Examples of Italian

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Marco mangiò la torta.
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(2)
Marco mangia (molto).
Marco
Mark
mangi-a
eat-PRS.3SG
molto
a_lot
‘Mark eats a lot.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object Omission
(3)
Gli spaghetti furono mangiati da tutti.
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
spaghett-i
spaghetti-M.PL
fu-rono
be.PST-3PL
mangia-t-i
eat-PP-M.PL
da
by
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘The spaghetti was eaten by everyone.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(4)
Marco taglia il pane con un coltello affilato.
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(5)
Il coltello non taglia bene.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
non
NEG
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
bene
ADV
‘The knife doesn't cut well.’
CUT an Alternation:
Oblique Subject
(6)
A Mario piacciono le equazioni.
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
a+1 > V.subj[2] > 2
(7)
L'insegnante fa piacere la matematica agli studenti.
l'=insegnant-e
ART.DEF.M/F.SG=teacher-M/F.SG
fa
make.PRS.3SG
piace-re
like-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘The teacher gets the students to like Maths.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative
(8)
Il masso rotolò fino a fondovalle.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mass-o
rock-M.SG
rotol-ò
roll-PST.3SG
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-F.SG
‘The rock rolled all the way down to the bottom of the valley.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (uncoded)
(9)
Anna e Luca si sono piaciuti subito.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
piaci-ut-i
like-PP-M.PL
subito
immediately
‘Anne and Luke immediatly liked each other.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(10)
Quell'impresa costruisce in Sicilia, non nel Lazio.
quell'=impres-a
that.F.SG=firm-F.SG
costruisc-e
build-PRS.3SG
in
in
Sicilia
Sicily
non
NEG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
Lazio
Latium
‘That firm builds in Sicily, not in Latium.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Object Omission
(11)
Il pesce in Giappone viene mangiato crudo.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
in
in
Giappone
Japan
viene
be.PRS.3SG
mangia-t-o
eat-PP-M.SG
crud-o
raw-M.SG
‘Fish is eaten raw in Japan.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(12)
Il gatto si è mangiato tutto il filetto.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
mangia-t-o
eat-PP-M.SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
filett-o
fillet-M.SG
‘The cat has eaten the whole fillet.’
EAT an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(13)
Non si piaceva e perciò non si è guardata allo specchio.
non
NEG
si
REFL
piace-v-a
like-IMPF-3SG
e
and
perciò
therefore
non
NEG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
guarda-t-a
look-PP-F.SG
a-llo
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
specchi-o
mirror-M.SG
‘She didn’t like herself and that’s why she didn’t look at herself in the mirror.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(14)
La ditta ha costruito le case di legno.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (di+3)
(15)
Si costruisce prima la scala e poi il solaio.
si
REFL
costrui-sc-e
build-PRS-3SG
prima
before
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stairs-F.SG
e
and
poi
then
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
solai-o
loft-M.SG
‘First one builds/we/they (indef.) build the stairs and then the roof.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(16)
Il primo teatro venne costruito da Pompeo.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
prim-o
first-M.SG
teatr-o
theatre-M.SG
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
da
by
Pompeo
Pompeo
‘The first theatre was built by Pompeus.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Passive
(17)
I camion vanno caricati sui treni.
i
ART.DEF.M.SG
camion
camion
van-no
go.PRS-3PL
carica-t-i
load-PP-M.PL
su-i
onto-ART.DEF.M.PL
tren-i
train-M.PL
‘The trucks are to be loaded onto the trains.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Passive
(18)
I venditori caricano la loro macchina di giornali e libri.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load.PRS-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
di
of
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
libr-i
book-M.PL
‘The sellers load newspapers and books onto their car.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative Alternation
(19)
Le valigie sono state caricate dai facchini sul treno.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
stat-e
be.PP-F.PL
carica-t-e
load-PP-F.PL
da-i
by-M.PL
facchin-i
porter-M.PL
su-l
onto-ART.DEF.M.SG
tren-o
train-M.SG
‘The suitcases have been loaded onto the train by the porters.’
LOAD the Verb form caricare
(20)
Generalmente si caric-a la macchina la sera prima della partenza.
general-mente
general-ADV
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
night-F.SG
prima
before
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
partenz-a
leaving-F.SG
‘Usually, one loads/we/they (indef.) load the car the night before leaving / Generally cars are loaded the night before leaving.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(21)
I venditori caricano i giornali e i libri sulla loro macchina.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (su+3)
(22)
Abramo si caricò di un po' di legna.
Abramo
Abraham
si
REFL
caric-ò
load-PST.3SG
di
of
un
ART.INDF.M
po'
some
di
of
legn-a
wood-F.SG
‘Abraham loaded himself up with some wood.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(23)
Il luogo si carica di significati simbolici.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
luog-o
place-M.SG
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
di
of
significat-i
meaning-M.PL
simbolic-i
symbolic-M.PL
‘The place is being pervaded by symbolic meanings.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(24)
Ci si abbraccia frequentemente in pubblico.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
in
in
pubblico
public
‘We/They (indef.) often hug each other in public.’
HUG an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(25)
Il treno è stato caricato di valigie dai facchini.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tren-o
train-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
carica-t-o
load-PP-M.SG
di
of
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
facchin-i
porter-M.PL.
‘The train has been loaded with suitcases by the porters.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Passive
(26)
La torta è stata tagliata dagli sposi.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-a
be.PP-F.SG
taglia-t-a
cut-PP-F.SG
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
spos-i
married-M.PL
‘The cake has been cut by the bride and the bridegroom.’
CUT an Alternation:
Passive
(27)
Il pesce in Giappone si mangia crudo.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
in
in
Giappone
Japan
si
REFL
mangi-a
eat-PRS.3SG
crud-o
raw-M.SG
‘Fish in Japan is eaten raw.’
EAT an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(28)
Ero pronto a rotolare fusti d'olio.
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(29)
Ci si bruciò.
ci
OBL.1PL
si
REFL
bruci-ò
burn-PST.3SG
‘We got burnt.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(30)
Una grossa pietra è rotolata fino a fondovalle.
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
gross-a
big-F.SG
pietr-a
stone-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
rotola-t-a
roll-PP-F.SG
fino
till
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-M.SG
‘A big stone rolled all the way down to the bottom of the valley.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (uncoded)
(31)
Una grossa pietra ha rotolato nel bosco.
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
gross-a
big-F.SG
pietr-a
rock-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
rotola-t-o
roll-PP-M.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
bosc-o
wood-M.SG
‘A big rock has rolled in the wood.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (uncoded)
(32)
Ci si vede spesso d'estate.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
d'=estat-e
of=summer-F.SG
‘We often meet each other in the summer.’
SEE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(33)
Non vedo bene di notte.
non
NEG
ved-o
see-PRS.1SG
bene
well
di
by
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘I don't see well at night.’
SEE an Alternation:
Object Omission
(34)
Ho visto quelle pagine.
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(35)
Stasera la luna si vede chiaramente.
stasera
tonight
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
lun-a
moon-F.SG
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
chiara-mente
clear-ADV
‘Tonight the Moon can be seen clearly.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(36)
Si vede chiaramente che la sinistra ha molti problemi.
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
chiara-mente
clear-ADV
che
COMPL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
sinistr-a
left-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
problem-i
problem-M.PL
‘One/We/They (indef.) can clearly see that the left wing party has a lot of problems.’
SEE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(37)
Il progresso non è visto come uno strumento per migliorare la qualità della vita.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
progress-o
progress-M.SG
non
NEG
è
be.PRS.3SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
come
as
un-o
ART.INDF-M.SG
strument-o
instrument-M.SG
per
for
migliora-re
improve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
qualità
quality.F.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘Progress is not seen as a means of improving the quality of life.’
