front
gana-ma-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-have-PRS
gujarding-ni
mother-ERG
‘(The mother) is holding the child in her arms.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(4)
Warrgi ganinyangu, warrgi nganthangu nami, <tu>.
warrgi
hold.in.front
ganiny-angu
3SG.A:2SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
warrgi
hold.in.front
nganth-angu
2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
nami
2SG
tu
too
‘She hugged you, and you hugged her, too.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(5)
Jijigurrnibiya mung ganingayim ngiyi jalig.
jijigurr-ni=biya
rock.rat-ERG=SEQ
mung
look.at
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
ngiyi
PROX
jalig
child
‘A rock rat is now looking at this child.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(6)
Buliki thanthuwurlangining mung gayu.
buliki
cow
thanthu-wurla-ngining
DEM-DIR-LOC.ALL
mung
look.at
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The cow is looking in that direction.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of stative predicates
(7)
Wiribni ngarrginani nganthanwarra ganingayim, majani mangurn ganingayim.
wirib-ni
dog-ERG
ngarrgina-ni
1SG:POSS-ERG
nganthan=warra
what=DOUBT
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
majani
maybe
mangurn
white.person
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
‘My dog, I don't know what it sees, maybe it sees a white man.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(8)
Ngabuj gananggam ngayiny wiribdi.
ngabuj
smell
gan-angga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
ngayiny
meat
wirib-di
dog-ERG
‘The dog smells the meat.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(9)
Wiribni ngabuj ganunyangu.
wirib-ni
dog-ERG
ngabuj
smell
ganuny-angu
3SG.A:3DU.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘The dog smelled the two.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(10)
Ngabuj gayu guyug.
ngabuj
smell
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
guyug
fire
‘The fire smells.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation
(11)
(Mayini) ganiyangmany mangurn.
mayi-ni
Aboriginal.man-ERG
gani-yangma-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-fear-PST.PFV
mangurn
white.person
‘(The Aboriginal) man feared the white man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(12)
Nangari wujunibiyang ganinyjangmany, <yintit>?
Nangari
Nangari
wuju-ni=biyang
small-ERG=SEQ
ganiny-jangma-ny
3SG.A:2SG.P-fear-PST.PFV
yintit
TAG
‘The little Nangari was was frightened of you, wasn't she?’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(13)
Mugmugnigun <braitenim> ganangu (...).
mugmug-ni=gun
owl-ERG/INST=CONTR
braiten-im
frighten-TR
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘The owl frightened him (...).’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(14)
Majani malara ngunthug gananggam, majani yaniba malara.
majani
maybe
malara
frog
ngunthug
like
gan-angga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
majani
maybe
yani-ba
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-bite
malara
frog
‘Maybe they (fish) like frogs (as bait), maybe they will bite frogs.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(15)
Mugurla, jurriya ngunggu yagbali?
mugurla
FaSi
jurriya
know
ngunggu
2SG.DAT
yagbali
place
‘Auntie, do you know the place?’
KNOW an Alternation:
Verbless/verbal clause with predicative nominal=UV
(16)
Marndaj jurriya ngayu ngunggu.
marndaj
all.right
jurriya
know
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
ngunggu
2SG.DAT
‘All right, I know you (now).’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(17)
Langa ngagba gurrag.
langa
ear
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
gurrag
2PL.DAT
‘I was thinking about you all.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(18)
<Grog>gubinji langa gunthuyu.
grog-gu=binji
alcohol-DAT=ONLY
langa
ear
gunthu-yu
2DU.S-be.PRS
‘You two only think about alcohol.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(19)
Gagawuliwu yirrijgany wurdbaj.
gagawuli-wu
long.yam-DAT
yirr-ijga-ny
1PL.EXCL.S-go-PST.PFV
wurdbaj
search
‘We searched for long yam.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(20)
Yinju <na> <jayin>gu wurdbaja ngagba.
yinju
PROX
na
now
jayin-gu
sign-DAT
wurdbaja
search:CONT
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
‘Here I was looking for the (street) sign.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(21)
Ngabulggun barra (jarlig), majani <hot> ganunggum.
ngabulg=gun
bathe=CONTR
ba-rra
IMP-put
jalig
child
majani
maybe
hot
hot
gan-unggu-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
‘Bathe her (the child), maybe she is hot. (child, in river).’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(22)
Mali gurrany gulyu nganthanggam ngarrgu.
mali
thing
gurrany
NEG
gulyu
rinse
nganth-angga-m
2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
ngarrgu
1SG.DAT
‘You don't wash clothes for me.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(23)
Jab ngabaji ngurungurung.
jab
become.detached
nga-ba-ji
1SG.S-POT:hit-REFL
ngurungurung
beard
‘I want to shave (my) beard. (Lit. 'I want to pluck myself with respect to the beard').’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abs subj[1].V
(24)
Mindiwardagarram ngiya gurang!
mindi-wardagarra-m
1DU.INCL.A:3SG.P-follow-PRS
ngiya
PROX
gurang
old.man
‘Let's follow this man!’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(25)
Nguyungngunthunibiya yugung ganiwardagarrany.
nguyung-ngunthu-ni=biya
husband-3SG.POSS.KIN-ERG=SEQ
yugung
run
gani-wardagarra-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-follow-PST.PFV
‘Her husband followed her running. /Her husband ran after her.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(26)
Majani wamam yinyibili gamurr.
majani
maybe
wamam
facing
yinyi-bili
1DU.INCL.A:2SG.P-POT:get/handle
gamurr
middle
‘Maybe we two will meet you halfway.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(27)
Ngayugbiyang yirrgbi ngaj nu!
ngayug=biyang
1SG=SEQ
yirrgbi
tell:CONT
nga-j
1SG.S-POT:be
nu
3SG.DAT
‘Me, I will be talking to her!’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(28)
Gurrany yanggi yawunkarra yinyag mangarrawu!
gurrany
NEG
yanggi
ask
ya-wun-garra=yinyag
IRR-2DU.A:1.P-put=1DU.EXCL.P
mangarra-wu
plant.food-DAT
‘Don't ask us two for food, you two!’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(29)
Jawijingni ngarrginani yanggi gankarrany "..."
jawijing-ni
MoFa-ERG
ngarrgina-ni
1SG:POSS-ERG
yanggi
ask
gan-garra-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-put-PST.PFV
‘My grandfather asked me: "..."’
ASK FOR the Verb form yanggi ganarrany
(30)
"Mulanggirr mali <hambag> nganthiyu!" ganiyu nu, wiribgumalang.
mulanggirr
dangerous
mali
thing
hambag
humbug/bother
nganthi-yu
2SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
gani-yu=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
wirib-gu=malang
dog-DAT=GIVEN
‘"You have disturbed a dangerous thing!" he said to him, to the dog.’
