piangere

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The verb piangere marginally allows a peripheral argument/adjunct to occur as a core object argument, in an applicative-like pattern, as in Anna piange la morte dell'amico, the corresponding transitive pattern of Anna piange per la morte dell’amico, where an original peripheral argument/adjunct occurs as a core object argument, although the verb morphology does not change, unlike in canonical applicative constructions (WALS, chapter 109; Peterson 2005). In addition, in the transitive use the verb acquires a different sense, 'mourn'. In its intransitive, basic pattern, the verb is unergative, therefore selecting the auxiliary 'have' in compound tenses, and lack of past participle agreement with the S argument, either overtly expressed or understood, as in the impersonal reflexive construction.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(456)
Mario pianse di gioia.
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
(451)
Anna piange per la morte dell'amico.
Anna
Anne
piang-e
cry-PRS.3SG
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mort-e
death-F.SG
de-ll'=amic-o
of-ART.DEF.M.SG=friend-M.SG
‘Anne is mourning her friend’s death.’
(452)
Anna piange la morte del suo amico.
Anna
Anne
piang-e
cry-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mort-e
death-F.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
su-o
her-M.SG
amic-o
friend-M.SG
‘Anne is mourning her friend’s death.’
(652)
Anna pianse lacrime amare.
Anna
Anne
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
lacrim-e
tear-F.PL
amar-e
hot-F.PL
‘Anne wept bitter tears.’
(653)
Anna pianse il suo amico per mesi.
Anna
Anne
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
su-o
her-M.SG
amic-o
friend-M.SG
per
for
mes-i
month-M.PL
‘Anne cried for her friend for months.’
(807)
Si piange ancora la sua morte.
si
IMP
piang-e
cry-PRS.3SG
ancora
still
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
his-F.SG
mort-e
death-F.SG
‘One still cries/We/You/They (indef.) still mourn his death.’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# CRY Coding set Argument type
1 crier V.subj S

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
N n
C
M Passive is possible only with the transitive basic coding frame. y
(453)
‘Luke is mourned by everybody.’
C
N y
C
M Passive is possible only with a transitive basic coding frame. y
(455)
‘The loss of a loved one is mourned for years.’
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
U
N n
C
R y
(454)
‘One/We/You/they (indef.) cried for days.’
(654)
‘One has cried/We/You/They (indef.) have cried for many days.’
U
R n
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(655)
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are mourned by everybody if one leaves/we/you/they leave a loving memory.’
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y