SEE an Alternation:
Passive
(38)
Si gioca a carte tutta la notte.
si
REFL
gioc-a
play-PRS.3SG
a
to
cart-e
card-F.PL
tutt-a
all-F.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘One plays cards/We/They (indef.) play cards all night.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(39)
Il lavoratore italiano viene visto il più delle volte come un peso.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lavorator-e
worker-M.SG
italian-o
italian-M.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
più
more
de-lle
of-ART.DEF.F.PL
volt-e
time-F.PL
come
as
un
ART.INDF.M
pes-o
burden-M.SG
‘Italian workers are seen as a burden most of the time.’
SEE an Alternation:
Passive
(40)
I fiaschi non ci spaventano.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
fiasch-i
failure-M.PL
non
NEG
ci
OBJ.1PL
spaventa-no
frighten.PRS-3PL
‘Fiascos don't frighten us.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form spaventare
(41)
Mario spaventa per la sua magrezza.
Mario
Mario
spavent-a
frighten-PRS.3SG
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
his-F.SG
magrezz-a
skinniness-F.SG
‘Mario frightens everybody because of his skinniness.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Object Omission
(42)
Gregorio si è spaventato della sua ombra.
Gregorio
Gregory
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
his-F.SG
ombr-a
shadow-F.SG
‘Gregory was frightened of his shadow.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(43)
Il professore è spaventato da questo grido di allarme.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
professor-e
professor-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
da
by
quest-o
this-M.SG
grid-o
cry-M.SG
di
of
allarm-e
alarm-M.SG
‘The professor is frightened by this cry of alarm.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Passive
(44)
Mario ha spaventato Laura di proposito.
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(45)
Quei due si spaventano intenzionalmente ogni volta che ne hanno l'occasione.
que-i
that-M.PL
due
two
si
REFL
spaventa-no
frighten.PRS-3PL
intenzional-mente
on.purpose-ADV
ogni
every
volt-a
time-F.SG
che
COMPL
ne
of
hanno
have.PRS.3PL
l'
ART.DEF.M.SG
occasion-e
chance-F.SG
‘Those two (men) frighten each other whenever they get the chance.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(46)
Mario fece spaventare i ragazzi da Luca.
Mario
Mario
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
spaventa-re
frighten-INF
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ragazz-i
boy-M.PL
da
by
Luca
Luke
‘Mario made Luke frighten the boys.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form spaventare
(47)
La carne bruciò in pochi minuti.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
bruci-ò
burn-PST.3SG
in
in
poch-i
few-M.PL
minut-i
minute-M.PL
‘The meat burnt in a few minutes.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (uncoded)
(48)
La carne si bruciò in pochi minuti.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
si
REFL
bruci-ò
burn-PST.3SG
in
in
poch-i
few-M.PL
minut-i
minute-M.PL
‘The meat burnt in a few minutes.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(49)
I rifiuti si bruciano in questo capannone.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
rifiut-i
rubbish-M.PL
si
REFL
brucia-no
burn-PRS.3PL
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
capannon-e
shed-M.SG
‘Rubbish is burnt in this shed.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(50)
Tu bruciavi tutta quella cartaccia.
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(51)
Durante il matrimonio viene bruciato incenso.
durante
during
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
incens-o
incense-M.SG
‘Incense is usually burnt during the wedding.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(52)
Il cassonetto è stato bruciato dai manifestanti.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
cassonett-o
bin-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
manifestant-i
demonstrator-M.PL
‘The bin was burnt by the demonstrators.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(53)
Si bruciano troppi rifiuti.
si
REFL
brucia-no
burn.PRS-3PL
tropp-i
too_much-M.PL
rifiut-i
rubbish-M.PL
‘Too much rubbish is burnt/One burns/We/They (indef.) burn too much rubbish.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(54)
Qui si brucia dal caldo.
qui
here
si
REFL
bruci-a
burn-PRS.3SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
cald-o
hot-M.SG
‘One burns /We/You/They (indef.) burn because of the heat.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(55)
Il capitano ha affondato la nave con le cannonate.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
SINK (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(56)
La nave è affondata.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-a
sink-PP-F.SG
‘The ship has sunk.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Anticausative (uncoded)
(57)
Si affonda il piede sull'acceleratore troppo facilmente.
si
REFL
affond-a
sink-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pied-e
foot-M.SG
sull'accelerator-e
accelerator-M.SG
troppo
too
facil-mente
easy-ADV
‘One puts one’s foot /We/You/They (indef.) put our/your/their foot down on the accelerator all too easily.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(58)
Una tempesta fa affondare la nave.
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
tempest-a
storm-F.SG
fa
make.PRS.3SG
affonda-re
sink-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
‘A storm is sinking the ship.’
SINK (tr) the Verb form affondare
(59)
Ha ucciso ripetutamente, ecco perché è in carcere.
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
ripetuta-mente
repeated-ADV
ecco
here_is
perché
why
è
be.PRS.3SG
in
in
carcer-e
prison-M.SG
‘He has killed repeatedly, that’s why he’s in prison.’
KILL an Alternation:
Object Omission
(60)
Il fumo uccide.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
fum-o
smoke-M.SG
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
‘Smoking kills.’
KILL an Alternation:
Object Omission
(61)
Ai nostri giorni si uccide per futili motivi.
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
giorn-i
day-M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
si
REFL
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
per
for
futil-i
trivial-M.PL
motiv-i
reason-M.PL
‘Nowadays one kills/we/they (indef.) kill for futile reasons.’
KILL an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(62)
I due testimoni saranno uccisi.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
testimon-i
witness-M.PL
sar-anno
be.FUT-3PL
uccis-i
kill.PP-M.PL
‘The two witnesses will be killed.’
KILL an Alternation:
Passive
(63)
La giovane si è uccisa.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
giovan-e
young-F.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
uccis-a
kill.PP-F.SG
‘The young lady killed herself.’
KILL an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(64)
L'uomo ha ucciso la vittima con una pistola.
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(65)
Giochiamo a carte la domenica.
gioch-iamo
play-PRS.1PL
a
to
cart-e
card-F.PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
domenic-a
sunday-F.SG
‘We play cards on Sunday.’
PLAY the Verb form giocare
(66)
L'omicida ha assassinato la vittima con una corda.
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’
ASSASSINATE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(67)
L'automobilista ha ucciso il gatto involontariamente.
l'=automobilist-a
ART.DEF.M.SG=driver-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
in-volontaria-mente
not-deliberate-ADV
‘The driver killed the cat accidentally.’
KILL the Verb form uccidere
(68)
L'uomo ha fatto assassinare il suo nemico da un sicario.
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
assassina-re
kill-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
su-o
his-M.SG
nemic-o
enemy-M.SG
da
by
un
ART.INDF.M
sicari-o
killer-M.SG
‘The man had his enemy murdered by an assassin.’
ASSASSINATE the Verb form assassinare
(69)
L'uomo ha fatto uccidere il suo nemico da un sicario.
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
uccide-re
kill-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
su-o
his-M.SG
nemic-o
enemy-M.SG
da
by
un
ART.INDF.M
sicari-o
killer-M.SG
‘The man had his enemy killed by an assassin.’
KILL the Verb form uccidere
(70)
Il giornalista è stato assassinato da due individui.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giornalist-a
journalist-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
da
by
due
two
individu-i
guy-M.PL
‘The journalist was murdered by two unidentified men.’
ASSASSINATE an Alternation:
Passive
(71)
Il bicchiere si ruppe subito.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
si
REFL
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
subito
immediately
‘The glass broke immediately.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(72)
Il mio rapporto di fiducia si è rotto.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mi-o
my-M.SG
rapport-o
relationship-M.SG
di
of
fiduci-a
trust-F.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
rott-o
break.PP-M.SG
‘My trust is ruined.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(73)
Il vaso si ruppe.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vas-o
pot-M.SG
si
REFL
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
‘The pot broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(74)
Mario ruppe il bicchiere con il pallone.