SAY a Coding frame:
UTT2 1-erg 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(31)
"Nganthurum", warnanggalni ganiyurnu, <dokta>ni.
nganthu-rum
2SG.S-come.PRS
warnanggal-ni
medicine.man-ERG
gani-yu=rnu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
dokta-ni
doctor-ERG
‘"You come here", the doctor said to her.’
SAY a Coding frame:
UTT2 1-erg 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(32)
Ngarrginabina gujang bag ngama, I.
ngarrgina-bina
1SG:POSS-ALL
gujang
mother
bag
break
nga-ma
1SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
I.
I.
‘I called her I. after my mother.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(33)
Gugu gardambiyang wirlarrungburru.
gugu
water
ga-rda-m=biyang
3SG.S-fall-PRS=SEQ
wirlarrung-burru
lightning-PROPR
‘It is raining now (lit. 'rain falls'), with lightning.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(34)
Ngujul ganunggum.
ngujul
cough
ganu-nggu-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
‘She coughs.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(35)
Ngujulb yanyjiyaj.
ngujul-b
cough-DUR
ya-nyj-iyaj
IRR-2SG.S-be
‘You might cough / be coughing.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(36)
Namini ngayiny bardbard ngantharram larrinyni.
nami-ni
2SG-ERG
ngayiny
meat
bard-bard
RDP-cover
ngantha-rra-m
2SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
larriny-ni
paperbark-ERG/INST
‘You cover the meat with paperbark.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(37)
Ngawurrungarnanybiya thanthu mangarra burrbbung.
ngawurru-ngarna-ny=biya
1SG.A:3PL.P-give-PST.PFV=SEQ
thanthu
DEM
mangarra
plant.food
burrb=bung
finish=RESTR
‘I gave them the food, all of it.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(38)
Janyungbarini waladbarini mangarra ganngarnany.
janyungbari-ni
other-ERG
waladbari-ni
old.man-ERG
mangarra
plant.food
gan-ngarna-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-give-PST.PFV
‘That other old man gave me food.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(39)
Nganthannyunga bawamayan ngayu ngunggu, gurrany malangayij nayurrgu!
nganthan-nyunga
what-ORIG
bawa-mayan
shout-ITER
nga-yu=ngunggu
1SG.S-be.PRS=2SG.DAT
gurrany
NEG
malangayij
listen
na-yu=rrgu
2SG.S-be.PRS=1SG.DAT
‘Why am I shouting at you!? You are not listening to me!’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(40)
Bawa burru-yu=burrag.
bawa
shout
burru-yu=burrag
3PL.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3PL.DAT
‘They shouted for them.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(41)
Majani mayini ganilinymaya ngiyinju jalbud.
majani
maybe
mayi-ni
man-ERG
gani-linyma-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-make-PRS
ngiyinju
PROX
jalbud
house
‘Maybe the man is building this house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(42)
<Galigu> wu:juwuju, jardijjardij yirramanyi .
galigu
calico/tent
wu:ju-wuju
RDP-small
jardij-jardij
RDP-erect
yirra-ma-nyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
‘We used to erect small tents.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(43)
Jardija <na> burragba yirrag <aian> <na>.
jardija
erect:CONT
na
now
burr-agba
3PL.S-be.PST.PFV
yirrag
1PL.EXCL.DAT
aian
iron
na
now
‘They were building us iron (houses) then.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(44)
Yalamburrmabiya yinangunyi ngabulg gardbany (...).
yalamburrma=biya
saltwater.crocodile=SEQ
yina-ngunyi
DIST-ABL
ngabulg
bathe
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
‘The crocodile got into the water from there.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of change of location predicates
(45)
Warnda jabbayan gayu yina mangurn, bangawu.
warnda
grass
jab-bayan
become.detached-ITER
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
yina
DIST
mangurn
white.person
ba-ngawu
IMP-see
‘That white man is weeding the grass, look.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(46)
Wirra jab garam.
wirra
hair
jab
become.detached
ga-ram
3SG.S-come.PRS
‘Her hair is coming out.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of change of location predicates
(47)
Miri bag burramanyi gurrubarduni.
miri
upper.leg
bag
break
burra-ma-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
gurrubardu-ni
boomerang-ERG/INST
‘They used to break its legs with a boomerang.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(48)
<Ani> burrumanu ning <jambala>ni, langinyni.
ani
but
burru-ma=nu
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
ning
break.off
jambala-ni
some-ERG
langiny-ni
stick-ERG/INST
‘But some people killed it for her, with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(49)
Ningningmayanbiya burrangga langinymij.
ning-ning-mayan=biya
RDP-break.off-ITER=SEQ
burr-angga
3PL.S-go.PRS
langiny-mij
stick-COM
‘They are killing them with a stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(50)
<Power>gina ning gajgany.
Power-gina
power-BEN
ning
break.off
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
‘The power ticket (lit. '(thing) for power') ran out / 'died'.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of externally caused change of state predicates
(51)
Jaligdi digirrij ganimangu jurlag wagurrani.
jalig-di
child-ERG
digirrij
die
gani-mangu
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
jurlag
bird
wagurra-ni
stone-ERG/INST
‘The child killed the bird with a stone.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of externally caused change of state predicates
(52)
Majani yangarra digirrij gajgany.
majani
maybe
yangarra
kangaroo
digirrij
die
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
‘(Many kites are circling there), maybe a kangaroo died.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of externally caused change of state predicates
(53)
Garlagarla gagba ngiyinju jalig.
garlagarla
play
ga-gba
3SG.S-be.PST.PFV
ngiyinju
PROX
jalig
child
‘This child was playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(54)
Birrg ganjunggana, majani ngarrgina mali, garlagarla-gina.
birrg
take.away
gan-jungga-na
3SG.A:1SG.P-rob-PST.IPFV
majani
maybe
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
mali
thing
garlagarla-gina
play-BEN
‘She used to take them away from me, my things, toys.’
STEAL the Verb form bunug ganiyunggany
(55)
(Marlayini) <chookchook>=biya thanthu bunug ganangu wanang-ngunyi=warra.
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
chookchook=biya
chicken=SEQ
thanthu
DEM
bunug
steal
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
wanang-ngunyi=warra
where-ABL=DOUBT
‘(The woman) stole that chicken, I don't know from where.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(56)
Mayi gambaja gayu.
mayi
man
gambaja
laugh
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The man is laughing.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(57)
Burrb bun-jungga-ny marlayi-ni, minyga=warra bilij.
burrb
finish
bun-jungga-ny
3PL.A:1SG.P-rob-PST.PFV
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
minyga=warra
what.is.it.called=DOUBT
bilij
ashes
‘They took all of it from me, the women did, what’s it called, ashes.’
