Impersonal Reflexive C

Description

A coded intransitive-like alternation, characterized by defocusing of the S/A argument (according to whether the verb is monovalent or divalent), that is suppressed and signaled by the reflexive morpheme si. This morpheme marks an indefinite human participant, with variable interpretation (generic or existential/indefinite, optionally comprising the Speech Act Participants, as in the first person plural, inclusive interpretation), according to the temporal reference of the clause and the aspectual nature of the predicate. With divalent verbs, in the unmarked word order [si V N] the P-subject (i.e., the nominal agreeing with the verb) occurs in the postverbal position, and is most typically indefinite, and conveys new information (Cennamo 1995: 85-86, Bentley 2006, D'Alessandro 2007, Cennamo 2011c and references therein).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’

(114)
si
REFL
tagli-ò
cut-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
per
to
libera-re
free-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) cut the rope to set the dog free.’
EAT mangiare R
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’

(115)
si
REFL
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dolc-e
cake-M.SG
e
and
poi
then
si
REFL
usc-ì
go_out-PST.3SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) ate the cake and then went out.’
BUILD costruire R
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’

(15)
si
REFL
costrui-sc-e
build-PRS-3SG
prima
before
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stairs-F.SG
e
and
poi
then
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
solai-o
loft-M.SG
‘First one builds/we/they (indef.) build the stairs and then the roof.’
LOAD caricare R
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’

(20)
general-mente
general-ADV
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
night-F.SG
prima
before
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
partenz-a
leaving-F.SG
‘Usually, one loads/we/they (indef.) load the car the night before leaving / Generally cars are loaded the night before leaving.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’

(36)
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
chiara-mente
clear-ADV
che
COMPL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
sinistr-a
left-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
problem-i
problem-M.PL
‘One/We/They (indef.) can clearly see that the left wing party has a lot of problems.’
(121)
ieri
yesterday
ser-a
evening-F.SG
si
REFL
vede-v-a
see-IMPF-1SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
lun-a
moon-F.SG
‘Yesterday evening one/we/you/ they(indef.) could see the moon.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’

(124)
si
REFL
spavent-ò
frighten-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
fals-o
false-M.SG
allarm-e
alarm-M.SG
‘One/They (indef.)/We frightened the crowd with a false alarm.’
BURN (tr) bruciare R
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’

(53)
si
REFL
brucia-no
burn.PRS-3PL
tropp-i
too_much-M.PL
rifiut-i
rubbish-M.PL
‘Too much rubbish is burnt/One burns/We/They (indef.) burn too much rubbish.’
(54)
qui
here
si
REFL
bruci-a
burn-PRS.3SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
cald-o
hot-M.SG
‘One burns /We/You/They (indef.) burn because of the heat.’
SINK (tr) affondare R
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’

(57)
si
REFL
affond-a
sink-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pied-e
foot-M.SG
sull'accelerator-e
accelerator-M.SG
troppo
too
facil-mente
easy-ADV
‘One puts one’s foot /We/You/They (indef.) put our/your/their foot down on the accelerator all too easily.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’

(61)
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
giorn-i
day-M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
si
REFL
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
per
for
futil-i
trivial-M.PL
motiv-i
reason-M.PL
‘Nowadays one kills/we/they (indef.) kill for futile reasons.’
(127)
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
uccis-i
kill.PP-M.PL
de-gli
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
innocent-i
innocent-M.PL
‘One has killed/We/They (indef.) have killed innocent people.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare R
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’

(129)
si
REFL
assassin-ò
kill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giornalist-a
journalist-M.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) murdered the journalist.’
BREAK rompere R
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’

(144)
si
REFL
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
l'=uov-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=egg-M.SG
di
of
Pasqua
Easter
per
to
vede-re
see-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
sorpres-a
surprise-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) broke the Easter egg to see the surprise.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’

(84)
per
for
alcun-e
some-F.PL
or-e
hour-F.PL
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
peggio
worse
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
sort-e
fate-F.SG
di
of
Simone
Simon
‘For some hours one feared /we/they (indef.) feared the worst for Simon’s fate.’
(86)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
discussion-e
discussion-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
trasces-a
go_out_of_hand.PP-F.SG
e
and
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
che
COMPL
potess-e
can.SBJV.PST-3SG
degenera-re
degenerate-INF
‘The discussion got out of hand and one/we/ they (indef.)/feared/it was feared that it could degenerate.’
(131)
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vecchiai-a
old_age-F.SG
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘One fears/We/You/They (indef.) fear old age for no reason.’
LIKE piacere N
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare R
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’

(154)
si
REFL
rotol-ò
roll-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mass-o
stone-M.SG
fino
till
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) rolled the stone all the way down to the bottom of the valley.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’

(721)
si
REFL
abbraccia-no
hug-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
propr-i
own-M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
‘One often hugs one’s own friends/We often hug our friends/You often hug your own friends/They (indef.) often hug their friends.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’

(160)
si
REFL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘One smells/We/You/They (indef.) smell numbing substances to relieve hunger.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’

(107)
si
REFL
conosc-ono
know.PRS-3PL
innumerevol-i
many-M.PL
element-i
element-M.PL
chimic-i
chemical-M.PL
‘One knows/We/You/They (indef.) know numerous chemical elements.’
THINK pensare R
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’

(509)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
pensa-t-o
think-PP-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pian-o
plan-M.SG
di
of
attacc-o
attack-M.SG
‘One /We/You/They (indef.) thought about the plan of attack.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’

