Reflexive-reciprocal alternation of IVs C

Description

All morphologically transitive IVs except for ganiyu ‘say/do’ can take a suffix -ji/-ja which encodes both the reflexive and reciprocal function in the narrow sense, i.e. its use is restricted to agents acting upon themselves, or multiple agents acting upon each other. It thus has no additional functions such as middle or inchoative marking. In complex predicates, the productivity of reflexive/reciprocal marking is only restricted by semantic compatibility.
Formally, reflexive/reciprocal marking results in both morphological and syntactic intransitivity of the IV, i.e. the IV takes the intransitive paradigm of pronominal prefixes, and a single absolutive argument in the function of A=P.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
FOLLOW ganiwardagarrany M
(24)
mindi-wardagarra-m
1DU.INCL.A:3SG.P-follow-PRS
ngiya
PROX
gurang
old.man
‘Let's follow this man!’
(25)
nguyung-ngunthu-ni=biya
husband-3SG.POSS.KIN-ERG=SEQ
yugung
run
gani-wardagarra-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-follow-PST.PFV
‘Her husband followed her running. /Her husband ran after her.’
EAT ganimindany N
(1)
yulang
flower
gani-mindi-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-eat-PRS
warrba-ni
flying.fox-ERG
‘The flying fox eats flowers.’
SEE ganingawu R
(7)
wirib-ni
dog-ERG
ngarrgina-ni
1SG:POSS-ERG
nganthan=warra
what=DOUBT
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
majani
maybe
mangurn
white.person
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
‘My dog, I don't know what it sees, maybe it sees a white man.’
FEAR ganiyangmany
(11)
mayi-ni
Aboriginal.man-ERG
gani-yangma-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-fear-PST.PFV
mangurn
white.person
‘(The Aboriginal) man feared the white man.’
(12)
Nangari
Nangari
wuju-ni=biyang
small-ERG=SEQ
ganiny-jangma-ny
3SG.A:2SG.P-fear-PST.PFV
yintit
TAG
‘The little Nangari was was frightened of you, wasn't she?’
SAY ganiyu N
(30)
mulanggirr
dangerous
mali
thing
hambag
humbug/bother
nganthi-yu
2SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
gani-yu=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
wirib-gu=malang
dog-DAT=GIVEN
‘"You have disturbed a dangerous thing!" he said to him, to the dog.’
(31)
nganthu-rum
2SG.S-come.PRS
warnanggal-ni
medicine.man-ERG
gani-yu=rnu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
dokta-ni
doctor-ERG
‘"You come here", the doctor said to her.’
GIVE ganingarnany R
(37)
ngawurru-ngarna-ny=biya
1SG.A:3PL.P-give-PST.PFV=SEQ
thanthu
DEM
mangarra
plant.food
burrb=bung
finish=RESTR
‘I gave them the food, all of it.’
(38)
janyungbari-ni
other-ERG
waladbari-ni
old.man-ERG
mangarra
plant.food
gan-ngarna-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-give-PST.PFV
‘That other old man gave me food.’
(76)
gujang-ni
mother-ERG
birrg
take.away
gani-yungga-na
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.away-PST.IPFV
ba-ngarna
IMP-give
ganu-wu-ngarna
3SG.A:3SG.P-POT-give
‘Mother would take it (toy) off her, "give it to her!" and she would give it to her.’
BUILD ganilinymany (2) N
(41)
majani
maybe
mayi-ni
man-ERG
gani-linyma-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-make-PRS
ngiyinju
PROX
jalbud
house
‘Maybe the man is building this house.’
KILL ning ganima
(48)
ani
but
burru-ma=nu
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
ning
break.off
jambala-ni
some-ERG
langiny-ni
stick-ERG/INST
‘But some people killed it for her, with a stick.’
KILL digirrij ganima
(51)
jalig-di
child-ERG
digirrij
die
gani-mangu
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
jurlag
bird
wagurra-ni
stone-ERG/INST
‘The child killed the bird with a stone.’
DIE digirrij gajgany N
(52)
majani
maybe
yangarra
kangaroo
digirrij
die
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
‘(Many kites are circling there), maybe a kangaroo died.’
PLAY garlagarla gagba N
(53)
garlagarla
play
ga-gba
3SG.S-be.PST.PFV
ngiyinju
PROX
jalig
child
‘This child was playing.’
