Impersonal Passive C

Description

A coded intransitive alternation showing defocusing of both A and P, and a passive verb morphology, signaled by a form of the auxiliaries essere 'BE', venire 'COME', occurring in the unmarked 3rd person singular. A is deleted, optionally surfacing as a prepositional phrase headed by the da 'by', and P is defocused, realized by the (reflexive) morpheme si. The past participle of the lexical verb agrees with the underlying unexpressed argument (P), signaled by si (Cennamo 2010, 2014).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(500)
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
trasporta-t-i
carry-PP-M.PL
in
into
un
ART.INDF.M
mond-o
world-M.SG
fantastic-o
fantastic-M.SG
‘One is carried/We/You/They (indef.) are transported into a fantastic world.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’

(554)
si
REFL
er-a
be-IMPF.3SG
lega-t-i
tie-PP-M.PL
a-lla
at-ART.DEF.F.SG
sedi-a
chair-F.SG
‘One was/they/we (indef.) were tied to the boat.’
POUR versare N
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’

(737)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
copert-i
cover.PP-M.PL
da
by
un-o
ART.INDF-M.SG
strat-o
layer-M.SG
di
of
fang-o
mud-M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are covered with a layer of mud.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(552)
si
REFL
er-a
be-IMPF.3SG
lava-t-i
wash-PP-M.PL
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
pioggi-a
rain-F.SG
‘One was/we/they (indef.) were washed by the rain.’
DRESS vestire R
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’

(729)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
vesti-t-i
dress-PP-M.PL
da
from
cap-o
head-M.SG
a
to
pied-i
foot-M.PL
‘One is dressed/We/You/They (indef.) are dressed from head to toe.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(568)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
rasa-t-i
shave-PP-M.SG
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
‘One/we/they(indef.) is/are shaved by the barber.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’

(553)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
aiuta-t-i
help-PP-M.PL
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are helped by friends.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’

(559)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
segui-t-i
follow-PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
fan
fan
‘One is/We/You/They(indef.) are often followed by (one’s/our/your/their) fans.’
CLIMB scalare N
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
SIT sedere N
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare N
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’
GO andare N
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire N
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’

(604)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
lascia-t-i
leave-PP-M.PL
senza
without
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
spiegazion-e
explanation-M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are often left without an explanation.’
LIVE abitare N
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere N
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare N
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore N
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo N
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo N
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore N
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire N
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
BE SAD essere triste N
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame N
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato N
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido N
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
THINK pensare M
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
ASK FOR chiedere N
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’
TELL raccontare N
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’
SAY dire N
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’
SING cantare N
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’
LIKE piacere N
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’

(622)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-i
name-PP-M.PL
co-l
with-ART.DEF.M.SG
nom-e
name-M.SG
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
nonn-i
grandparent-M.PL
‘One is named/We/You/They (indef.) are named after one’s grandparents/our/your/their grandparents.’
TOUCH toccare R
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’

(584)
se
if
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
tocca-t-i
touch-PP-M.PL
da
by
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
medus-a
jellyfish-F.SG
si
REFL
può
can.PRS.3SG
avverti-re
feel-INF
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
‘If one/we/they (indef.) is /are touched by a jellyfish, one/we/they (indef.) may feel pain.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’
TEAR strappare M
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’
PEEL sbucciare N
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’

(629)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
riempi-t-i
fill-PP-M.PL
di
of
fals-e
false-F.PL
promess-e
promise-F.PL
‘One was/We/You/They (indef.) were filled with false promises.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’

(635)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
colpi-t-i
beat-PP-M.PL
da
by
calc-i
kick-M.PL
e
and
pugn-i
fist-M.PL
‘One is beaten/We/You/They (indef.) are hit by fists and kicks.’
FALL cadere N
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’

(641)
si
IMP
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
urta-t-i
hit-PP-M.PL
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
camion
truck.M.SG
‘One has hit/We/You/They (indef.) were hit by the truck.’
GIVE dare M
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’
THROW lanciare M
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’
WANT volere M
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’
GET ricevere R
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’

(651)
si
IMP
è
be.PRS.3SG
ricevut-i
receive.PP-M.PL
da-ll'=avvocat-o
by-ART.DEF.M.SG=lawyer-M.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
su-o
his-M.SG
studi-o
office-M.SG
legal-e
legal-M.SG
‘One is received/We/You/They (indef.) are received by the lawyer in his office.’
CRY piangere R
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’

(655)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
piant-i
cry.PP-M.PL
da
by
tutt-i
all-M.PL
se
if
si
REFL
lasci-a
leave-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
bel
loving.M.SG
ricord-o
memory-M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are mourned by everybody if one leaves/we/you/they leave a loving memory.’
BE ILL essere malato N
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire N
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
BOIL (tr) bollire N
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’
TEACH insegnare N
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’