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(75)
Ci si rompe un polso sciando.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
romp-e
break-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
pols-o
wrist-M.SG
scia-ndo
sky-PROG
‘One breaks/We/You/They (indef.) break one’s/our/your/their wrist skiing.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(76)
I bambini si ruppero reciprocamente le matite.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
rupp-ero
break.PST-3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
matit-e
pencil-F.PL
‘The children broke each other’s pencils.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(77)
Il sigillo della vostra scatola è stato rotto.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
sigill-o
seal-M.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
vostr-a
your-F.SG
scatol-a
box-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
rott-o
break.PP-M.SG
‘The seal of your box has been broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Passive
(78)
Ci si ruppe reciprocamente le matite.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
matit-e
pencil-F.PL
‘We broke each other's pencils.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(79)
L'uovo di Pasqua si rompe così.
l'=uov-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=egg-M.SG
di
of
Pasqua
Easter
si
REFL
romp-e
break-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The Easter egg is broken like this.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(80)
Maria si è rotta un polso sciando.
Maria
Mary
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
rott-a
break.PP-F.SG
un
ART.INDF.M
pols-o
wrist-M.SG
scia-ndo
ski-PROG
‘Mary broke her wrist skiing.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(81)
Il bambino viene abbracciato dai genitori.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
abbraccia-t-o
hug-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
his-M.PL
genitor-i
parent-M.PL
‘The baby is hugged by his parents.’
HUG an Alternation:
Passive
(82)
Il Re piemontese teme la potenza austriaca.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(83)
La vecchiaia si teme senza motivo.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vecchiai-a
old_age-F.SG
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘Old age is feared without any reason.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(84)
Per alcune ore si è temuto il peggio sulla sorte di Simone.
per
for
alcun-e
some-F.PL
or-e
hour-F.PL
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
peggio
worse
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
sort-e
fate-F.SG
di
of
Simone
Simon
‘For some hours one feared /we/they (indef.) feared the worst for Simon’s fate.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(85)
Il generale è temuto dai suoi soldati.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
general-e
general-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
his-M.PL
soldat-i
soldier-M.PL
‘The general is feared by his troops.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(86)
La discussione è trascesa e si è temuto che potesse degenerare.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
discussion-e
discussion-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
trasces-a
go_out_of_hand.PP-F.SG
e
and
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
che
COMPL
potess-e
can.SBJV.PST-3SG
degenera-re
degenerate-INF
‘The discussion got out of hand and one/we/ they (indef.)/feared/it was feared that it could degenerate.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(87)
Si teme da parte del partito la candidatura di Marco.
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
da
from
part-e
part-F.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
partit-o
party-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
candidatur-a
candidacy-F.SG
di
of
Marco
Mark
‘The party fears Mark's candidacy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(88)
La partita Napoli-Roma si gioca oggi.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
partit-a
match-F.SG
Napoli-Roma
Naples-Rome
si
REFL
gioc-a
play-PRS.3SG
oggi
today
‘The Naples-Rome match is being played today.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(89)
Giocammo una partita e segnai quattro gol.
gioca-mmo
play-PST.1PL
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
partit-a
match-F.SG
e
and
segna-i
score-PST.1SG
quattro
four
gol
goal
‘We played a match and I scored four goals.’
PLAY the Verb form giocare
(90)
I nostri bambini giocano con i coetanei.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 V.subj[1] (con+2)
(91)
Mi guardo un film stasera.
mi
DAT.1SG
guard-o
look-PRS.1SG
un
ART.INDF.M
film
film
stasera
this_evening
‘I'm going to watch a film this evening.’
LOOK AT the Verb form guardare
(92)
La partita è stata giocata nonostante la pioggi-a.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
partit-a
match-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-a
be.PP-F.SG
gioca-t-a
play-PP-F.SG
nonostante
despite
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pioggi-a
rain-F.SG
‘The match was played despite the rain.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Passive
(93)
Il cane odora il padrone.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(94)
Marco abbraccia Laura.
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(95)
Marco e Laura si abbracciano ogni volta che si incontrano.
Marco
Mark
e
and
Laura
Laura
si
REFL
abbraccia-no
hug-PRS.3PL
ogni
every
volt-a
time-F.SG
che
COMPL
si
REFL
incontra-no
meet-PRS.3PL
‘Mark and Laura hug each other every time they meet.’
HUG an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(96)
Marco si abbracciò a Laura.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
abbracci-ò
hug-PST.3SG
a
to
Laura
Laura
‘Mark hugged himself to Laura.’
HUG an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(97)
Le lenzuola odorano di lavanda.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
lenzuol-a
sheets-F.PL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
di
of
lavand-a
lavander-F.SG
‘The sheets smell of lavander.’
SMELL the Verb form odorare
(98)
Anna si odora sempre le mani dopo aver cucinato.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
man-i
hand-F.PL
dopo
after
ave-r
have-INF
cucina-t-o
cook-PP-M.SG
‘Anne always smells her hands after cooking.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(99)
Marco guardava le stelle dal balcone.
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(100)
Le sostanze tossiche non vanno odorate.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
tossich-e
toxic-F.PL
non
NEG
va-nno
go.PRS-3PL
odora-t-e
smell-PP-F.PL
‘Toxic substances must not be smelled.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Passive
(101)
Si guardavano con odio.
si
REFL
guarda-va-no
look-IMPF-3PL
con
with
odi-o
hatred-M.SG
‘They looked at each other with hatred.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(102)
Marco si conosce fin troppo bene.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
fin
even
troppo
too
bene
well
‘Mark knows himself all too well.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(103)
Ci si guarda con astio senza motivo.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
guard-a
look-PRS.3SG
con
with
asti-o
rancour-M.SG
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘We/You/They (indef.) look at each other with resentment, without reason.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(104)
L'humus si guarda al microscopio.
l'=humus
ART.DEF.M.SG=humus
si
REFL
guard-a
look-PRS.3SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
microscopi-o
microscope-M.SG
‘Humus is seen through a microscope.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(105)
Marco guardava e non parlava.
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-3SG
e
and
non
NEG
parla-v-a
speak-IMPF-1SG
‘Mark was looking and he didn’t speak.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Object Omission
(106)
Ci si mangia un dolce a colazione.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
mangi-a
eat-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
dolc-e
cake-M.SG
a
to
colazion-e
breakfast-F.SG
‘One eats/We/You/They (indef.) eat a cake for breakfast.’
EAT an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(107)
Si conoscono innumerevoli elementi chimici.
si
REFL
conosc-ono
know.PRS-3PL
innumerevol-i
many-M.PL
element-i
element-M.PL
chimic-i
chemical-M.PL
‘One knows/We/You/They (indef.) know numerous chemical elements.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(108)
Marco e Giovanni si conoscono da una vita.
Marco
Mark
e
and
Giovanni
John
si
REFL
conosco-no
know-PRS.3PL
da
from
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘Mark and John have known each other for ages.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(109)
Il pesce non va mangiato crudo.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
non
NEG
va
go.PRS.3SG
mangia-t-o
eat-PP-M.SG
crudo
raw
‘Fish is not to be eaten raw.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive
(110)
Ci si odora sempre le mani dopo aver cucinato.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
man-i
hand-F.PL
dopo
after
ave-r
have-INF
cucina-t-o
cook-PP-M.SG
‘One always smells one's hands/We/You/They (indef.) always smell our/your/their hands after cooking.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(111)
Marco si è tagliato involontariamente il dito con i vetri.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
taglia-t-o
cut-PP-M.SG
in-volontaria-mente
not-willing-ADV
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dit-o
finger-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
vetr-i
glass-M.PL
‘Mark cut his finger by accident with the glass.’
CUT an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(112)
La carta si taglia facilmente.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cart-a
paper-F.SG
si
REFL
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
facil-mente
easy-ADV
‘Paper is easily cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(113)
La corda si tagliò in quel punto.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
si
REFL
tagli-ò
cut-PST.3SG
in
in
quel
that.M.SG
punt-o
point-M.SG
‘The rope cut in that point.’