LAUGH gambaja gagba N
(56)
mayi
man
gambaja
laugh
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The man is laughing.’
BEAT wanywany ganima R
(61)
det
DEM
waitbala-ni
white.person-ERG
wany-wany
RDP-beat
gan-mama-nyi=yinyag
3SG.A:1.P-RDP:hit-PST.IPFV=1DU.EXCL.P
langiny-ni
stick-ERG/INST
‘That white man used to beat us (with a stick).’
TELL yirrg ganarrany N
(62)
yirrg
tell
nga-rra-m=nu
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS=3SG.DAT
liny
word/speech
‘I'm telling her the story.’
HIT ganima R
(64)
mayi-ni
person-ERG
burri-ma
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
janyungbari
other
‘(...) Another one was killed by Aboriginal people. / Aboriginal people killed another one. (From an account of several deaths).’
CUT gad ganima R
(69)
gad
cut
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
nawij
neck
Nawurla-ni
Nawurla-ERG
‘Nawurla cut its neck.’
(70)
naif-di=biyang
knife-ERG/INST=SEQ
burra-ma-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
gad-gad
RDP-cut
‘They cut it with a knife.’
(71)
kwin-ni
queen-ERG
gad
cut
gani-ma
3SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
dem
dam
ribon
ribbon
‘The queen cut the dam, the ribbon.’
PEEL dirawu ganangu
(80)
langiny-nyunga
tree-ORIG
mayadany
skin
dirawu
peel
burra-mila
3PL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.IPFV
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘They (the women) used to peel bark off a tree.’
HIDE marrug ganarrany N
(84)
marrug
hidden
nga-buwa
1SG.A:3SG.P-POT:have
mangarra
plant.food
‘I will keep it (the food) hidden.’
SHOW yurrg ganarrany M
(85)
mulurru-ni
older.woman-ERG
gagawuli
long.yam
yurrg
show
gan-garra-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-put-PST.PFV
Gilwi-ni
Gilwi-LOC
‘The old women showed me yam in Gilwi.’
(87)
yurrg
show
gan-garra-ny
3SG.A:1SG.P-put-PST.PFV
ngayug
1SG
‘She showed (it) to me. (Lit. 'She showed me').’
THROW ganardgiyany M
(91)
jalig-di
child-ERG
diwu
fly
gan-ardgiya-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-throw-PST.PFV
ninunggurru-ni
hand-ERG/INST
dirl-dirl-ngarna
RDP-draw-ASSOC
‘He (the child) threw it with his hand, the pencil.’
TIE dirrg ganarrany
(92)
mangurn-ni
white.person-ERG
dirrg
tied
gan-arra-nyi
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
maja
do.like.that
langiny-gi
tree-LOC
murnunggu-ni
rope-ERG/INST
‘He (the white man) tied them like that to a tree (with rope).’
COVER bardbard ganarrany M
(36)
nami-ni
2SG-ERG
ngayiny
meat
bard-bard
RDP-cover
ngantha-rra-m
2SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
larriny-ni
paperbark-ERG/INST
‘You cover the meat with paperbark.’
PUT ganarrany (1) M
(95)
mali
thing
nga-rra-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
buru
back
jarriny-gi
hole-LOC
‘I put the things back in the box.’
(97)
dilibman
red
mali
thing
basket-gi
basket-LOC
burr-arra-ny
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘The red cloth, they (the women) put it in a basket.’
(98)
warnda
grass
trailer-bina
trailer-ALL
yirr-arra-ny
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
‘We put the grass into the trailer.’
POUR lawu ganarrany
(99)
nalija
tea
lawu
spill/pour
nga-w-arra
1SG.A:3SG.P-POT-put
gunyag
2DU.DAT
birrigud-gi
tin-LOC
‘I will pour it (the tea) for you two, in the billycan.’
(151)
lawu
spill/pour
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
ngabulu
milk
janju-ni
DEM-ERG
jalig-ni
child-ERG
‘The child spilled the milk.’
FILL jardi ganarrany
(102)
gugu
water
burr-arra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
jardi
full
birrigud-bina
tin-ALL
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
‘The women used to fill the tin with water (lit. ...fill water into the tin).’