STEAL the Verb form bunug ganiyunggany
(58)
<Ani> thanthu gujugujugumalang dalag burrarranyi=yirrag <beg>.
ani
only/but
thanthu
DEM
guju-gujugu=malang
RDP-big=GIVEN
dalag
send
burr-arra-nyi=yirrag
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV=1PL.EXCL.DAT
beg
bag
‘They only sent us those big bags (of salt).’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(59)
Mali ngarrgu dalag ganarrany ngarrgu, <teip>nguji, Nangarini.
mali
thing
ngarrgu
1SG.DAT
dalag
send
gan-arra-ny=ngarrgu
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV=1SG.DAT
teip=nguji
tape=ETC
Nangari-ni
Nangari-ERG
‘Nangari sent my things for me, tapes and others, Nangari.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(60)
Thuruthuruny yirranyi yag (buru yagbalibina).
thuru-thuruny
RDP-carry.under.arm
yirr-anyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-take.PST.IPFV
yag
fish
buru
return
yagbali-bina
place-ALL
‘We used to carry fish under our arms (i.e. in a cooliman / wooden carrying vessel) (back to the camp).’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(61)
<det waitbala>ni wanywany ganmamanyi yinyag (langinyni).
det
DEM
waitbala-ni
white.person-ERG
wany-wany
RDP-beat
gan-mama-nyi=yinyag
3SG.A:1.P-RDP:hit-PST.IPFV=1DU.EXCL.P
langiny-ni
stick-ERG/INST
‘That white man used to beat us (with a stick).’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(62)
Yirrg ngarram nu liny.
yirrg
tell
nga-rra-m=nu
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS=3SG.DAT
liny
word/speech
‘I'm telling her the story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(63)
<Langa> Gunamu yirrgbi ngayu, Parkni.
langa
LOC
Gunamu
Gunamu
yirrgbi
tell:CONT
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
Park-ni
park-LOC
‘At Gunamu I'm talking/telling, in the Park.’
TELL an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(64)
Mayini burrima janyungbari.
mayi-ni
person-ERG
burri-ma
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
janyungbari
other
‘(...) Another one was killed by Aboriginal people. / Aboriginal people killed another one. (From an account of several deaths).’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(65)
Langinyniga ganma yinyag.
langiny-ni=ga
stick-ERG/INST=YOU.KNOW
gan-ma=yinyag
3SG.A:1.P-hit.PST.PFV=1DU.EXCL.P
‘He hit us with a stick (as you know already).’
HIT the Verb form ganima
(66)
Marlayi gurdurruni burramaja.
marlayi
woman
gurdurru-ni
fighting.stick-ERG/INST
burru-ma-ja
3PL.S-hit-REFL.PST.PFV
‘The women fought with fighting sticks.’
HIT an Alternation:
Reflexive-reciprocal alternation of IVs
(67)
Gurrany mard yanthangu, guyugburru, yanthirna!
gurrany
NEG
mard
touch
ya-nth-angu
IRR-2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle
guyug-burru
fire-PROPR
ya-nth-irna
IRR-2SG.S-burn
‘Don't touch it, it is hot (lit. 'fire-having'), you might get burned!’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(68)
Jalig-ni mard ganangu <motika>.
jalig-ni
child-ERG
mard
touch
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
motika
car
‘The child touched the car.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(69)
Gad ganima nawij Nawurlani.
gad
cut
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
nawij
neck
Nawurla-ni
Nawurla-ERG
‘Nawurla cut its neck.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(70)
<Naif>di biyang burramanyi gadgad.
naif-di=biyang
knife-ERG/INST=SEQ
burra-ma-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
gad-gad
RDP-cut
‘They cut it with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(71)
<Kwin>ni gad ganima <dem>, <ribon>.
kwin-ni
queen-ERG
gad
cut
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
dem
dam
ribon
ribbon
‘The queen cut the dam, the ribbon.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(72)
Jalig malyju gad gamaja jimindirrni.
jalig
child
malyju
male
gad
cut
ga-ma-ja
3SG.S-hit-REFL.PST.PFV
jimindirr-ni
knife-ERG/INST
‘The boy cut himself with a knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Reflexive-reciprocal alternation of IVs
(73)
Gadgadmayan burruyu nu, gadgadmayan burruwiyaj <dina>wungunyi.
gad-gad-mayan
RDP-cut-ITER
burru-yu=nu
3PL.S-be.PRS=3SG.DAT
gad-gad-mayan
RDP-cut-ITER
burru-w-iyaj
3PL.S-POT-be
dina-wu-ngunyi
dinner-DAT-ABL
‘They are cutting it for her, they will be cutting until lunchtime.’
CUT an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(74)
Warrgayin nyanying ganuga gugugiyag larrmanbina.
warrgayin
far
nyanying
properly
gan-uga
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
gugu-giyag
water-ABL
larrman-bina
dry-ALL
‘She took it right away from the water on the dry (land).’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(75)
Guyug larrmangun bangu:, gurrany thanthu wilannyunga!
guyug
fire
larrman=gun
dry=CONTR
ba-ngu
IMP-get/handle
gurrany
NEG
thanthu
DEM
wilan-nyunga
current-ORIG
‘Get/take dry firewood, not that (deposited) from the flood!’
GET the Verb form ganangu (2)
(76)
Gujangni birrg ganiyunggana, “bangarna”, ganuwungarna.
gujang-ni
mother-ERG
birrg
take.away
gani-yungga-na
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.away-PST.IPFV
ba-ngarna
IMP-give
ganu-wu-ngarna
3SG.A:3SG.P-POT-give
‘Mother would take it (toy) off her, "give it to her!" and she would give it to her.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(77)
Majani janyungni birrg ganinybiyungga.
majani
maybe
janyung-ni
other-ERG
birrg
take.away
ganiny-b-iyungga
3SG.A:2SG.P-POT-take.away
‘Maybe someone will take her (your wife) away from you.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(78)
Janggagu ganarrany jaligdi gurrany yanangu.
janggagu
above
gan-arra-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
jalig-di
child-ERG
gurrany
NEG
yan-angu
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle
‘She put it on top so the child would not get/take it.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(79)
Yurranggammurlu <mani> <peidei>.
yurr-angga-m=murlu
1PL.INCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS=COLL
mani
money
peidei
payday
‘We all get money on a payday.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(80)
Langiny-nyunga mayadany dirawu burra-mila (marlayini).
langiny-nyunga
tree-ORIG
mayadany
skin
dirawu
peel
burra-mila
3PL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.IPFV
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘They (the women) used to peel bark off a tree.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(81)
Wiribgu marrug ngarramni ngayiny.
wirib-gu
dog-DAT
marrug
hidden
nga-rra-m=ni
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS=DS
ngayiny
meat
‘I'm hiding the meat from the dog.’