CUT an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(114)
Si tagliò la corda per liberare il cane.
si
REFL
tagli-ò
cut-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
per
to
libera-re
free-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) cut the rope to set the dog free.’
CUT an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(115)
Si mangiò il dolce e poi si uscì.
si
REFL
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dolc-e
cake-M.SG
e
and
poi
then
si
REFL
usc-ì
go_out-PST.3SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) ate the cake and then went out.’
EAT an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(116)
La scala va costruita così.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stair-F.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-a
build-PP-F.SG
così
this_way
‘The stairs are to be built in this way.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Passive
(117)
La scala si costruisce facilmente in questo modo.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stair-F.SG
si
REFL
costruisc-e
build-PRS.3SG
facil-mente
easy-ADV
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
mod-o
way-M.SG
‘The stairs are built easily in this way.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(118)
Marco ha finito di caricare.
Marco
Mark
ha
have.PRS.3SG
fini-t-o
finish-PP-M.SG
di
of
carica-re
load-INF
‘Mark has finished loading.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Object Omission
(119)
Generalmente la macchina si carica la sera prima della partenza.
general-mente
general-ADV
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
night-F.SG
prima
before
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
partenz-a
leaving-F.SG
‘Usually the car is loaded the night before leaving.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(120)
Alcuni bambini si sono rotolati per terra.
alcun-i
some-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
rotola-t-i
roll-PP-M.PL
per
through
terr-a
ground-F.SG
‘Some children have rolled on the ground.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(121)
Ieri sera si vedeva la luna.
ieri
yesterday
ser-a
evening-F.SG
si
REFL
vede-v-a
see-IMPF-1SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
lun-a
moon-F.SG
‘Yesterday evening one/we/you/ they(indef.) could see the moon.’
SEE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(122)
Il professore si è spaventato per questo grido di allarme.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
professor-e
professor-M.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
per
for
quest-o
this-M.SG
grid-o
cry-M.SG
di
of
allarm-e
alarm-M.SG
‘The professor was frightened by this cry of alarm.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(123)
Ci si spaventa facilmente.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
spavent-a
frighten-PRS.3SG
facil-mente
easy-ADV
‘One gets easily frightened./We/They (indef.) get easily frightened.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(124)
Si spaventò la folla con un falso allarme.
si
REFL
spavent-ò
frighten-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
fals-o
false-M.SG
allarm-e
alarm-M.SG
‘One/They (indef.)/We frightened the crowd with a false alarm.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(125)
Mario si bruciò.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
bruci-ò
burn-PST.3SG
‘Mario burnt himself.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(126)
Quella pistol-a ha ucciso più volte.
quell-a
that-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
più
more
volt-e
time-F.PL
‘That gun has killed several times.’
KILL an Alternation:
Oblique Subject
(127)
Si sono uccisi degli innocenti.
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
uccis-i
kill.PP-M.PL
de-gli
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
innocent-i
innocent-M.PL
‘One has killed/We/They (indef.) have killed innocent people.’
KILL an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(128)
Ci si uccide per la disperazione.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
disperazion-e
despair-F.SG
‘One kills oneself/We/You/They (indef.) kill ourselves/yourself/themselves out of despair.’
KILL an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(129)
Si assassinò il giornalista.
si
REFL
assassin-ò
kill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giornalist-a
journalist-M.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) murdered the journalist.’
ASSASSINATE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(130)
Si assassinavano reciprocamente.
si
REFL
assassina-va-no
kill-IMPF-3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
‘They murdered each other.’
ASSASSINATE an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(131)
Si teme la vecchiaia senza motivo.
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vecchiai-a
old_age-F.SG
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘One fears/We/You/They (indef.) fear old age for no reason.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(132)
Mario si teme.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
‘Mario fears himself.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(133)
Ci si teme a ragione.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
a
to
ragion-e
reason-F.SG
‘One fears himself/You fear yourself/We fear ourselves/They fear themselves with good reason/We/You/They fear each other with good reason.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(134)
Anna e Luca si temono reciprocamente.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
temo-no
fear-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
‘Anne and Luke fear each other.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(135)
Mario si vede brutto.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
brutt-o
ugly-M.SG
‘Mario sees himself as ugly.’
SEE an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(136)
Ci si vede brutti.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
brutt-i
ugly-M.PL
‘One sees oneself/You/We/They (indef.) see yourself/ourselves/themselves as ugly.’
SEE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(137)
Mario si vide un bel film da solo.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
vid-e
see.PST-3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
bel
beautiful.M.SG
film
film
da
by
sol-o
alone-M.SG
‘Mario saw a beautiful film on his own.’
SEE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(138)
Anna e Luca si vedono dalla finestra.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
vedo-no
see-PRS.3PL
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
finestr-a
window-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke can see each other from their windows.’
SEE an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(139)
Alcune sostanze che stordiscono vengono odorate per alleviare la fame.
alcun-e
some-F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
odora-t-e
smell-PP-F.PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Some numbing substances are sniffed to relieve hunger.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Passive
(140)
La folla si spaventa in questo modo.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
si
REFL
spavent-a
frighten-PRS.3SG
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
mod-o
way-M.SG
‘The crowd is frightened in this way.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(141)
Ci si piace.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
piac-e
like-PRS.3SG
‘One likes oneself/You like yourself/We like ourselves/They (indef.) like themselves.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(142)
Ci si costruisce una casa al mare.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
costrui-sc-e
build-PRS-3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cas-a
house-F.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mar-e
sea-M.SG
‘One builds oneself / We/They (indef.) build ourselves/yourselves/themselves a seaside house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(143)
Marco si è costruito una casa al mare.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cas-a
house-F.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mar-e
sea-M.SG
‘Mark has built a seaside house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(144)
Si ruppe l'uovo di Pasqua per vedere la sorpresa.
si
REFL
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
l'=uov-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=egg-M.SG
di
of
Pasqua
Easter
per
to
vede-re
see-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
sorpres-a
surprise-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) broke the Easter egg to see the surprise.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(145)
Nel duello, i due nemici si uccisero.
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
duell-o
fight-M.SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
nemic-i
enemy-M.PL
si
REFL
uccise-ro
kill.PST-3PL
‘The two enemies killed each other in the duel.’
KILL an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(146)
Le sostanze che stordiscono si odorano per alleviare la fame.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
si
REFL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Numbing substances are smelled to relieve hunger.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(147)
La quagli-a si uccid-e così.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
quagli-a
quail-F.SG
si
REFL
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘Quail are killed in this way.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(148)
Anna si tagliò il dito per non suonare il pianoforte.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
tagli-ò
cut-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dit-o
finger-M.SG
per
to
non
NEG
suona-re
play-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pianofort-e
piano-M.SG
‘Anne cut her finger so as not to play the piano.’
CUT an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(149)
Ci si taglia il dito.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dit-o
finger-M.SG
‘One cuts one's finger/We cut our finger/They (indef.) cut their finger.’
CUT an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(150)
Anna e Luca si sono tagliati reciprocamente i capelli.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
taglia-t-i
cut-PP-M.PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke cut each other’s hair.’