LOAD bagurr ganarrany
(105)
gagawuli
long.yam
bagurr
inside.container
burr-arra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
mugurru-ni
paperbark.cooliman-LOC
burra-rra-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
bagurr-bagurr
RDP-inside.container
‘They used to load the long yam in there, they used to put it in the paperbark cooliman.’
BE HUNGRY guyawud gagba N
(106)
majani
maybe
guyawud
hungry
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jawijing
MoFa
‘Maybe grandfather is hungry.’
DIG gurr ganangu N
(116)
gurr
dig
yirra-ngu
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
gugu
water
garal
dig.well
yirra-ngu
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘We dug (up water), and made a well.’
BRING gananthamany
(118)
gagawuli
long.yam
gan-anyja-m=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-bring-PRS=3SG.DAT
buru
return
jalig-gu
child-DAT
‘She brings it (long yam) back to/for the child.’
(121)
Yurlngu-ni
Yolngu-ERG
gan-anthama=yirrag
3SG.A:3SG.P-bring.PST.IPFV=1PL.EXCL.DAT
bulayi
fly/tent
guju-gujugu
RDP-big
‘Yolngu (Aboriginal organisation) used to bring us big tents.’
TEACH jurriya ganangu
(119)
jurriya=nyanying
know=properly
buny-angu
3DU.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
dimarna
horse
bunyaj-gina
3DU-POSS
‘The two were training/teaching their horse.’
(120)
jurriya
know
gun-ngangga-m
2PL.A:1SG.P-get/handle-PRS
baaj-gu
speech-DAT
‘You all teach me language. (Lit. 'you (PL) make me knowledgeable about language').’
HEAR malangayij ganuga M
(122)
malangayij=biyang
hear=SEQ
buny-guga
3DU.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
malara
frog
majani
maybe
jalwany
talking
‘The two hear the frogs, maybe talking.’
(123)
malangayij=biya
hear=SEQ
ba-wuny-guga
IMP-2SG.A:3DU.P-take
gani-yu=nu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3SG.DAT
‘"Listen to the two!" he said to him.’
COOK ganirriga N
(125)
gani-rriga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-cook-PRS
ngayiny
meat
Nalyarri-ni
Nalyarri-ERG
‘Nalyarri is cooking meat.’
BOIL burrngburrng garna N
(126)
ga-rna-ya=biya
3SG.S-burn-PRS=SEQ
burrngburrng
RDP:boil
ti
tea
‘The tea is boiling now.’
FALL gardbany N
(130)
jalig=malang=biyang
child=GIVEN=SEQ
gulban-gi=guji
ground-LOC=FIRST
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
‘The child has already fallen on the ground.’
MAKE ganilinymany (1) M
(131)
barraj
FURTHER
lijburrg
axe
burra-linyma-na
3PL.A:3SG.P-make-PST.IPFV
gatamarlnga-nyunga
quartz.stone-ORIG
‘They also made axes out of the quartz.’
GET ganangu (1) N
(79)
yurr-angga-m=murlu
1PL.INCL.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS=COLL
mani
money
peidei
payday
‘We all get money on a payday.’
WANT ngunthug ganangu (2)
(132)
gurrany
NEG
ngunthug
like
nga-ngu
1SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
waga
sit
‘I didn't want to sit around (i.e. stay).’
BLINK yimij ganiyu N
(134)
yimij
wink
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
juwud-gu
eye-DAT
‘She blinked for the eye (i.e. to protect the eye).’
GO gajgany N
(142)
ngarrgina=biya
1SG:POSS=SEQ
ngajang
FaMo/SoCh
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
cafe-bina
cafe-ALL
‘My grandson then went to the Cafe.’
SING nganya gagba N
(144)
marlayi
woman
nganya
sing
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The woman is singing.’
PUSH durl ganuga M
(145)
barrajburru-ni
saltwater.crocodile-ERG
durl
push
gan-uga
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
janyungbari
other
mayi
man
wurdbaj-bina
look.for-ALL
buluwuj-gu
egg-DAT
gugu-bina
water-ALL
durl
push
gani-yu
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV
‘The saltwater crocodile pushed over one man looking around for eggs (...) it pushed him into the water.’
BE SAD burru marring ganiyu N
(146)
marring
bad
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
burru
belly
‘I feel sad.’
BE SAD ABOUT bujarl ganiyu N
(148)
ngayug=gayi
1SG=ALSO
bujarl
sad/sorry
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.A:3SG-say/do-PRS
Nangari-wu
Nangari-DAT
‘I too am worried for / sad about Nangari.’