HIDE the Verb form marrug ganarrany
(82)
Yugung gajgany burri, jarligmarlang marrug gardbany.
yugung
run
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
burri
3PL
jalig=malang
child=GIVEN
marrug
hidden
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
‘He ran away from them, the child, and hid.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(83)
Gurrurrij marrug gayu.
gurrurrij
car
marrug
hidden
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The car is hidden.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(84)
Marrug ngabuwa (mangarra).
marrug
hidden
nga-buwa
1SG.A:3SG.P-POT:have
mangarra
plant.food
‘I will keep it (the food) hidden.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(85)
Mulurruni gagawuli yurrg gankarrany Gilwini.
mulurru-ni
older.woman-ERG
gagawuli
long.yam
yurrg
show
gan-garra-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-put-PST.PFV
Gilwi-ni
Gilwi-LOC
‘The old women showed me yam in Gilwi.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(86)
Yurrg ngarram ngunggu yagbali Ngaliwurru.
yurrg
show
nga-rra-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
ngunggu
2SG.DAT
yagbali
place
Ngaliwurru
Ngaliwurru
‘I'm showing you the Ngaliwurru country.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Ditransitive object alternation of IVs
(87)
Yurrg gankarrany ngayug.
yurrg
show
gan-garra-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-put-PST.PFV
ngayug
1SG
‘She showed (it) to me. (Lit. 'She showed me').’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(88)
Yurrgmayan bunkarranyiyinyag, <yuno>, mangarranguji.
yurrg-mayan
show-ITER
bun-garra-nyi=yinyag
3PL.A:1SG.P-put-PST.IPFV=1DU.EXCL.P
yuno
you.know
mangarra-nguji
plant.food-ASSOC.PL
‘They used to show us two, you know, food and other things like that.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Ditransitive object alternation of IVs
(89)
Yurrg garraji ngurrgbany.
yurrg
show
ga-rra-ji
3SG.S-put-REFL
ngurrgbany
rainbow
‘The rainbow shows up. (lit. 'shows itself').’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reflexive-reciprocal alternation of IVs
(90)
Gugubina ganardgiyany, ngardbinjiwung.
gugu-bina
water-ALL
gan-ardgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
ngard=binji=wung
bogged=ONLY=RESTR
‘He threw her into the water, (so that she got) just bogged (in the mud).’
THROW the Verb form ganardgiyany
(91)
(Jaligdi) diwu ganardgiyany ninunggurruni, dirldirlngarna.
jalig-di
child-ERG
diwu
fly
gan-ardgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
ninunggurru-ni
hand-ERG/INST
dirl-dirl-ngarna
RDP-draw-ASSOC
‘He (the child) threw it with his hand, the pencil.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(92)
(Mangurn-ni) dirrg ganarranyi maja langinki (murnungguni).
mangurn-ni
white.person-ERG
dirrg
tied
gan-arra-nyi
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
maja
do.like.that
langiny-gi
tree-LOC
murnunggu-ni
rope-ERG/INST
‘He (the white man) tied them like that to a tree (with rope).’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr 4-loc
(93)
Balbba barra dirrgguji thanthu mali!
balbba
side.by.side
ba-rra
IMP-put
dirrg=guji
tied=FIRST
thanthu
DEM
mali
thing
‘Tie these things (onto the car) side by side first!’
TIE the Verb form dirrg ganarrany
(94)
Langinygi dirrg gayu.
langiny-gi
tree-LOC
dirrg
tied
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘It is tied around a tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(95)
Mali ngarram buru jarrinygi.
mali
thing
nga-rra-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
buru
back
jarriny-gi
hole-LOC
‘I put the things back in the box.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(96)
Bardbard garraja burrinyi, bagarlini.
bard-bard
RDP-cover
ga-rra-ja=burrinyi
3SG.S-put-REFL.PST.PFV=3DU
bagarli-ni
paperbark-ERG/INST
‘He covered himself (with negative effect) for the two, with paperbark.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive-reciprocal alternation of IVs
(97)
Dilibman mali, <basket>gi burrarrany (marlayini).
dilibman
red
mali
thing
basket-gi
basket-LOC
burr-arra-ny
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘The red cloth, they (the women) put it in a basket.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(98)
Warnda, <trailer>-bina yirrarrany.
warnda
grass
trailer-bina
trailer-ALL
yirr-arra-ny
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
‘We put the grass into the trailer.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(99)
(Nalija) lawu ngawarra gunyag, birrigudgi.
nalija
tea
lawu
spill/pour
nga-w-arra
1SG.A:3SG.P-POT-put
gunyag
2DU.DAT
birrigud-gi
tin-LOC
‘I will pour it (the tea) for you two, in the billycan.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(100)
Lawu gardam gugu.
lawu
spill/pour
ga-rda-m
3SG.S-fall-PRS
gugu
water
‘The water pours/spills.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of change of location predicates
(101)
Bardbard gayu Nalyirri, garrij.
bard-bard
RDP-covered
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
Nalyarri
Nalyarri
garrij
cold
‘Nalyarri is all covered up, she is cold.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(102)
(Gugu) burrarranyi jardi (birrigud-bina) (marlayini).
gugu
water
burr-arra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
jardi
full
birrigud-bina
tin-ALL
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘The women used to fill the tin with water (lit. ...fill water into the tin).’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(103)
(Gugu) jardi gardany darlubina.
gugu
water
jardi
full
ga-rda-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
darlu-bina
hole-ALL
‘The water filled the hole/bowl.’
FILL the Verb form jardi ganarrany
(104)
(...) gugu gayuma jardi, nyarnangarrang.
gugu
water
ga-yu=ma
3SG.S-be.PRS=SUBORD
jardi
full
nyarnangarrang
always
‘(...) the one that is always full of water (lit. the one that water is always full).’
FILL the Verb form jardi ganarrany
(105)
Gagawurli bagurr burr-arra-nyi, (...) mugurruni burrarranyi bagurrbagurr.
gagawuli
long.yam
bagurr
inside.container
burr-arra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
mugurru-ni
paperbark.cooliman-LOC
burra-rra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
bagurr-bagurr
RDP-inside.container
‘They used to load the long yam in there, they used to put it in the paperbark cooliman.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(106)
Majani guyawud gayu jawijing.
majani
maybe
guyawud
hungry
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jawijing
MoFa
‘Maybe grandfather is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(107)
Ngabuluwu guyawud gayu (jarlig).
ngabulu-wu
milk-DAT
guyawud
hungry
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jalig
child
‘(The child) is hungry for milk.’
BE HUNGRY the Verb form guyawud gagba
(108)
Dididmayan gangga (futbol).