CUT an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(151)
Ci si carica di legna per l'inverno.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
di
of
legn-a
wood-F.SG
per
for
l'=invern-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=winter-M.SG
‘One loads himself/We load ourselves/They (indef.) load themselves with wood for the winter.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(152)
Mario si è caricato la macchina.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
carica-t-o
load-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘Mario loaded his car.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(153)
Ci si rotola per terra.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
rotol-a
roll-PRS.3SG
per
through
terr-a
ground-F.SG
‘One rolls/We/You/They (indef.) roll on the floor.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(154)
Si rotolò il masso fino a fondovalle.
si
REFL
rotol-ò
roll-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mass-o
stone-M.SG
fino
till
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) rolled the stone all the way down to the bottom of the valley.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(155)
I fusti d'olio furono rotolati a fondovalle.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'=oli-o
of=oil-M.SG
fu-rono
be.PST-3PL
rotola-t-i
roll-PP-M.PL
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-F.SG
‘The oil barrels were rolled to the bottom of the valley.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Passive
(156)
Il tappeto si rotola così.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tappet-o
carpet-M.SG
si
REFL
rotol-a
roll-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The carpet is rolled in this way.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(157)
La nave si affonda così.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
si
REFL
affond-a
sink-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The ship is sunk in this way.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(158)
Mi brucio questa legna per riscaldarmi.
mi
OBL.1SG
bruci-o
burn-PRS.1SG
quest-a
this-F.SG
legn-a
wood-F.SG
per
for
riscalda-r-mi
warm-INF-OBJ.1SG
‘I’m burning this wood to warm myself up.’
BURN (tr) the Verb form bruciare
(159)
La legna si brucia così.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
legn-a
wood-F.SG
si
REFL
bruci-a
burn-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘Wood is burnt in this way.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(160)
Si odorano sostanze che stordiscono per alleviare la fame.
si
REFL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘One smells/We/You/They (indef.) smell numbing substances to relieve hunger.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(161)
Marco conosce molti segreti.
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(162)
Gli amici più cari si conoscono nell'infanzia.
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
più
most
car-i
dear-M.PL
si
REFL
conosco-no
know-PRS.3PL
ne-ll'=infanzi-a
in-ART.DEF.F.SG=childhood-F.SG
‘Dearest friends are met in childhood.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(163)
Ci si conosce sempre meglio col tempo.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
conosc-e
know-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
meglio
better
co-l
with-ART.DEF.M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘One knows oneself/You know yourself/We know ourselves/They (indef.) know themselves better and better with time.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(164)
La situazione è ben conosciuta da tutti in paese.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
situazion-e
situation-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
ben
well
conosciut-a
know.PP-F.SG
da
by
tutt-i
everybody-M.PL
in
in
paes-e
village-M.SG
‘The situation is well-known by everyone in the village.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Passive
(165)
Mario ha pensato un piano di attacco.
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
pensa-t-o
think-PP-M.SG
un
ART.INDF.M
pian-o
plan-M.SG
di
of
attacc-o
attack-M.SG
‘Mario has thought up a plan of attack.’
THINK the Verb form pensare
(166)
Mario ha pensato a un piano di attacco.
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
pensa-t-o
think-PP-M.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
pian-o
plan-M.SG
di
of
attacc-o
attack-M.SG
‘Mario has thought up a plan of attack.’
THINK an Alternation:
Conative
(167)
Il piano d'attacco fu pensato dai congiurati di notte.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pian-o
plan-M.SG
d'=attacc-o
of=attack-M.SG
fu
be.PST.3SG
pensa-t-o
think-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
congiurat-i
conspirator-M.PL
di
of
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘The plan of attack was thought up by the night-time conspirators.’
THINK an Alternation:
Passive
(168)
Anna e Luca si pensano spesso.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
pensa-no
think-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
‘Anne and Luke often think of each other.’
THINK an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(169)
Ci siamo cercati per ore senza incontrarci.
ci
IMP
siamo
be.PRS.1PL
cerca-t-i
search-PP-M.PL
per
for
or-e
hour-F.PL
senza
without
incontra-r-ci
meet-INF-OBJ.1PL
‘We looked for each other for hours without meeting.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(170)
Anna cerca un documento importante.
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(171)
Mi devo cercare un avvocato.
mi
DAT.1SG
dev-o
must-PRS.1SG
cerca-re
search-INF
un
ART.INDF.M
avvocat-o
lawyer-M.SG
‘I must look for a lawyer.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form cercare
(172)
Si cercano i capi in saldo.
si
REFL
cerca-no
search-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cap-i
article_of_clothing-M.PL
in
in
sald-o
sale-M.SG
‘One is looking for /We/You/They (indef.) are looking for clothes on sale.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(173)
I capi in saldo si cercano dopo Natale.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cap-i
article_of_clothing-M.PL
in
in
sald-o
sale-M.SG
si
REFL
cerca-no
search-PRS.3PL
dopo
after
Natale
Christmas
‘Clothes on sale must be looked for after Christmas.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(174)
Ci si cercava da ore.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
cerca-v-a
search-IMPF-3SG
da
from
or-e
hour-F.PL
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) had been looking for each other for hours.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(175)
La verità viene cercata con umiltà dai saggi.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
cerca-t-a
search-PP-F.SG
con
with
umiltà
humility.F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
sagg-i
wise-M.PL
‘Wise men search for truth with humility (lit. truth is searched for with humility by wise men).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(176)
La verità è stata cercata dai familiari per anni.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-a
be.PP-F.SG
cerca-t-a
search-PP-F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
familiar-i
relative-M.PL
per
for
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘The truth has been searched for by the relatives for years.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(177)
Alla festa molte signore vestivano l'abito lungo.
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
fest-a
party-F.SG
molt-e
many-F.PL
signor-e
lady-F.PL
vesti-va-no
dress-IMPF-3PL
l'=abit-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=clothes-M.SG
lung-o
long-M.SG
‘A lot of ladies wore gowns to the party.’
DRESS the Verb form vestire
(178)
Anna veste sempre in modo originale.
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
in
in
mod-o
way-M.SG
original-e
extravagant-M.SG
‘Anne always dresses in an original way.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Object Omission
(179)
Il barbiere sta radendo la barba a un cliente.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(180)
Marco si rade la barba tre volte la settimana.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
rad-e
shave-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
tre
three
volt-e
time-F.PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
settiman-a
week-F.SG
‘Mark shaves his beard three times a week.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(181)
Luca si rade ogni mattina.
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
rad-e
shave-PRS.3SG
ogni
every
mattin-a
morning-F.SG
‘Luke shaves every morning.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(182)
Ci si rade ogni mattina.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
rad-e
shave-PRS.3SG
ogni
every
mattin-a
morning-F.SG
‘One shaves /We/You/They (indef.) shave every morning.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(183)
Il mio barbiere rade con molta accortezza.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mi-o
my-M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
rad-e
shave-PRS.3SG
con
with
molt-a
a_lot-F.SG
accortezz-a
care-F.SG
‘My barber shaves clients with great care.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Object Omission
(184)
Quel farmaco aiuta la digestione.
quel
that.M.SG
farmac-o
medicine-M.SG
aiut-a
help-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
digestion-e
digestion-F.SG
‘That drug favours digestion.’
HELP the Verb form aiutare
(185)
Marco si aiutò con una corda per arrampicarsi.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
per
to
arrampica-r-si
climb-INF-REFL
‘Mark used a rope to help himself to climb.’
HELP an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(186)
I turisti seguivano la guida nel museo.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(187)
La nave segue la rotta.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
segu-e
follow-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
rott-a
course-F.SG
‘The ship follows its course.’
FOLLOW the Verb form seguire
(188)
Si segue la rotta prestabilita senza variazioni.
si
REFL
segu-e
follow-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
rott-a
navigation_course-F.SG
prestabilit-a
predetermined-F.SG
senza
without
variazion-i
variation-F.PL
‘One follows/We/You/They (indef.) follow the pre-established route without variations.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(189)
Anna si è incontrata ieri con quel suo vecchio amico.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
incontra-t-a
meet-PP-F.SG
ieri
yesterday
con
with
quel
that.M.SG
su-o
her-M.SG
vecchi-o
old-M.SG
amic-o
friend-M.SG
‘Yesterday Anne met that old friend of hers.’
MEET an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(190)
In questo periodo ci si incontra sempre meno.
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
period-o
period-M.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
incontr-a
meet-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
meno
less
‘We meet less and less in this period.’