RUN yugung gajgany N
(136)
yugung
run
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
janju
DEM
jalig
child
nu
3SG.DAT
gujarding-bina
mother-ALL
‘The child runs to her, to the mother.’
HUG warrgi ganimuwa
(3)
jalig
child
warrgi
hold.in.front
gana-ma-ya
3SG.A:3SG.P-have-PRS
gujarding-ni
mother-ERG
‘(The mother) is holding the child in her arms.’
HUG warrgi ganangu
(4)
warrgi
hold.in.front
ganiny-angu
3SG.A:2SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
warrgi
hold.in.front
nganth-angu
2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
nami
2SG
tu
too
‘She hugged you, and you hugged her, too.’
LOOK AT mung ganingawu R
(5)
jijigurr-ni=biya
rock.rat-ERG=SEQ
mung
look.at
gani-ngayi-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-see-PRS
ngiyi
PROX
jalig
child
‘A rock rat is now looking at this child.’
SMELL ngabuj ganangu
(8)
ngabuj
smell
gan-angga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
ngayiny
meat
wirib-di
dog-ERG
‘The dog smells the meat.’
(9)
wirib-ni
dog-ERG
ngabuj
smell
ganuny-angu
3SG.A:3DU.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘The dog smelled the two.’
FRIGHTEN braitenim ganangu N
(13)
mugmug-ni=gun
owl-ERG/INST=CONTR
braiten-im
frighten-TR
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
‘The owl frightened him (...).’
WASH ngabulg ganarrany
(21)
ngabulg=gun
bathe=CONTR
ba-rra
IMP-put
jalig
child
majani
maybe
hot
hot
gan-unggu-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
‘Bathe her (the child), maybe she is hot. (child, in river).’
TEAR gub ganangu
(163)
nanggarni
who:ERG
gub
come.off
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
yinju
PROX
‘Who took this out / who tore this off?’
FEEL PAIN janga gagba N
(189)
bib
move.up
nga-mili-ny
1SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PST.PFV
ngardurru
heavy
janga=biyang
sore=SEQ
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘I lifted something heavy, and now I'm sore / in pain.’
(190)
miri
upper.leg
janga
sore
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
walnginy-nyunga
walking-ORIG
‘I had sore legs from walking. / My legs were hurting from walking.’
LIKE ngunthug ganangu (1)
(14)
majani
maybe
malara
frog
ngunthug
like
gan-angga-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
majani
maybe
yani-ba
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-bite
malara
frog
‘Maybe they (fish) like frogs (as bait), maybe they will bite frogs.’
KNOW jurriya (gagba) N
(16)
marndaj
all.right
jurriya
know
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
ngunggu
2SG.DAT
‘All right, I know you (now).’
THINK langa gagba N
(17)
langa
ear
nga-gba
1SG.S-be.PST.PFV
gurrag
2PL.DAT
‘I was thinking about you all.’
(18)
grog-gu=binji
alcohol-DAT=ONLY
langa
ear
gunthu-yu
2DU.S-be.PRS
‘You two only think about alcohol.’
SEARCH FOR wurdbaj gajgany N
(19)
gagawuli-wu
long.yam-DAT
yirr-ijga-ny
1PL.EXCL.S-go-PST.PFV
wurdbaj
search
‘We searched for long yam.’
WASH gulyu ganangu N
(22)
mali
thing
gurrany
NEG
gulyu
rinse
nganth-angga-m
2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle-PRS
ngarrgu
1SG.DAT
‘You don't wash clothes for me.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) jab gamaja R
(23)
jab
become.detached
nga-ba-ji
1SG.S-POT:hit-REFL
ngurungurung
beard
‘I want to shave (my) beard. (Lit. 'I want to pluck myself with respect to the beard').’
MEET wamam ganangu
(26)
majani
maybe
wamam
facing
yinyi-bili
1DU.INCL.A:2SG.P-POT:get/handle
gamurr
middle
‘Maybe we two will meet you halfway.’
TALK yirrgbi gagba N
(27)
ngayug=biyang
1SG=SEQ
yirrgbi
tell:CONT
nga-j
1SG.S-POT:be
nu
3SG.DAT
‘Me, I will be talking to her!’