(665)
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
senti-t-i
hear-PP-M.PL
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
animal-i
animal-M.PL
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
bosc-o
wood-M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are heard by the animals in the wood.’
CLEAN pulire R
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’

(677)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
puli-t-i
clean-PP-M.PL
con
with
cur-a
care-F.SG
da
as
bambin-i
child-M.PL
‘One is cleaned carefully as a child/We/you/They (indef.) are cleaned carefully as children.’
GRIND macinare M
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’

(564)
in
in
barca_a_vela
sailing.boat.F.SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
porta-t-i
bring-PP-M.PL
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
vent-o
wind-M.SG
‘On a sailing-boat, one/we/they (indef.) is/are driven by the wind.’
STEAL rubare M
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’
DIG dissotterrare M
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre N
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
COOK cuocere M
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’
MAKE fare N
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’
EAT mangiare M
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’

(719)
senza
without
tend-e
curtain-F.PL
si
IMP
è
be.PRS.3SG
vist-i
see.PP-M.PL
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
finestr-a
window-F.SG
‘Without curtains, one is/we/you/they (indef.) are seen from the window.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’

(720)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
abbraccia-t-i
hug-PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
propr-i
own-M.PL
genitor-i
parent-M.PL
‘One is often hugged/We/You/They (indef.) are often hugged by one’s own/our own/your own/their own parents.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’

(723)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
guarda-t-i
look-PP-M.PL
con
with
curiosità
curiosity.F.SG
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘One is viewed at/We/You/They (indef.) are viewed with curiosity by the students.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’

(724)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
odora-t-i
smell-PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
can-i
dog-M.PL
‘One is smelled/We/You/They (indef.) are smelled by dogs.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’

(725)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-i
fear.PP-M.PL
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are feared by the students without a reason.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’

(726)
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
spaventa-t-i
frighten-PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
rumor-i
noise-M.PL
di
of
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are frightened by noises at night.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’

(727)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
conosciut-i
know.PP-M.PL
da
by
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are known by everybody.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’

(728)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
cerca-t-i
search-PP-M.PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘One is looked for/We/You/They (indef.) are looked for all day long.’
MEET incontrare N
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’
TALK parlare N
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’

(730)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
sgrida-t-i
shout_at-PP-M.PL
di_solito
usually
per
for
motiv-i
reason-M.PL
sciocch-i
silly-M.PL
‘One is usually shouted at/We/You/They (indef.) are usually shouted at for silly reasons.’
BUILD costruire M
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’
BREAK rompere M
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’

(731)
in
in
guerr-a
war-F.SG
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
uccis-i
kill.PP-M.PL
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘At war, one is/we/you/they(indef.)/people are killed without any reason.’
CUT tagliare M
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(733)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
nascost-i
hide.PP-M.PL
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are hidden by the crowd.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’

(734)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
mostra-t-i
show-PP-M.PL
in
in
pubblic-o
public-M.SG
‘One is shown in public/We/You/They (indef.) are shown in public.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(735)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
invia-t-i
send-PP-M.PL
come
as
messagger-i
messenger-M.PL
di
of
pac-e
peace-F.SG
‘One is sent as a messenger/We/You/They (indef.) are sent as messengers of peace.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’

(736)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
mess-i
put.PP-M.PL
in
in
un
ART.INDF.M
angol-o
corner-M.SG
‘One is put//We/You/They (indef.) are put in a corner.’
LOAD caricare R
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’

(738)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
carica-t-i
load-PP-M.PL
su-l
onto-ART.DEF.M.SG
camion
truck.M.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are loaded onto the truck.’
COUGH tossire N
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
RUN correre N
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
PLAY giocare N
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare M
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’
SINK (tr) affondare M
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
BURN (tr) bruciare R
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’

(739)
in
in
alcun-i
some-M.PL
paes-i
country-M.PL
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
ancora
still
brucia-t-i
burn-PP-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
rog-o
stake-M.SG
‘In some countries, people are still burnt at the stake.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare R
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’

(740)
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
assassina-t-i
kill-PP-M.PL
per
for
un'=ide-a
ART.INDF.F=idea-F.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are murdered for an idea.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’

(741)
quando
when
si
REFL
acceler-a
accelerate-PRS.3SG
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spint-i
push.PP-M.SG
indietro
backwards
‘When one speeds up/we/you/They (indef.) speed up, one is pushed/we/you/They (indef.) are pushed backwards.’
HEAR udire R
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’

(762)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
udi-t-i
hear-PP-M.PL
anche
also
a
at
distanz-a
distance-F.SG
quando
when
si
REFL
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
ad
at
alt-a
loud-F.SG
voc-e
voice-F.SG
‘One is/We/You/They (indef.) are also heard at a distance when one sings/we/you/They (indef.) sing loudly.’