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
futbol
ball
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(109)
Thawu gardbany (nalija).
thawu
immersed
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
nalija
tea
‘(The tea bag) got immersed / sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(110)
Dilibiyang garnaya, langiny.
dili=biyang
bright=SEQ
ga-rna-ya
3SG.S-burn-PRS
langiny
wood
‘It is burning brightly now (i.e. with a flame), the stick.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(111)
Ngiyagun jirrman gayu, ngarla Port-Keatsmalang larrman gayu.
ngiya=gun
PROX=CONTR
jirrman
moist
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
ngarla
CNTRF
Port-Keats=malang
Port-Keats=GIVEN
larrman
dry
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘Here (the country) is moist, but in Port Keats it is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(112)
Janyjugun lalabangngarna mayi. Lalabang gangga, yangarrawu.
janyju=gun
DEM=CONTR
lalabang-ngarna
hunt.kangaroo-ASSOC
mayi,
man
lalabang
hunt.kangaroo
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
yangarra-wu
kangaroo-DAT
‘That man is a kangaroo hunter. He goes kangaroo hunting, for kangaroo.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-abs V
(113)
Gardajbiya yirrarranyi gayayi wagurrani.
gardaj=biya
grind=SEQ
yirr-arra-nyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
gayayi
waterlily.seed
wagurra-ni
stone-ERG/INST
‘We used to grind waterlily seed with a stone.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V 3-instr
(114)
Wunyu ngamangu gulban.
wunyu
wipe
nga-mangu
1SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
gulban
ground
‘I wiped the ground.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(115)
Wunyu ganmam yirrag.
wunyu
wipe
gan-ma-m=yirrag
3SG.A:1.P-hit-PRS=1PL.EXCL.P
‘It is making us deaf. (Lit. 'it is wiping us').’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(116)
Gurr yirrangu (gugu), garal yirrangu.
gurr
dig
yirra-ngu
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
gugu
water
garal
dig.well
yirra-ngu
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘We dug (up water), and made a well.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(117)
Malajagu gurrija ngagba, thunymang gagba.
malajagu
goanna
gurrija
digging
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
thuny=mang
buried.in.hole=SUBORD
ga-gba
3SG.S-be.PST.PFV
‘I was digging for a goanna that had buried itself in the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(118)
(Gagawuli) gananyjam nu buru jaliggu.
gagawuli
long.yam
gan-anyja-m=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-bring-PRS=3SG.DAT
buru
return
jalig-gu
child-DAT
‘She brings it (long yam) back to/for the child.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(119)
Jurriya nyanying bunyangu dimarna bunyajgina.
jurriya=nyanying
know=properly
buny-angu
3DU.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
dimarna
horse
bunyaj-gina
3DU-POSS
‘The two were training/teaching their horse.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(120)
Jurriya gunnganggam baajgu.
jurriya
know
gun-ngangga-m
2PL.A:1SG.P-get/handle-PRS
baaj-gu
speech-DAT
‘You all teach me language. (Lit. 'you (PL) make me knowledgeable about language').’
KNOW an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(121)
Yurlnguni gananthama yirrag <bulayi> gujugujugu.
Yurlngu-ni
Yolngu-ERG
gan-anthama=yirrag
3SG.A:3SG.P-bring.PST.IPFV=1PL.EXCL.DAT
bulayi
fly/tent
guju-gujugu
RDP-big
‘Yolngu (Aboriginal organisation) used to bring us big tents.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-dat subj[1].obj[2].V
(122)
Malangayij biyang bunyguga malara majani jalwany.
malangayij=biyang
hear=SEQ
buny-guga
3DU.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
malara
frog
majani
maybe
jalwany
talking
‘The two hear the frogs, maybe talking.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(123)
"Malangayijbiya bawunyguga!" ganiyu=nu.
malangayij=biya
hear=SEQ
ba-wuny-guga
IMP-2SG.A:3DU.P-take
gani-yu=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
‘"Listen to the two!" he said to him.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(124)
<Embyulin> malangayij yirragba.
embyulin
ambulance
malangayij
hear
yirr-agba
1PL.EXCL.S-be.PST.PFV
‘We heard the ambulance.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of stative predicates
(125)
Ganirrigam ngayiny Nalyarrini.
gani-rriga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-cook-PRS
ngayiny
meat
Nalyarri-ni
Nalyarri-ERG
‘Nalyarri is cooking meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(126)
Garnayabiya burrngburrng <ti>.
ga-rna-ya=biya
3SG.S-burn-PRS=SEQ
burrngburrng
RDP:boil
ti
tea
‘The tea is boiling now.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(127)
Jamang bul burrurumany yinyag jalig yagburru.
jamang
finally
bul
appear
burru-ruma-ny
3PL.S-come-PST.PFV
yinyag
1DU.EXCL.DAT
jalig
child
yag-burru
fish-PROPR
‘Finally the children appeared on us with fish.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(128)
Yalamburrma bul yanima burragburlu.
yalamburrma
saltwater.crocodile
bul
appear
yani-ma=burrag=burlu
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-hit=3PL.DAT=COLL1
‘A saltwater crocodile might appear on them (people in boats).’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(129)
Ngilijga burragba janjunud jalig mangarrawu gujardinggu.
ngilijga
cry
burr-agba
3PL.S-be.PST.PFV
janju-nud
DEM-COLL2
jalig
child
mangarra-wu
plant.food-DAT
gujarding-gu
mother-DAT
‘Those children were crying for food (and) for their mother.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(130)
Jaligmalang biyang gulbankiguji gardbany.
jalig=malang=biyang
child=GIVEN=SEQ
gulban-gi=guji
ground-LOC=FIRST
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
‘The child has already fallen on the ground.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(131)
Barraj lijburrg burralinymana gatamarlnganyunga.
barraj
FURTHER
lijburrg
axe
burra-linyma-na
3PL.A:3SG.P-make-PST.IPFV
gatamarlnga-nyunga
quartz.stone-ORIG
‘They also made axes out of the quartz.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(132)
Gurrany ngunthug ngangu, waga.
gurrany
NEG
ngunthug
like
nga-ngu
1SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
waga
sit
‘I didn't want to sit around (i.e. stay).’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-erg CC2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(133)
Gurrany ganubunyngarnanyi nuwina jalig.
gurrany
NEG
ganu-b-uny-ngarna-nyi
3SG.A-POT-3DU.P-give-PST.IPFV
nuwina
3SG:POSS
jalig
child
‘He wouldn’t give (him) the two, his children.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Ditransitive object alternation of IVs
(134)
Yimij ganiyu juwudgu.
yimij
wink
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
juwud-gu
eye-DAT
‘She blinked for the eye (i.e. to protect the eye).’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(135)
Burduj gajgany langinybina jayiny ngarrgina.
burduj
go.up
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
langiny-bina
tree-ALL
jayiny
MoMo/DaCh
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
‘My grandchild climbed/went up a tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-all subj[1].V
(136)
Yugung gangga janju jalig nu gujardingbina.
yugung
run
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
janju
DEM
jalig
child
nu
3SG.DAT
gujarding-bina
mother-ALL
‘The child runs to her, to the mother.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-all subj[1].V
(137)
Yugung ganngungany (ngarrgina nanbarn).
yugung
run
gan-ngunga-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-leave-PST.PFV
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
nanbarn
wife
‘(My wife) ran away from me / left me running.’
RUN an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(138)
<Hojpil>bina biya yugung burranyi.
hojpil-bina=biya
hospital-ALL=SEQ
yugung
run
burr-anyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-take.PST.IPFV
‘They took him running to the hospital then / They ran with him to the hospital then.’