ASK FOR yanggi ganarrany
(28)
gurrany
NEG
yanggi
ask
ya-wun-garra=yinyag
IRR-2DU.A:1.P-put=1DU.EXCL.P
mangarra-wu
plant.food-DAT
‘Don't ask us two for food, you two!’
NAME bag ganima (2)
(32)
ngarrgina-bina
1SG:POSS-ALL
gujang
mother
bag
break
nga-ma
1SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
I.
I.
‘I called her I. after my mother.’
RAIN gugu gardbany N
(33)
gugu
water
ga-rda-m=biyang
3SG.S-fall-PRS=SEQ
wirlarrung-burru
lightning-PROPR
‘It is raining now (lit. 'rain falls'), with lightning.’
COUGH ngujul ganiyu N
(34)
ngujul
cough
ganu-nggu-m
3SG.A:3SG.P-say/do-PRS
‘She coughs.’
SCREAM bawa ganiyu N
(40)
bawa
shout
burru-yu=burrag
3PL.A:3SG.P-say/do.PST.PFV=3PL.DAT
‘They shouted for them.’
BUILD jardij ganima N
(42)
galigu
calico/tent
wu:ju-wuju
RDP-small
jardij-jardij
RDP-erect
yirra-ma-nyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
‘We used to erect small tents.’
BREAK bag ganima (1) R
(47)
miri
upper.leg
bag
break
burra-ma-nyi
3PL.A:3SG.P-hit-PST.IPFV
gurrubardu-ni
boomerang-ERG/INST
‘They used to break its legs with a boomerang.’
STEAL bunug ganangu
(55)
marlayi-ni
woman-ERG
chookchook=biya
chicken=SEQ
thanthu
DEM
bunug
steal
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
wanang-ngunyi=warra
where-ABL=DOUBT
‘(The woman) stole that chicken, I don't know from where.’
SEND dalag ganarrany N
(58)
ani
only/but
thanthu
DEM
guju-gujugu=malang
RDP-big=GIVEN
dalag
send
burr-arra-nyi=yirrag
3PL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV=1PL.EXCL.DAT
beg
bag
‘They only sent us those big bags (of salt).’
(59)
mali
thing
ngarrgu
1SG.DAT
dalag
send
gan-arra-ny=ngarrgu
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV=1SG.DAT
teip=nguji
tape=ETC
Nangari-ni
Nangari-ERG
‘Nangari sent my things for me, tapes and others, Nangari.’
CARRY thuruny ganuga N
(60)
thuru-thuruny
RDP-carry.under.arm
yirr-anyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-take.PST.IPFV
yag
fish
buru
return
yagbali-bina
place-ALL
‘We used to carry fish under our arms (i.e. in a cooliman / wooden carrying vessel) (back to the camp).’
TOUCH mard ganangu R
(67)
gurrany
NEG
mard
touch
ya-nth-angu
IRR-2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle
guyug-burru
fire-PROPR
ya-nth-irna
IRR-2SG.S-burn
‘Don't touch it, it is hot (lit. 'fire-having'), you might get burned!’
(68)
jalig-ni
child-ERG
mard
touch
gan-angu
3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
motika
car
‘The child touched the car.’
TAKE ganuga M
(74)
warrgayin
far
nyanying
properly
gan-uga
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.PST.PFV
gugu-giyag
water-ABL
larrman-bina
dry-ALL
‘She took it right away from the water on the dry (land).’
(204)
jalig-di
child-ERG
wirib
dog
burrarra-nja
3PL.A:3PL.S-take.PRS
malajagu-wu
goanna-DAT
‘The children take dogs for (hunting) goanna.’
TAKE birrg ganiyunggany R
(76)
gujang-ni
mother-ERG
birrg
take.away
gani-yungga-na
3SG.A:3SG.P-take.away-PST.IPFV
ba-ngarna
IMP-give
ganu-wu-ngarna
3SG.A:3SG.P-POT-give
‘Mother would take it (toy) off her, "give it to her!" and she would give it to her.’
(77)
majani
maybe
janyung-ni
other-ERG
birrg
take.away
ganiny-b-iyungga
3SG.A:2SG.P-POT-take.away
‘Maybe someone will take her (your wife) away from you.’
GET ganangu (2) R
(78)
janggagu
above
gan-arra-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-put-PST.PFV
jalig-di
child-ERG
gurrany
NEG
yan-angu
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle
‘She put it on top so the child would not get/take it.’