MEET an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(191)
Si parlarono senza giungere ad un accordo.
si
REFL
parla-rono
talk-PST.3PL
senza
without
giunge-re
come-INF
ad
to
un
ART.INDF.M
accord-o
agreement-M.SG
‘They talked without coming to an agreement.’
TALK an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(192)
Anna chiese i soldi a Luca.
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(193)
Anna e Luca si chiedevano fedeltà reciproca.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
chiede-va-no
ask-IMPF-3PL
fedeltà
faithfulness.F.SG
reciproc-a
mutual-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke asked for mutual faithfulness of each other.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(194)
A Mario vengono chiesti i documenti dai poliziotti.
a
to
Mario
Mario
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
chiest-i
ask.PP-M.PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
document-i
paper-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
poliziott-i
policeman-M.PL
‘Mario is asked for his identity papers by the policemen.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Passive
(195)
Anna sgrida spesso suo figlio.
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(196)
Marco è/viene sgridato spesso.
Marco
Mark
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
sgrida-t-o
shout_at-PP-M.SG
spesso
often
‘Mark is often scolded.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Passive
(197)
I bambini spesso si sgridano a malincuore.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
spesso
often
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
a_malincuore
reluctantly
‘Children are often scolded with reluctance.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(198)
Si sgridano di più i bambini durante le feste.
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
di
of
più
more
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
durante
during
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
fest-e
holiday-F.PL
‘One shouts more at one’s children. /We shout more at our children/You shout more at your children/They shout more at their children during the holidays.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(199)
Anna e Luca si sgridano a vicenda per il disordine.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
per
for
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
disordin-e
mess-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke are shouting at each other because of the disorder.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(200)
Tra compagne di squadra ci si sgrida e ci si incoraggia.
tra
among
compagn-e
team_mate-F.PL
di
of
squadr-a
team-F.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
e
and
ci
IMP
si
REFL
incoraggi-a
encourage-PRS.3SG
‘Team-mates encourage and shout at each other.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(201)
Anna si è raccontata in un'autobiografia.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
racconta-t-a
tell-PP-F.SG
in
in
un'=autobiografi-a
ART.INDF.F=autobiografy-F.SG
‘Anna has written her story in an autobiography.’
TELL an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(202)
La sera spesso si racconta una favola ai bambini.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
evening-F.SG
spesso
often
si
REFL
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
favol-a
fairy_tale-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
‘One often tells/We/You /They(indef.) often tell a fairy tale to the children in the evening.’
TELL an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(203)
Anna racconta una storia a suo figlio ogni sera.
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(204)
Marco raccontò la sua crisi.
Marco
Mark
raccont-ò
tell-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
his-F.SG
crisi
crisis.F.SG
‘Mark spoke/wrote about his crisis.’
TELL the Verb form raccontare
(205)
Gli anziani si sedevano intorno al fuoco e si raccontavano storie.
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
anzian-i
old_man-M.PL
si
REFL
sede-va-no
sit-IMPF-3PL
introno
around
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
fuoc-o
fire-M.SG
e
and
si
REFL
racconta-va-no
tell-IMPF-3SG
stori-e
story-F.PL
‘The old men used to sit around the fire and tell each other stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(206)
È vero amore solo quando ci si racconta la propria vita.
è
be.PRS.3SG
ver-o
true-M.SG
amor-e
love-M.SG
solo
only
quando
when
ci
IMP
si
REFL
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
propri-a
own-F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘It’s only true love when we/you/they(indef.) tell one another about our/your/their own lives.’
TELL an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(207)
L'episodio è raccontato magistralmente nel film dal regista.
l'=episodi-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=episode-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
racconta-t-o
tell-PP-M.SG
magistral-mente
masterful-ADV
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
film
film
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
regist-a
director-M.SG
‘The episode is masterly narrated in the film by the director.’
TELL an Alternation:
Passive
(208)
Anna si è detta una bugia.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
dett-a
say.PP-F.SG
un-a
ART.INDEF-F.SG
bugi-a
lie-F.SG
‘Anne told herself a lie.’
SAY an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(209)
Dica pure, la ascolto.
dic-a
say.SBJV-3SG
pure
please
la
OBJ.F.3SG
ascolt-o
listen_to-PRS.1SG
‘Go ahead and tell me, I’m listening to you.’
SAY an Alternation:
Object Omission
(210)
Luca si dice stupito dell'accaduto.
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
stupit-o
amazed-M.SG
de-ll'=accadut-o
of-ART.DEF.M.SG=happened-M.SG
‘Luke says he's surprised by what has happened.’
SAY an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(211)
Anna dice sempre la verità a Luca.
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(212)
Se ci si ama ci si dice sempre la verità.
se
if
ci
IMP
si
REFL
am-a
love-PRS.3SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
‘If we/you really love each other we/you always tell each other the truth.’
SAY an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(213)
Anna e Luca si dicono sempre la verità.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
dico-no
say-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
‘Anne and Luke always tell each other the truth.’
SAY an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(214)
Si dice la verità a chi si ama.
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
chi
who
si
REFL
am-a
love-PRS.3SG
‘One tells/We/You/They (indef.) tell the truth to the one one/we/you/they (indef.) love.’
SAY an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(215)
La verità si dice con coraggio.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
con
with
coraggi-o
courage-M.SG
‘The truth is to be said with courage.’
SAY an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(216)
La verità viene detta con coraggio.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
dett-a
say.PP-F.SG
con
with
coraggi-o
courage-M.SG
‘The truth is said with courage.’
SAY an Alternation:
Passive
(217)
I papi spesso si chiamano come il proprio predecessore.
I
ART.DEF.M.PL
pap-i
pope-M.PL
spesso
often
si
REFL
chiama-no
call-PRS.3PL
come
as
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
propri-o
proper-M.SG
predecessor-e
predecessor-M.SG
‘Popes often take their predecessors’ names.’
NAME an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(218)
Anna ha chiamato sua figlia Laura.
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 > 3
(219)
Spesso si chiama un bambino con il nome del nonno.
spesso
often
si
REFL
chiam-a
name-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
bambin-o
child-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
nom-e
name-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
nonn-o
grandfather-M.SG
‘We often name a child after his grandfather.’
NAME an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(220)
Mio padre in fabbrica era chiamato Nuvola Nera dai lavoratori.
mi-o
my-M.SG
padr-e
father-M.SG
in
in
fabbric-a
factory-F.SG
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
chiama-t-o
call-PP-M.SG
nuvol-a
cloud-F.SG
ner-a
black-F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
‘In the factory, my father was called "Black Cloud" by the workers.’
NAME an Alternation:
Passive
(221)
Anna e Luca si chiamano reciprocamente "Tesoro".
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
chiama-no
call-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
tesor-o
treasure-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke call each other "Darling".’
NAME an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(222)
Se ci si chiama Agnelli è tutto facile.
se
if
ci
IMP
si
REFL
chiam-a
call-PRS.3SG
Agnelli
Agnelli
è
be.PRS.3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
facil-e
easy-M.SG
‘If one is called Agnelli everything is easy/If we/you/they(indef.) are called Agnelli everything is easy.’
NAME an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(223)
I figli spesso si chiamano col nome dei nonni.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
figl-i
son-M.PL
spesso
often
si
REFL
chiama-no
name-PRS.3PL
co-l
with-ART.DEF.M.SG
nom-e
name-M.SG
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
nonn-i
grandparent-M.PL
‘Children are often named after their grandparents.’
NAME an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(224)
Marco si toccava per controllare di non avere le ossa rotte.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
tocca-v-a
touch-IMPF-3SG
per
to
controlla-re
verify-INF
di
of
non
NEG
ave-re
have-INF
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
oss-a
bone-F.PL
rott-e
broken-F.PL
‘Mark touched himself to check that he didn’t have any broken bones.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(225)
Marco toccò il soffitto con la mano.
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (con+3)
(226)
Mario si toccava il polso lamentandosi.