RUN an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(139)
<Dija>nibiya yugung ganarrga durd.
dija-ni=biya
teacher-ERG=SEQ
yugung
run
gan-arrga
3SG.A:3SG.P-approach.PST.PFV
durd
hold.one
‘The teacher then ran up to him (to) pick (him) up / The teacher then approached him running (a boy who had fallen).’
RUN an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(140)
Gujarding ngarrgina waga gayu yinju.
gujarding
mother
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
waga
sit
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
yinju
here
‘My mother is sitting here.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(141)
Garumany, yina waga gardbany (girrgirrlang).
ga-ruma-ny
3SG.S-come-PST.PFV
yina
DIST
waga
sit
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
girrgirrlang
galah
‘He came, and sat down there (the galah).’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(142)
Ngarrginabiya ngajang gajgany <cafe>bina.
ngarrgina=biya
1SG:POSS=SEQ
ngajang
FaMo/SoCh
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
cafe-bina
cafe-ALL
‘My grandson then went to the Cafe.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-all subj[1].V
(143)
L.ni ganungany wirib.
L-ni
L.-ERG
gan-unga-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-leave-PST.PFV
wirib
dog
‘L left the dog behind.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(144)
Marlayi nganya gayu.
marlayi
woman
nganya
sing
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The woman is singing.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(145)
Barrajburruni durl ganuga janyungbari mayi wurdbajbina buluwujgu, (...) gugubina durl ganiyu.
barrajburru-ni
saltwater.crocodile-ERG
durl
push
gan-uga
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
janyungbari
other
mayi
man
wurdbaj-bina
look.for-ALL
buluwuj-gu
egg-DAT
gugu-bina
water-ALL
durl
push
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
‘The saltwater crocodile pushed over one man looking around for eggs (...) it pushed him into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(146)
Marring ngayunggum burru.
marring
bad
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
burru
belly
‘I feel sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(147)
Burru marring ganunggum (mulurru ngarrgina).
burru
belly
marring
bad
gan-unggu-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
mulurru
older.woman
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
‘She is sad, my old lady (mother).’
BE SAD the Verb form burru marring ganiyu
(148)
Ngayuggayi bujarl ngayunggum, Nangariwu.
ngayug=gayi
1SG=ALSO
bujarl
sad/sorry
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.A:3SG-say/do-PRS
Nangari-wu
Nangari-DAT
‘I too am worried for / sad about Nangari.’
BE SAD ABOUT a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(149)
(Jaligdi) burduj ganarram thanthu C.
jalig-di
child-ERG
burduj
go.up
gan-arra-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
thanthu
DEM
C.
proper.name
‘The child is lifting that C up.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative alternation of change of location predicates
(150)
Mululurru burduj burrurruga thanggagu (mayini).
mululurru
RDP:old.woman
burduj
go.up
burr-urr-uga
3PL.A-3PL.P-take.PST.PFV
thanggagu
above
mayi-ni
man-ERG
‘They (the men) took the women up on top.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(151)
Lawu ganiyu ngabulu janjuni jaligni.
lawu
spill/pour
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
ngabulu
milk
janju-ni
DEM-ERG
jalig-ni
child-ERG
‘The child spilled the milk.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(152)
Ngabunyngarnabiya <na:>, lawu.
nga-buny-ngarna=biya
1SG.A-POT:2DU.P-give=SEQ
na
now
lawu
spill/pour
‘I will pour it for you two. (Lit. 'I will give it to you two pouring').’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative-recipient alternation
(153)
Bujarl gunynganggam.
bujarl
sad/sorry
guny-ngangga-m
2DU.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
‘You two make her sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(154)
Mayini gambaja gani-mangu janyungbari.
mayi-ni
man-ERG
gambaja
laugh
gani-mangu
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
janyungbari
other
‘The man laughed at (the other one).’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of activity predicates
(155)
Ngiyiyirram yarrajgu bunyagba.
ngiyi=yirram
PROX=PAIR
yarrajgu
afraid
buny-agba
3DU.S-be.PST.PFV
‘These two were afraid / frightened.’
FEAR the Verb form yarrajgu gagba
(156)
Yarrajgu gayu nu gujarding janju jaliggu, <accident>gu.
yarrajgu
afraid
ga-yu=nu
3SG.S-be.PRS=3SG.DAT
gujarding
mother
janju
DEM
jalig-gu
child-DAT
accident-gu
accident-DAT
‘The mother is afraid for that child, (afraid) of an accident.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-dat subj[1].V
(157)
Yarrajgubiya gayu nindu, bangawu!
yarrajgu=biya
afraid=SEQ
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
nindu
horse
ba-ngawu
IMP-see
‘The horse is afraid, look!’
SEE the Verb form ganingawu
(158)
Ngabulgjabiya yirragbani, wangguwarlanyunga.
ngabulgja=biya
bathe=SEQ
yirra-gba=ni
1PL.EXCL-be.PST.PFV=DS
wangguwarla-nyunga
saltwater-ORIG
‘We were washing/bathing because of (i.e. to get rid of) the saltwater.’
WASH an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(159)
Danggadgi gub ganimiliny gulmarri.
danggad-gi
junction-LOC
gub
come.off
gani-mili-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PST.PFV
gulmarri
pandanus
‘At the junction (of tree and leaf) she pulled off the pandanus (leaf).’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative-recipient alternation
(160)
Gub bamili ngarrgu lirrjin, warlad ngayu.
gub
come.off
ba-mili=ngarrgu
IMP-get/handle=1SG.DAT
lirrjin
tooth
warlad
sick
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘Pull my tooth out, I'm sore.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(161)
Warlad ga-yu janyju warladbari. Ga-rda-m luba warlad.
warlad
sick
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
janyju
DEM
warladbari
old.man
ga-rda-m
3SG.S-fall-PRS
luba
big
warlad
sick
‘That old man is sick. He got/fell very ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(162)
Warlad ngayu lirrjin.
warlad
sick
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
lirrjin
tooth
‘I have a toothache.’
BE ILL the Verb form warlad gagba
(163)
Nanggarni gub ganangu yinju?
nanggarni
who:ERG
gub
come.off
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
yinju
PROX
‘Who took this out / who tore this off?’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(164)
Gayil gub garumany.
gayil
tooth
gub
come.off
ga-ruma-ny
3SG.S-come-PST.PFV
‘A tooth fell out.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of change of location predicates
(165)
(Mali) gub nganyunggany.
mali
thing
gub
come.off
ngany-ungga-ny
1SG:A:2SG.R-take.away-PST.PFV
‘I took your clothes off. / I deprived you off your clothes.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative-recipient alternation
(166)
Yagbali ngiya <Timber Creek> nij gayu mangurn-giyag, mayini nij yirrarram Gunamu.
yagbali
place
ngiya
PROX
Timber
Timber
Creek
Creek
nij
be.named
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
mangurn-giyag
white.person-ABL
mayi-ni
person-ERG
nij
be.named
yirr-arra-m
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
Gunamu
Gunamu
‘This place is called Timber Creek by white people; we Aboriginal people call it Gunamu.’
