Causative U

Description

A valency increasing alternation, whereby a monovalent verb becomes divalent and a divalent verb becomes trivalent, through the adjoining of two predicates, the governing matrix verb - fare 'make' (the factitive/coercive causative)/lasciare 'let' (the permissive causative) - and a dependent infinitive (Shibatani & Pardeshi 2002, int. al.). The two verbs form a complex predicate, functioning as one unit, with ensuing restructuring of their original argument structure.
If the adjoined infinitive is monovalent, its original subject (
cucchiaio 'spoon' in (i)) becomes the object of the complex predicate far(e)/lasciar(e) cadere (postverbal if nominal, as in (ia), preverbal if pronominal, as in (ib)). If the adjoined infinitive is divalent, or trivalent, its original object and indirect objects (dolce 'cake' in (ii), a Giovanna in (iii)) function, respectively, as the direct object and indirect object of the complex predicate (far(e)/lasciar(e) mangiare 'make/let eat' in (ii), far(e)/lasciar(e) inviare 'make/let send' in (iii)). The original subject is expressed, instead, as either an indirect object, headed by a 'to', or as an agentive phrase, headed by da 'by', reflecting a difference in control, low in the former form, high in the latter.
With the permissive,
lasciare 'let', however, only the a-phrase is possible if the dependent infinitive is a stative verb, never the da-phrase (iv). Interestingly, the degree of acceptability of the da-phrase appears to reflect the aspectual characteristics of the verb, since it is possible with accomplishments and achievements (ii), odd/marginally acceptable with active accomplishments (e.g., mangiare 'eat' ) (iii) and impossible with statives (iv):

(i) a.
Marco fece/lasciò cadere il cucchiaio.
Mark made/let fall the spoon
b.
Marco lo fece/lasciò cadere.
Mark it made/let fall
'Mark made/let it fall.'
(ii)
Marco fece/lasciò inviare il libro a Giovanna da Anna.
Mark made/let send the book to Jane by Anne
'Mark made/let Jane send the book to Anne.'
(iii)
Marco fece/lasciò mangiare il dolce a suo padre/da suo
padre.
Mark made/let eat the cake to his father/by his father
'Mark made/let his father eat the cake.'
(iv)
Marco lasciò vedere il quadro a Luca/*da Luca.
Mark let.PST.3SG see the painting to Luke/*by Luke
'Mark let Luke see the painting.'

When the dependent infinitive is a reflexive verb, in the factitive construction the verb occurs without
si, as in (iv):

(iv)
Marco fece/lasciò radere (*radersi) Giovanni .
Mark made/let shave (*shave himself) John
'Mark made/let John shave.'
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LIKE piacere R
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’

(7)
l'=insegnant-e
ART.DEF.M/F.SG=teacher-M/F.SG
fa
make.PRS.3SG
piace-re
like-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘The teacher gets the students to like Maths.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare R
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’
BREAK rompere R
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’
EAT mangiare R
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’

(776)
Marco
Mark
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
mangia-re
eat-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dolc-e
cake-M.SG
da
by
su-o
his-M.SG
padr-e
father-M.SG
‘Mark made his father eat the cake.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’
BUILD costruire R
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’
LOAD caricare R
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’

(782)
Luigi
Luigi
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
carica-re
load-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
legn-a
wood-F.SG
a/da
to/by
Mario
Mario
‘Luigi made Mario load the wood.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare R
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’
SINK (tr) affondare R
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
BURN (tr) bruciare R
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’
THINK pensare R
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’
DRESS vestire R
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(778)
Marco
Mark
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
rade-re
shave-INF
Giovanni
John
‘Mark had John shaved.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’
MEET incontrare R
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’
TALK parlare R
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
ASK FOR chiedere R
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’
TELL raccontare R
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’
SAY dire R
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’
TOUCH toccare R
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’
TEAR strappare R
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’
PEEL sbucciare R
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(781)
Anna
Anne
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
nasconde-re
hide-INF
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a/da
to/by
Marta
Martha
‘Anne made Martha hide her jewels.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’
GIVE dare R
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(777)
Marco
Mark
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
invia-re
send-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
libr-o
book-M.SG
a
to
Giovanna
Jane
da
by
Anna
Anne
‘Mark made Anna send the book to Jane.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(501)
Marco
Mark
lasci-ò
let-PST.3SG
trasporta-re
carry-INF
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
da
by
Giovanni
John
‘Mark let John carry the books.’
(502)
Marco
Mark
gli
DAT.3SG.M
lasci-ò
let-PST.3SG
trasporta-re
carry-INF
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
‘Mark let himself carry the books.’
(510)
Marco
Mark
glie-li
DAT.3SG-OBJ.M.PL
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
trasporta-re
carry-INF
‘Mark made him carry them.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’
POUR versare R
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’
COUGH tossire R
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
CLIMB scalare R
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’
RUN correre R
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
SIT sedere R
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
SIT DOWN sedersi R
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare R
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’

(595)
Marco
Mark
lasci-a
let-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
salta-re
jump-INF
Marta
Martha
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘Mark always lets Martha jump on his bed.’
(596)
Marco
Mark
la
OBJ.F.3SG
lasci-a
let-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
salta-re
jump-INF
‘Mark always lets her jump.’
SING cantare R
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’

(670)
Mario
Mario
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
canta-re
sing-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ragazz-a
girl-F.SG
‘Mario had the girl sing (a song).’
(671)
Mario
Mario
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
canta-re
sing-INF
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
canzon-e
song-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ragazz-a
girl-F.SG
‘Mario made the girl sing a song.’
(672)
Mario
Mario
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
canta-re
sing-INF
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
canzon-e
song-F.SG
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
ragazz-a
girl-F.SG
‘Mario made the girl sing a song.’
GO andare R
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire R
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’
LIVE abitare R
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere R
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare R
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore R
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo R
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo R
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore R
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire R
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
BE SAD essere triste R
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame R
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato R
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido R
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere R
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart R
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’
WANT volere R
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’
GET ricevere R
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’
FALL cadere R
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’

(774)
Marco
Mark
lasci-ò
let-PST.3SG
cade-re
fall-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
cucchiai-o
spoon-M.SG
‘Mark let the spoon fall.’
(775)
Marco
Mark
lo
OBJ.M.3SG
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
cade-re
fall-INF
‘Mark let it fall.’
CRY piangere R
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
BE ILL essere malato R
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire R
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
DIG dissotterrare R
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’
PLAY giocare R
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
BOIL (tr) bollire R
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’
TEACH insegnare R
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’
MAKE fare R
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’
CLEAN pulire R
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’

(779)
Marco
Mark
fec-e
make.PST-3SG
puli-re
wipe-INF
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
scal-e
stair-F.PL
a/da
to/by
su-a
his-F.SG
sorell-a
sister-F.SG
‘Mark made his sister clean the stairs.’
(780)
Marco
Mark
lasci-ò
let-PST.3SG
puli-re
wipe-INF
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
scal-e
stair-F.PL
a
to
su-a
his-F.SG
sorell-a
sister-F.SG
‘Mark let his sister clean the stairs.’
GRIND macinare R
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’
STEAL rubare R
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre R
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
COOK cuocere R
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’
HEAR udire R
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’