TIE dibird ganangu R
(182)
mununggu
string
dibird
wound.around
burr-angu
3PL.A:3SG.P-get/handle.PST.PFV
langiny
wood
thudbung-gi
short-LOC
‘They wound it (the rope) around the short stick.’
STEAL bunug ganiyunggany
(202)
majani
maybe
bunug
steal
bun-jungga-ny
3PL.A:1SG.P-rob-PST.PFV
mayi-ni
man-ERG
‘Maybe they robbed me. / Maybe someone robbed me.’
BURN garnaya N
(67)
gurrany
NEG
mard
touch
ya-nth-angu
IRR-2SG.A:3SG.P-get/handle
guyug-burru
fire-PROPR
ya-nth-irna
IRR-2SG.S-burn
‘Don't touch it, it is hot (lit. 'fire-having'), you might get burned!’
(110)
dili=biyang
bright=SEQ
ga-rna-ya
3SG.S-burn-PRS
langiny
wood
‘It is burning brightly now (i.e. with a flame), the stick.’
HUNT (FOR) lalabang gajgany N
(112)
janyju=gun
DEM=CONTR
lalabang-ngarna
hunt.kangaroo-ASSOC
mayi,
man
lalabang
hunt.kangaroo
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
yangarra-wu
kangaroo-DAT
‘That man is a kangaroo hunter. He goes kangaroo hunting, for kangaroo.’
NAME nij ganarrany N
(167)
yirrinyi
1DU.EXCL
Namij
Namij
yiny-garra-m
1DU.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
dardaga
plant.species
nij=nyanying
be.named=properly
yiny-garra-m
1DU.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
mangarra
plant.food
‘We two, Namij (and me) call it (a plant) dardaga. We call the plant by its right name.’
LEAVE ganungany R
(143)
L-ni
L.-ERG
gan-unga-ny
3SG.A:3SG.P-leave-PST.PFV
wirib
dog
‘L left the dog behind.’
(172)
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
ngiya
PROX
Murranginy
Murranginy
gurrany
NEG
Bulla
Bulla
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
waj
leave
nga-wunga-ny
1SG.A:3SG.P-leave-PST.PFV
‘I am/live here in Murranginy. I don't live in Bulla (any more), I left it.’
ROLL dididmayan gangga N
(108)
didid-mayan
roll-ITER
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
futbol
ball
‘The ball is rolling.’
SINK thawu gardbany N
(109)
thawu
immersed
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
nalija
tea
‘(The tea bag) got immersed / sank.’
BE DRY larrman gagba N
(111)
ngiya=gun
PROX=CONTR
jirrman
moist
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
ngarla
CNTRF
Port-Keats=malang
Port-Keats=GIVEN
larrman
dry
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘Here (the country) is moist, but in Port Keats it is dry.’
BE A HUNTER lalabangngarna N
(112)
janyju=gun
DEM=CONTR
lalabang-ngarna
hunt.kangaroo-ASSOC
mayi,
man
lalabang
hunt.kangaroo
ga-ngga
3SG.S-go.PRS
yangarra-wu
kangaroo-DAT
‘That man is a kangaroo hunter. He goes kangaroo hunting, for kangaroo.’
GRIND gardaj ganarrany N
(113)
gardaj=biya
grind=SEQ
yirr-arra-nyi
1PL.EXCL.A:3SG.P-put-PST.IPFV
gayayi
waterlily.seed
wagurra-ni
stone-ERG/INST
‘We used to grind waterlily seed with a stone.’
WIPE wunyu ganimangu M
(114)
wunyu
wipe
nga-mangu
1SG.A:3SG.P-hit.PST.PFV
gulban
ground
‘I wiped the ground.’
(115)
wunyu
wipe
gan-ma-m=yirrag
3SG.A:1.P-hit-PRS=1PL.EXCL.P
‘It is making us deaf. (Lit. 'it is wiping us').’
APPEAR bul garumany N
(127)
jamang
finally
bul
appear
burru-ruma-ny
3PL.S-come-PST.PFV
yinyag
1DU.EXCL.DAT
jalig
child
yag-burru
fish-PROPR
‘Finally the children appeared on us with fish.’