NAME an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(167)
Yirrinyi Namij yinygarram .. dardaga. Nij nyanying yinygarram mangarra.
yirrinyi
1DU.EXCL
Namij
Namij
yiny-garra-m
1DU.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
dardaga
plant.species
nij=nyanying
be.named=properly
yiny-garra-m
1DU.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
mangarra
plant.food
‘We two, Namij (and me) call it (a plant) dardaga. We call the plant by its right name.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(168)
<Klosap> nij ngamiliny jawijingguluwa.
klosap
almost
nij
be.named
nga-mili-ny
1SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PST.PFV
jawijing-guluwa
MoFa-KIN2
‘I almost said the name of your (deceased) grandfather.’
NAME the Verb form nij ganarrany
(169)
Gamilijabiyang jinij nij.
ga-mili-ja=biyang
3SG.S-get/handle-REFL.PST.PFV=SEQ
jinij
name
nij
be.named
‘She called her own name.’
NAME the Verb form nij ganarrany
(170)
Nganthankun thanthiya jurlag yurrarrammulu?
nganthan=gun
what=CONTR
thanthiya
DEM
jurlag
bird
yurr-arra-m=murlu
1PL.INCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS=COLL
‘What do we call this bird?’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(171)
Ngayug jarning ngarram thanthiya.
ngayug
1SG
jarning
pubic.tassle
nga-rra-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
thanthiya
DEM
‘I call that jarning.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(172)
Ngayu ngiya, Murranginy. Gurrany Bulla ngayu, waj ngawungany.
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
ngiya
PROX
Murranginy
Murranginy
gurrany
NEG
Bulla
Bulla
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
waj
leave
nga-wunga-ny
1SG.A:3SG.P-leave-PST.PFV
‘I am/live here in Murranginy. I don't live in Bulla (any more), I left it.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(173)
Yagbalini ngayu yinjuni ngarrginani.
yagbali-ni
place-LOC
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
yinju-ni
PROX-LOC
ngarrgina-ni
1SG:POSS-LOC
‘I am/live/stay here in my place.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc subj[1].V
(174)
Wamalawa, wagurrangulungmang gayu.
wamalawa
black.headed.python
wagurra-ngulung=mang
rock-PURP=SUBORD
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The black-headed python (is the one that) lives on the rocks.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc subj[1].V
(175)
Gugu jalaggi gayu yag.
gugu
water
jarlag-gi
good-LOC
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
yag
fish
‘The fish lives in freshwater.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc subj[1].V
(176)
Guruwuny thawaya ga-yu jalig wuju.
guruwuny
boab.tree
thawaya
eating
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jalig
child
wuju
small
‘The small child is eating boab nut.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abs subj[1].V
(177)
Ngabujngabujmayan gayu nuwinawu yagbaliwu.
ngabuj-ngabuj-mayan
RDP-smell-ITER
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
nuwina-wu
3SG:POSS-DAT
yagbali-wu
place-DAT
‘It is sniffing around for its home (animal in cage).’
SMELL an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(178)
Ngiyinanu yirrg burrurrarram mayi, murrgun burruyuma warrb.
ngiyina=nu
DIST=3SG.DAT
yirrg
tell/discuss
burrurr-arra-m
3PL.A:3PL.P-put-PRS
mayi
man
murrgun
three
burru-yu=ma
3PL.S-be.PRS=SUBORD
warrb
be.together
‘They are discussing (gossiping about) those people, the three sitting here.’
TELL the Verb form yirrg ganarrany
(179)
Gambaja ngabili (jarlig).
gambaja
laugh
nga-bili
1SG.A:3SG.P-POT:get/handle
jalig
child
‘I'm going to make (the child) laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(180)
Jalyi jab gananggam.
jalyi
leaf
jab
become.detached
gan-angga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
‘She plucks off leaves (off a branch).’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Locative-object (applicative) Alternation
(181)
Thawu burrarram gugug <na>, gilwa.
thawu
immersed
burr-arra-m
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
gugu-g
water-LOC
na
now
gilwa
net
‘They immerse/sink the net in the water.’
SINK an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(182)
(mununggu) dibird burrangu langiny thudbunggi.
mununggu
string
dibird
wound.around
burr-angu
3PL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
langiny
wood
thudbung-gi
short-LOC
‘They wound it (the rope) around the short stick.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(183)
Langinygi dibird ga-yu (mununggu).
langiny-gi
wood-LOC
dibird
wound.around
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
mununggu
string
‘The rope is wound around the stick.’
TIE the Verb form dibird ganangu
(184)
Langiny thudbung dibird burrima, <rop>-mij.
langiny
wood
thudbung
short
dibird
wound.around
burri-ma
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
rop-mij
rope-COM
‘They "wound" the short stick with a rope.’
TIE the Verb form dibird ganangu
(185)
Malarabiya dibard ganuny-ngunga-m, bangawu.
malara=biya
frog=SEQ
dibard
jump
ganuny-ngunga-m
3SG.A:3DU.P-leave-PRS
ba-ngawu
IMP-see
‘The frog now is jumping away leaving the two, look.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(186)
Malarabiyang dibard gajgany, wang bunybuyunu.
malara=biyang
frog=SEQ
dibard
jump
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
wang
look.in.vain
buny-bu-yu=nu
3DU.A:3SG.P-POT-say/do=3SG.DAT
‘The frog now jumped away, the two will look in vain for him.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(187)
Dibardbiya ganibarrga mugmug-ni, wirrij gayu nu.
dibard=biya
jump=SEQ
gani-b-arrga
3SG.A:3SG.P-POT-approach
mugmug-ni
owl-ERG
wirrij
fight
ga-yu=nu
3SG-be.PRS=3SG.DAT
‘It is going to jump at him now, the owl, it is fighting him. (Lit. It is going to approach him jump(ing), the owl is.).’
JUMP an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(188)
Marringbiya ngayunggum, garrijdigun gannganggam.
marring=biya
bad=SEQ
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.S:3SG-say/do-PRS
garrij-di=gun
cold-ERG=CONTR
gan-ngangga-m
3SG.A:1SG.P-get/handle-PRS
‘I'm no good, the cold is affecting me.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
2-abs obj[2].V
(189)
Bib ngamiliny ngardurru, jangabiyang ngayu.
bib
move.up
nga-mili-ny
1SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PST.PFV
ngardurru
heavy
janga=biyang
sore=SEQ
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘I lifted something heavy, and now I'm sore / in pain.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(190)
Miri janga ngagba walnginynyunga.
miri
upper.leg
janga
sore
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
walnginy-nyunga
walking-ORIG
‘I had sore legs from walking. / My legs were hurting from walking.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(191)
Burduj ngajgany, jid ngardbany, jamana janga ngarrgu.
burduj
go.up
nga-jga-ny
1SG.S-go-PST.PFV
jid
go.down
nga-rdba-ny
1SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
jamana
foot
janga
sore
ngarrgu
1SG.DAT
‘I went up and I went down, now my feet are sore.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Verbless/verbal clause with predicative nominal=UV
(192)
Janga burruma, nanggarniwarra ganima.
janga
sore
burru-ma
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
nangga-ni=warra
who-ERG=DOUBT
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
‘They hit her such that she was sore, I don't know who hit her.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(193)
Nganthanug bawa nganthunggum?
nganthan-ug
what-DAT
bawa
shout
nganth-unggu-m
2SG:3SG-say/do-PRS
‘Why are you shouting/screaming?’