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
tocca-v-a
touch-IMPF-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pols-o
wrist-M.SG
lamenta-ndo-si
moan-PROG-REFL
‘Mario touched his wrist moaning.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(227)
Spesso ci si tocca i capelli per nervosismo.
spesso
often
ci
IMP
si
REFL
tocc-a
touch-PRS.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
per
for
nervosism-o
nervousness-M.SG
‘One often touches one’s hair/We/You/They (indef.) often touch our/your/their hair out of nervousness.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(228)
I neonati si toccano con delicatezza.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
neonat-i
new_born_baby-M.PL
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
con
with
delicatezz-a
delicacy-F.SG
‘Newborn babies are to be touched delicately.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(229)
Si toccano sempre con delicatezza i neonati.
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
con
with
delicatezz-a
delicacy-F.SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
neonat-i
new_born_baby-M.PL
‘One always touches/We/You/They (indef.) always touch newborn babies delicately.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(230)
I nostri balconi sono così vicini che quasi si toccano.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
balcon-i
balcony-M.PL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
così
so
vicin-i
close-M.PL
che
COMPL
quasi
nearly
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
‘Our balconies are so close that they nearly touch each other.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(231)
Luca prese il denaro da/a sua madre.
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (da+3)
(232)
L'attore si è preso gli applausi di tutta la platea.
l'=attor-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=actor-M.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
pres-o
take.PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
applaus-i
handclap-M.PL
di
of
tutt-a
all-F.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
plate-a
house-F.SG
‘The actor received the applause of the whole theatre.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(233)
I libri vengono presi dai biliotecari e consegnati ai lettori.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
pres-i
take.PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
biliotecar-i
librarian-M.PL
e
and
consegna-t-i
give-PP-M.PL
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lettor-i
reader-M.PL
‘The books are taken by the librarians and given to the readers.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Passive
(234)
Si prende in mano un reperto per esaminarlo.
si
REFL
prend-e
take-PRS.3SG
in
in
man-o
hand-F.SG
un
ART.INDF.M
repert-o
find-M.SG
per
for
esamina-r-lo
analyse-INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘One holds/We/You/They (indef.) hold an archaeological find to analyse it.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(235)
Il reperto si prende con i guanti.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
repert-o
find-M.SG
si
REFL
prend-e
take-PRS.3SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
guant-i
glove-M.PL
‘The find is to be taken when wearing gloves.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(236)
Ci si prende spesso il denaro dei propri genitori.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
prend-e
take-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
propr-i
own-M.PL
genitor-i
parent-M.PL
‘One often takes/We/you/They(indef.) often take our parents’ money.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(237)
Luca strappa una pagina dal quaderno.
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (da+3)
(238)
Luca si strappò i pantaloni involontariamente.
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
strapp-ò
tear-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
pantalon-i
trousers-M.PL
in-volontaria-mente
not-intentional-ADV
‘Luke tore his trousers by accident.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(239)
Luca si strappò i capelli per la disperazione.
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
strapp-ò
tear-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
disperazion-e
desperation-F.SG
‘Luke tore out his hair in despair.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(240)
Anna e Luca si strappano i capelli litigando.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
litiga-ndo
quarrel-PROG
‘Anne and Luke are tearing out each other's hair while quarreling.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(241)
I pantaloni si sono strappati.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
pantalon-i
trousers-M.PL
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
strappa-t-i
tear-PP-M.PL
‘The trousers got torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(242)
Il ladro rubò i gioielli dalla cassaforte.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
cassafort-e
safe-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the safe.’
STEAL the Verb form rubare
(243)
Si strappano troppe pagine dai quaderni.
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
tropp-e
too_many-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
da-i
from-ART.DEF.M.PL
quadern-i
exercise_book-M.PL
‘One tears/We/You/They (indef.) tear too many pages out of one’s/our/your/their exercise books.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(244)
Le pagine si strappano dai quaderni solo raramente.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
da-i
from-ART.DEF.M.PL
quadern-i
exercise_book-M.PL
solo
only
rara-mente
rare-ADV
‘Only rarely are pages to be torn out of exercise books.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(245)
Non ci si strappa i capelli.
non
NEG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
‘One does not tear out one’s own hair/We/you/they (indef.) do not tear out our/your/their own hair / We/You/They do not tear out each other’s hair.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(246)
La lettera venne strappata dall'insegnant-e.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
strappa-t-a
tear-PP-F.SG
da-ll'=insegnant-e
by-ART.DEF.F.SG=teacher-F.SG
‘The letter was torn up by the teacher.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Passive
(247)
Anna sbuccia la mela per sua figlia.
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2
(248)
La mela viene sbucciata con un coltello adatto.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
sbuccia-t-a
peel-PP-F.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
adatt-o
proper-M.SG
‘Apples are peeled with the right knife.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Passive
(249)
Mi sono sbucciato una mela.
mi
DAT.1SG
sono
be.PRS.1SG
sbuccia-t-o
peel-PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDEF-F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
‘I have peeled myself an apple.’
PEEL the Verb form sbucciare
(250)
Oggi la frutta si sbuccia sempre.
oggi
today
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutta
fruit.F.SG
si
REFL
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
‘Today fruit is always peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(251)
Un tempo non si sbucciava la frutta.
un
ART.INDF.M
temp-o
time-M.SG
non
NEG
si
REFL
sbuccia-v-a
peel-IMPF-3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutt-a
fruit-F.SG
‘Once one/we/they (indef.) didn’t use to peel fruit.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(252)
Anna e Luca si sbucciano a vicenda la frutta ogni sera.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sbuccia-no
peel-PRS.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutt-a
fruit-F.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke peel each other the fruit every evening.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(253)
Ci si può sbucciare i gomiti se si cade sciando.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
può
can.PRS.3SG
sbuccia-re
scrape-INF
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gomit-i
elbow-M.PL
se
if
si
REFL
cad-e
fall-PRS.3SG
scia-ndo
ski-PROG
‘One /We/You/They (indef.) can get a grazed elbow if one falls/we/they(indef.) fall when skiing.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(254)
Marco si è sbucciato il gomito sciando.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
sbuccia-t-o
peel-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gomit-o
elbow-M.SG
scia-ndo
ski-PROG
‘Mark grazed his elbow skiing.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Middle Reflexive
(255)
Anna nascose il regalo a Luca.
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(256)
Il bandito si nascose il viso con un passamontagna.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bandit-o
gangster-M.SG
si
REFL
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vis-o
face-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
passamontagna
ski_mask
‘The bandit hid his face with a balaclava.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(257)
Il ladro si nascose dietro una siepe.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
si
REFL
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
dietro
behind
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
siep-e
hedge-F.SG
‘The thief hid behind a hedge.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(258)
La vallata era nascosta dalla nebbia.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vallat-a
valley-F.SG
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
nascost-a
hide.PP-F.SG
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
nebbi-a
fog-F.SG
‘The valley was hidden by the fog.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Passive
(259)
Il negoziante mostrò la merce al cliente.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(260)
Anna si mostra in pubblico con piacere.