APPEAR bul ganimangu N
(128)
yalamburrma
saltwater.crocodile
bul
appear
yani-ma=burrag=burlu
IRR:3SG.A:3SG.P-hit=3PL.DAT=COLL1
‘A saltwater crocodile might appear on them (people in boats).’
CRY ngilijga gagba N
(129)
ngilijga
cry
burr-agba
3PL.S-be.PST.PFV
janju-nud
DEM-COLL2
jalig
child
mangarra-wu
plant.food-DAT
gujarding-gu
mother-DAT
‘Those children were crying for food (and) for their mother.’
CLIMB burduj gajgany N
(135)
burduj
go.up
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
langiny-bina
tree-ALL
jayiny
MoMo/DaCh
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
‘My grandchild climbed/went up a tree.’
SIT waga gagba N
(140)
gujarding
mother
ngarrgina
1SG:POSS
waga
sit
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
yinju
here
‘My mother is sitting here.’
SIT DOWN waga gardbany N
(141)
ga-ruma-ny
3SG.S-come-PST.PFV
yina
DIST
waga
sit
ga-rdba-ny
3SG.S-fall-PST.PFV
girrgirrlang
galah
‘He came, and sat down there (the galah).’
BOIL bud garna N
(216)
bud
cook.on.coals
ga-w-irna=ngunggu
3SG.S-POT-burn=2SG.DAT
mangarra
plant.food
‘Let it cook for you on the coals, the food.’
FEAR yarrajgu gagba N
(156)
yarrajgu
afraid
ga-yu=nu
3SG.S-be.PRS=3SG.DAT
gujarding
mother
janju
DEM
jalig-gu
child-DAT
accident-gu
accident-DAT
‘The mother is afraid for that child, (afraid) of an accident.’
BE ILL warlad gagba N
(160)
gub
come.off
ba-mili=ngarrgu
IMP-get/handle=1SG.DAT
lirrjin
tooth
warlad
sick
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘Pull my tooth out, I'm sore.’
(161)
warlad
sick
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
janyju
DEM
warladbari
old.man
ga-rda-m
3SG.S-fall-PRS
luba
big
warlad
sick
‘That old man is sick. He got/fell very ill.’
NAME ganarrany (2)
(170)
nganthan=gun
what=CONTR
thanthiya
DEM
jurlag
bird
yurr-arra-m=murlu
1PL.INCL.A:3SG.P-put-PRS=COLL
‘What do we call this bird?’
(171)
ngayug
1SG
jarning
pubic.tassle
nga-rra-m
1SG.A:3SG.P-put-PRS
thanthiya
DEM
‘I call that jarning.’
LIVE gagba N
(173)
yagbali-ni
place-LOC
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
yinju-ni
PROX-LOC
ngarrgina-ni
1SG:POSS-LOC
‘I am/live/stay here in my place.’
(174)
wamalawa
black.headed.python
wagurra-ngulung=mang
rock-PURP=SUBORD
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
‘The black-headed python (is the one that) lives on the rocks.’
(175)
gugu
water
jarlag-gi
good-LOC
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
yag
fish
‘The fish lives in freshwater.’
EAT thawaya gagba N
(176)
guruwuny
boab.tree
thawaya
eating
ga-yu
3SG.S-be.PRS
jalig
child
wuju
small
‘The small child is eating boab nut.’
JUMP dibard gajgany N
(186)
malara=biyang
frog=SEQ
dibard
jump
ga-jga-ny
3SG.S-go-PST.PFV
wang
look.in.vain
buny-bu-yu=nu
3DU.A:3SG.P-POT-say/do=3SG.DAT
‘The frog now jumped away, the two will look in vain for him.’
FEEL COLD garrijni ganangu N
(188)
marring=biya
bad=SEQ
nga-yunggu-m
1SG.S:3SG-say/do-PRS
garrij-di=gun
cold-ERG=CONTR
gan-ngangga-m
3SG.A:1SG.P-get/handle-PRS
‘I'm no good, the cold is affecting me.’
HELP helpim ganangu
(217)
mululurru
RDP:old.woman
helpim
help:TR
burrurra-mila
3PL.A:3PL.P-get/handle.PST.IPFV
mayi
man
‘The women used to help them (the men).’
COOK wirrigaja gagba N
(218)
mangarra
food
wirrigaja
cooking
nga-yu
1SG.S-be.PRS
‘I am cooking food.’