SCREAM the Verb form bawa ganiyu
(194)
Gurrany jurriya yirriyu nu yinyjuwu yagbali.
gurrany
NEG
jurriya
know
yirri-yu=nu
1PL.EXCL-be.PRS=3SG.DAT
yinyju-wu
PROX-DAT
yagbali
place
‘We do not know this country. / Lit. We are not knowledgeable about/for this country.’
KNOW the Verb form jurriya (gagba)
(195)
Gurangni wirib ganuga wurdbaj malajaguwu.
gurang-ni
old.man-ERG
wirib
dog
gan-uga
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
wurdbaj
search
malajagu-wu
goanna-DAT
‘The old man searched for goanna taking a dog.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of motion predicates
(196)
Wamam gangga nu bulikibina.
wamam
face.up
ga-ngga=rnu
3SG.S-go.PRS=3SG.DAT
buliki-bina
cow-ALL
‘He is going towards the cow, facing it.’
MEET the Verb form wamam ganangu
(197)
Mayi ngiyawurla wamam gayu.
mayi
Aboriginal.man
ngiya-wurla
PROX-DIR
wamam
face.up
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The man is facing this way.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(198)
Yanggimib gangga (marlayi).
yanggimib
ask:CONT
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
marlayi
woman
‘The woman is asking around.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Telicity alternation
(199)
Burunyani ganarram gugu.
burunya-ni
marsupial.rat.species-ERG
gan-arra-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
gugu
water
‘The rat is making rain.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative alternation of change of location predicates
(200)
(Langiny) bag ganardgiyany langinybina.
langiny
wood
bag
break
gana-rdgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
langiny-bina
wood-ALL
‘She broke the wood by smashing it against another branch.’
BREAK the Verb form bag ganima (1)
(201)
Bag gajgany ni <bottle>.
bag
break
ga-jga-ny=ni
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV=DS
bottle
bottle
‘The bottle broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of externally caused change of state predicates
(202)
Majani bunug bunjunggany (mayini).
majani
maybe
bunug
steal
bun-jungga-ny
3PL.A:1SG.P-rob-PST.PFV
mayi-ni
man-ERG
‘Maybe they robbed me. / Maybe someone robbed me.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Locative-recipient alternation
(203)
Gurrany bunugbunug yanyijga burrag.
gurrany
NEG
bunug-bunug
RDP-steal
ya-ny-ijga
IRR-2SG.S-go
burrag
3PL.DAT
‘You shouldn't go stealing on/from them.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of activity predicates
(204)
Jaligdi wirib burrarranja malajaguwu.
jalig-di
child-ERG
wirib
dog
burrarra-nja
3PL.A:3PL.S-take.PRS
malajagu-wu
goanna-DAT
‘The children take dogs for (hunting) goanna.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(205)
Guyawud nganthinlinymany!
guyawud
hungry
nganthin-linyma-ny
2SG.A:1SG.O-make-PST.PFV
‘You made me hungry!’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(206)
Dididmayan ganardgiyany, .. ngabulu, dididmayan gardbany.
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
gana-rdgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
ngabulu
breastmilk
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
‘He rolled it down, the milk tin, it rolled down.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Inchoative-causative alternation of change of location predicates
(207)
Dididmayan garam ... ganajgiyany didid ... dididmayan ganantha.
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
ga-ram
3SG.S-come.PRS
gana-rdgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
didid
roll
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
gana-ntha
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PRS
‘It is rolling, he rolled it, he is rolling it along. /Lit. translation of last clause: 'He takes it along, rolling it'.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of change of location predicates
(208)
Guguni thawu gayu (jarlig).
gugu-ni
water-LOC
thawu
immersed
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jalig
child
‘A child is sitting in the water.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative-stative alternation of predicates of location, position and configuration
(209)
Barungbiyang ngiya, larrmanbiyang.
barung=biyang
hot.season=SEQ
ngiya
PROX
larrman=biyang
dry=SEQ
‘(It is) the hot season now, (it is) dry / the dry season.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Verbless/verbal clause with predicative nominal=UV
(210)
Gadgad yirramanyi, larrmanbiya ganina yirrag.
gad-gad
RDP-cut
yirra-ma-nyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
larrman=biya
dry=SEQ
gan-ina
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.IPFV
yirrag
1PL.EXCL.DAT
‘We used to cut it up, and it used to dry for us.’
BE DRY the Verb form larrman gagba
(211)
Yugung burrumam.
yugung
run
burru-ma-m
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit-PRS
‘They run after him.’
RUN an Alternation:
Transitivity alternation of activity predicates
(212)
Burru marring ganngankam nguyung-guluwa.
burru
belly
marring
bad
gan-ngangga-m
3SG.A:1SG.P-get/handle-PRS
nguyung-guluwa
husband-KIN2
‘It (the song) makes me feel sad/sorry about your boyfriend (who is far away).’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative alternation of internally caused change of state predicates and non-locative states
(213)
Burru marring ngagba.
burru
belly
marring
bad
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
‘I was worried.’
BE SAD the Verb form burru marring ganiyu
(214)
Jalangbiyang, (gagawurli) bud ganirriga Namijni.
jalang=biyang
today=SEQ
gagawuli
long.yam
bud
cook.on.coals
gani-rriga
3SG.A:3SG.P-cook.PST.PFV
Namij-ni
Namij-ERG
‘Today, Namij cooked it in the ashes.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of "cooking" predicates
(215)
Nawurlani bud ganima ngayiny.
Nawurla-ni
Nawurla-ERG
bud
cook.on.coals
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
ngayiny
meat
‘Nawurla cooked the meat on the coals.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative-inchoative alternation of "cooking" predicates
(216)
Bud gawirnangunggu mangarra.
bud
cook.on.coals
ga-w-irna=ngunggu
3SG.S-POT-burn=2SG.DAT
mangarra
plant.food
‘Let it cook for you on the coals, the food.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-abs subj[1].V
(217)
Mululurru <helpim> yurrurramila (mayi).
mululurru
RDP:old.woman
helpim
help:TR
burrurra-mila
3PL.A:3PL.P-get/handle.PST.IPFV
mayi
man
‘The women used to help them (the men).’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs subj[1].obj[2].V
(218)
Mangarra wirrigaja ngayu.
mangarra
food
wirrigaja
cooking
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘I am cooking food.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abs subj[1].V