Anna
Anne
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
in
in
pubblic-o
public-M.SG
con
with
piacer-e
pleasure-M.SG
‘Anne appears in public with pleasure.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(261)
Spesso si nasconde la verità ai cittadini.
spesso
often
si
REFL
nascond-e
hide-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
cittadin-i
citizen-M.PL
‘One often hides/We/You/They(indef.) often hide the truth from citizens.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(262)
Spesso ci si nasconde la verità.
spesso
often
ci
IMP
si
REFL
nascond-e
hide-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
‘One often hides the truth from oneself/ We/You/They (indef.) often hide the truth from ourselves/yourselves/themselves.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(263)
La verità si nasconde lì, in quel casolare.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
si
REFL
nascond-e
hide-PRS.3SG
there
in
in
que-l
that-ART.DEF.M.SG
casolar-e
cottage-M.SG
‘The truth is hiding there, in that cottage.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Anticausative (coded)
(264)
Generalmente si mostra la merce migliore ai clienti.
general-mente
general-ADV
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
miglior-e
best-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘Generally one shows/we/you/they (indef.) show the best goods to customers.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(265)
La merce migliore si mostra solo ai clienti assidui.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
miglior-e
best-F.SG
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
solo
only
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
assidu-i
abitual-M.PL
‘The best goods are only shown to habitual customers.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(266)
Nelle problematiche sociali ci si mostra passivi.
ne-lle
in-ART.DEF.F.PL
problematich-e
problem-F.PL
social-i
social-F.PL
ci
IMP
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
passiv-e
submissive-F.PL
‘For/With social problems one seems/we/you/they (indef.) seem passive.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(267)
Le prove vennero mostrate ai giudici dall'avvocato.
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
prov-e
proof-F.PL
venn-ero
come.PST-3PL
mostra-t-e
show-PP-F.PL
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
giudic-i
judge-M.PL
da-ll=avvocat-o
by-ART.DEF.M.SG=lawyer-M.SG
‘The evidence was shown to the judges by the lawyer.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Passive
(268)
Anna e Luca si mostrarono le foto di quando erano bambini.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
mostra-rono
show-PST.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
foto
photo.F.PL
di
of
quando
when
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke showed each other the pictures of when they were little.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(269)
Anna dà spesso a Luca un regalo.
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(270)
Anna e Luca si diedero la mano.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
died-ero
give.PST-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke shook hands.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(271)
Marco si diede un calcio involontariamente.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
died-e
give.PST-3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
calci-o
kick-M.SG
in-volontaria-mente
not-conscious-ADV
‘Mark kicked himself accidentally.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(272)
L'aumento va dato ai lavoratori meritevoli.
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
da-t-o
give-PP-M.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘The pay rise is to be given to deserving workers.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Passive
(273)
L'aumento si dà ai lavoratori meritevoli.
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
si
REFL
give.PRS.3SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘The pay rise is given to deserving workers.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(274)
Si dà l'aumento ai lavoratori meritevoli.
si
REFL
give.PRS.3SG
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘One gives/We/You/They (indef.) give the pay rise to deserving workers.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(275)
Ci si dà un regalo.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
give.PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘One gives oneself/You give yourself/We give ourselves/You give yourselves/They(indef) give themselves a gift / We/You/They give each other gifts.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(276)
Anna inviò una lettera alla sua amica.
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3)
(277)
Quando si invia il modulo, bisogna includere due fotografie.
quando
when
si
REFL
invi-a
send-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
bisogn-a
need-PRS.3SG
include-re
attach-INF
due
two
foto
photo.F.PL
‘When sending the form, one needs/we/you/they (indef.) need to attach two photos.’
SEND an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(278)
A dicembre si inviano gli auguri per un felice anno nuovo.
a
to
dicembre
december
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
augur-i
wish-M.PL
per
for
un
ART.INDF.M
felic-e
happy-M.SG
ann-o
year-M.SG
nuov-o
new-M.SG
‘In December one sends/we/They (indef.) send New Year’s greetings cards.’
SEND an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(279)
Ci si invia piccoli messaggi.
ci
IMP
si
REFL
invi-a
send-PRS.3SG
piccol-i
little-M.PL
messagg-i
message-M.PL
‘People of the same age send short messages to each other.’
SEND an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(280)
Anna e la sua amica si inviano sempre messaggi.
Anna
Anne
e
and
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
messagg-i
message-M.PL
‘Anne and her friend always send each other messages.’
SEND an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(281)
Lo stesso messaggio viene inviato a tutti.
lo
ART.DEF.M.SG
stess-o
same-M.SG
messaggi-o
message-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
invia-t-o
send-PP-M.SG
a
to
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘The same message is sent to everybody.’
SEND an Alternation:
Passive
(282)
Gli inviti si inviano due mesi prima del matrimonio.
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
invit-i
invitation-M.PL
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
due
two
mes-i
month-M.PL
prima
before
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
‘Invitations are sent out two months before the wedding.’
SEND an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(283)
Luca trasportò le valigie a casa.
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 ( > LOC3)
(284)
Con la fantasia mi trasporto in un mondo fantastico.
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fantasi-a
imagination-F.SG
mi
REFL.1SG
trasport-o
carry-PRS.1SG
in
to
un
ART.INDF.M
mond-o
world-M.SG
fantastic-o
fantastic-M.SG
‘Through fantasy, I take myself to a fantastic world.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(285)
Si trasportano troppe merci sulle autostrade.
si
REFL
trasporta-no
carry-PRS.3PL
tropp-e
too_many-F.PL
merc-i
goods-F.PL
su-lle
on-ART.DEF.F.PL
aurostrad-e
motorway-F.PL
‘One transports/We/You/They(indef.) transport too much goods on the motorways.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(286)
Il ferito viene trasportato all'ospedale.
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ferit-o
victim-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
trasporta-t-o
carry-PP-M.SG
a-ll'=ospedal-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=hospital-M.SG
‘The injured person is taken to hospital.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Passive
(287)
I piatti di porcellana si trasportano in apposite scatole.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
di
of
porcellan-a
chine-F.SG
si
REFL
trasporta-no
carry-PRS.3PL
in
in
apposit-e
appropriate-F.PL
scatol-e
box-F.PL
‘Porcelain plates are transported in the correct boxes.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Reflexive Passive
(288)
Anna e Luca si trasportavano reciprocamente i libri.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
trasporta-va-no
carry-IMPF-3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke carried each other’s books.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive
(289)
Da bambini, con la fantasia ci si trasporta in un mondo fantastico.
da
as
bambin-i
child-M.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fantasi-a
imagination-F.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
trasport-a
carry-PRS.3SG
in
into
un
ART.INDF.M
mond-o
world-M.SG
fantastic-o
fantastic-M.SG
‘As a child, one transports oneself/ you transport yourself/ As children we transport ourselves/ you transport yourselves/ they (indef.) transport themselves to a fantastic world through fantasy.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives
(290)
Luca legò il cane al palo con la corda.
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V.subj[1] > 2 (a+3) (con+4)
(291)
Marco si legò alla barca.
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
‘Mark tied himself to the boat.’
TIE an Alternation:
Direct Reflexive
(292)
Luca si è legato il braccio rotto al collo.
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
lega-t-o
tie-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
rott-o
broken-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
coll-o
neck-M.SG
‘Luke tied his broken arm to his neck.’
TIE an Alternation:
Indirect/Dative Reflexive
(293)
I cani feroci vengono legati.
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
can-i
dog-M.PL
feroc-i
ferocious-M.PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
lega-t-i
tie-PP-M.PL
‘Ferocious dogs are tied up.’
TIE an Alternation:
Passive
(294)
Anna e Luca si sono legati reciprocamente alla barca.
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
lega-t-i
tie-PP-M.PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke tied each other to the boat.’
TIE an Alternation:
Direct Reciprocal Reflexive
(295)
Si lega la barca al molo e poi si esce.
si
REFL
leg-a
tie-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mol-o
dock-M.SG
e
and
poi
then
si
REFL
esc-e
go_out.PRS-3SG
‘One ties/We/You/They (indef.) tie the boat to the dock and then one goes out /we/you/they(indef.) go out.’
TIE an Alternation:
Impersonal Reflexive
(296)
La notte durante la navigazione ci si lega alla barca per non cadere a mare.
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nott-e
night-F.SG
durante
during
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
navigazion-e
sailing-F.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
leg-a
tie-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
per
for
non
NEG
cade-re
fall-INF
a
to
mar-e
sea-M.SG
‘When sailing at night, one ties himself/you tie yourself//we tie ourselves/they tie themselves to the boat, so as not to fall into the sea.’
TIE an Alternation:
Impersonal of Reflexives