Alternations of Jakarta Indonesian

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
U
n This alternation reduces the valency of certain intransitive verbs, only the argumentless verb is left. Applies to weather verbs and the like.
(184)
Belom kering.
belom
not.yet
kering
dry
‘It's not dry yet.’
2
C
y S di-V
Indonesian allows for symmetrical passives, whereby A ACTIVE-V P alternates with P PASSIVE-V A. There is no demotion of arguments. That alternation contrast with the impersonal passive, where the agent is demoted to an optional adjunct.
(22)
Nadia dipanggil.
Nadia
Nadia
di-panggil
G.PASS-call
‘Nadia was called.’
41
C
y A V P <> P di-V A
(25)
Dompetnya dicolong dia.
dompet-nya
wallet-ASSOC
di-colong
G.PASS-steal
dia
3sg
‘The wallet was stolen (by) her.’
46
C
y A V-in P
The applicative marker serves a number of functions in the language. Most broadly, it serves to highlight or focus a non-A/S (agent, actor, experiencer) argument. In some cases, it acts to licence a transitive object, as in ex. 26 where the basic form of the verb is intranstive 'closed', and the form with the applicative yields the transitive 'close/cover s.t.'
(26)
Erni tutupin makanan.
Erni
Erni
tutup-in
close-G.APPL
makan-an
eat-NMLZ
‘Erni covered the food.’
55
C
y P di-V-in A.
(28)
Aer dituangin gue.
aer
water
di-tuang-in
G.PASS-pour-G.APPL
gue
1sg.fam
‘The water was poured out (by) me.’
54
C
y O di-V A P
(30)
Dalan dikasitahu Nadia soal FPI.
Dalan
Dalan
di-kasitahu
G.PASS-tell
Nadia
Nadia
soal
about
FPI
FPI
‘Dalan was told by Nadia about the FPI.’
6
C
y O di-V P ama A
(31)
Nadia dikasi kado ama pacarnya.
Nadia
Nadia
di-kasi
G.PASS-give
kado
gift
ama
by
pacar-nya
boy/girlfriend-ASSOC
‘Nadia was given a gift by her boyfriend.’
7
C
y P di-V-in O ama A
(34)
Motor dimasukin garasi ama satpamnya.
motor
motorbike
di-masuk-in
G.PASS-go.in-G.APPL
garasi
garage
ama
by
satpam-nya
guard-ASSOC
‘The motorbike was put in the garage by the guard.’
1
C
y O di-V-in A P
Passive of a beneficiary applicative, beneficiary is promoted.
(35)
Dalan dipotongin Mamanya mangga.
Dalan
Dalan
di-potong-in
G.PASS-cut-G.APPL
mama-nya
mother-ASSOC
mangga
mango
‘Dalan's mommy cut him some mango.’
18
U
n A V P pake I
This alternation adds an instrument argument flagged with pake to the basic frame.
(36)
Tim tutup pintu pake tongkat.
Tim
Tim
tutup
close
pintu
door
pake
INST
tongkat
stick
‘Tim closed the door with a stick.’
3
C
y A V-in P pake I
This alternation adds an instrument argument flagged with pake to the basic frame. The verb receives applicative marking.
(37)
Gue lemparin Tim pake batu.
gue
1sg.fam
lempar-in
throw-G.APPL
Tim
Tim
pake
INST
batu
stone
‘I hit Tim with stones.’
3
U
n A V P buat O
(38)
Dalan kirim surat buat mamanya.
Dalan
Dalan
kirim
send
surat
letter
buat
for
mama-nya
mother-ASSOC
‘Dalan sent a letter for his mom.’
3
C
y A V-in P buat O
(NB: for 'ajar' must be prenasalized)
(39)
Gue taroin laptopnya buat John.
gue
1sg.fam
taro-in
put-G.APPL
laptop-nya
laptop-ASSOC
buat
for
John
John
‘I put the laptop down for John.’
32
U
n A V P ke O
This alternation adds a goal argument flagged with
ke to the basic frame.
('ajar' requires prenasalization)
(7)
Gue kasi buku ke dia.
gue
1sg.fam
kasi
give
buku
book
ke
to
dia
3sg
‘I gave a book to him.’
8
C
y A V-in P ke O
This alternation adds a goal argument flagged with
ke to the basic frame. The verb receives applicative marking.
(ajar requires N)
(11)
Gue ngajarin bahasa inggris ke dia.
gue
1sg.fam
ng-ajar-in
G.ACT-teach-G.APPL
bahasa
language
inggris
English
ke
to
dia
3sg
‘I teach her English.’
10
U
n A V P dari O
This alternation adds a source argument flagged with
dari to the basic frame.
(44)
John terima laptopnya dari Bangkok.
John
John
terima
receive
laptop-nya
laptop-ASSOC
dari
from
Bangkok
Bangkok
‘John got his laptop from Bangkok.’
4
C
y A V-in P dari O
This alternation adds a source argument flagged with
dari to the basic frame. The verb recieves applicative marking.
(45)
Tim dapetin herpes dari pacarnya.
Tim
Tim
dapet-in
get-G.APPL
herpes
herpes
dari
from
pacar-nya
boy/girlfriend-ASSOC
‘Tim got herpes from his girlfriend.’
2
C
y E ke.an-V
The gloss as ke.an-V is meant to signal that the affix is properly as circumfix, and not a simultaneous prefix/suffix. Note that zero valent (46), monovalent (176) and bivalent roots (177) can all undergo this alternation.
(46)
Tim keujanan.
Tim
Tim
ke.an-ujan
ADVERS-rain
‘Tim got rained on.’
19
C
y E ke.an-V T; In this alternation the verb is marked with the circumfix ke.an. Two arguments are specified, a theme and an experiencer. The action denoted is generally negative, something that the experiencer suffers or negatively undergoes. Unlike the adversative passive, however, the theme argument is expressed in this alternation.
(12)
Gue kecolongan dompet.
gue
1sg.fam
ke.an-colong
ADVERS-steal
dompet
wallet
‘My wallet was stolen.’
10
C
y P ke-V
(47)
Tasku kebawa.
tas-ku
bag-1sg
ke-bawa
NONVOL-carry
‘My bag got carried away (accidentally).’
35
C
y O di-V-in P ama A
(50)
Dalan diajarin sastra ama Erni.
Dalan
Dalan
di-ajar-in
G.PASS-teach-G.APPL
sastra
literature
ama
by
Erni
Erni
‘Dalan was taught literature by Erni.’
29
U
n Derives an intransitive frame from transitive and ditransitive verbs.
(3)
Pintunya tutup.
pintu-nya
door-ASSOC
tutup
close
‘The door is closed.’
23
U
n A V P
Ambitransitive alternation. An object is added to intransitive verbs.
(83)
Dalan nyanyi lagu dangdut.
Dalan
Dalan
nyanyi
sing
lagu
song
dangdut
dangdut
‘Dalan sang a dangdut song.’
5
C
y A V-in O P
This alternation adds a recipient or benefactive argument.
(8)
Gue bawain dia buku.
gue
1sg.fam
bawa-in
carry-G.APPL
dia
3sg
buku
book
‘I brought her a book.’
31