(172)
si
REFL
cerca-no
search-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cap-i
article_of_clothing-M.PL
in
in
sald-o
sale-M.SG
‘One is looking for /We/You/They (indef.) are looking for clothes on sale.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(520)
si
REFL
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
ogni
every
due
two
settiman-e
week-F.PL
‘One washes/We/They (indef.) wash the car every two weeks.’
DRESS vestire M
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(533)
general-mente
usual-ADV
si
REFL
rad-ono
shear-PRS.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
pecor-e
sheep-F.PL
un-a
one-F.SG
volt-a
time-F.SG
l'=ann-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=year-M.SG
‘One usually shears/We/You/They(indef.) shear the sheep once a year.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’

(545)
spesso
often
si
REFL
aiut-a
help-PRS.3SG
più
more
volentieri
readily
chi
who
non
NEG
si
REFL
conosc-e
know-PRS.3SG
‘One often more readily helps/We/You/They(indef.) often help more readily someone one doesn’t/we/you/they don’t know.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’

(188)
si
REFL
segu-e
follow-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
rott-a
navigation_course-F.SG
prestabilit-a
predetermined-F.SG
senza
without
variazion-i
variation-F.PL
‘One follows/We/You/They (indef.) follow the pre-established route without variations.’
MEET incontrare R
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’

(565)
si
REFL
incontra-no
meet-PRS.3PL
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
intelligent-i
clever-F.PL
in
in
quest-a
this-F.SG
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘One meets/We/You/They (indef.) meet many clever people in this library.’
TALK parlare R
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’

(577)
si
REFL
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
di
of
question-i
matter-F.PL
poco
not_so
important-i
important-F.PL
‘One often talks/We/You/They(indef.) often talk about less important matters.’
ASK FOR chiedere R
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’

(616)
si
REFL
chiedo-no
ask-PRS.3PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
‘One asks/We/You/They (indef.) ask one’s/our/your/their friends for money.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’

(198)
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
di
of
più
more
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
durante
during
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
fest-e
holiday-F.PL
‘One shouts more at one’s children. /We shout more at our children/You shout more at your children/They shout more at their children during the holidays.’
TELL raccontare R
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’

(202)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
evening-F.SG
spesso
often
si
REFL
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
favol-a
fairy_tale-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
‘One often tells/We/You /They(indef.) often tell a fairy tale to the children in the evening.’
SAY dire R
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’

(214)
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
chi
who
si
REFL
am-a
love-PRS.3SG
‘One tells/We/You/They (indef.) tell the truth to the one one/we/you/they (indef.) love.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’

(219)
spesso
often
si
REFL
chiam-a
name-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
bambin-o
child-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
nom-e
name-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
nonn-o
grandfather-M.SG
‘We often name a child after his grandfather.’
TOUCH toccare R
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’

(229)
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
con
with
delicatezz-a
delicacy-F.SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
neonat-i
new_born_baby-M.PL
‘One always touches/We/You/They (indef.) always touch newborn babies delicately.’
(624)
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
guant-i
glove-M.PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
lampad-e
lamp-F.PL
alogen-e
halogen-F.PL
‘One touches/We/You/They (indef.) touch the halogen lamps with gloves.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’

(234)
si
REFL
prend-e
take-PRS.3SG
in
in
man-o
hand-F.SG
un
ART.INDF.M
repert-o
find-M.SG
per
for
esamina-r-lo
analyse-INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘One holds/We/You/They (indef.) hold an archaeological find to analyse it.’
TEAR strappare R
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’

(243)
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
tropp-e
too_many-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
da-i
from-ART.DEF.M.PL
quadern-i
exercise_book-M.PL
‘One tears/We/You/They (indef.) tear too many pages out of one’s/our/your/their exercise books.’
PEEL sbucciare R
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’

(251)
un
ART.INDF.M
temp-o
time-M.SG
non
NEG
si
REFL
sbuccia-v-a
peel-IMPF-3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutt-a
fruit-F.SG
‘Once one/we/they (indef.) didn’t use to peel fruit.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(261)
spesso
often
si
REFL
nascond-e
hide-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
cittadin-i
citizen-M.PL
‘One often hides/We/You/They(indef.) often hide the truth from citizens.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’

(264)
general-mente
general-ADV
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
miglior-e
best-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘Generally one shows/we/you/they (indef.) show the best goods to customers.’
GIVE dare R
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’

(274)
si
REFL
give.PRS.3SG
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘One gives/We/You/They (indef.) give the pay rise to deserving workers.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(277)
quando
when
si
REFL
invi-a
send-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
bisogn-a
need-PRS.3SG
include-re
attach-INF
due
two
foto
photo.F.PL
‘When sending the form, one needs/we/you/they (indef.) need to attach two photos.’
(278)
a
to
dicembre
december
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
augur-i
wish-M.PL
per
for
un
ART.INDF.M
felic-e
happy-M.SG
ann-o
year-M.SG
nuov-o
new-M.SG
‘In December one sends/we/They (indef.) send New Year’s greetings cards.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(285)
si
REFL
trasporta-no
carry-PRS.3PL
tropp-e
too_many-F.PL
merc-i
goods-F.PL
su-lle
on-ART.DEF.F.PL
aurostrad-e
motorway-F.PL
‘One transports/We/You/They(indef.) transport too much goods on the motorways.’
(499)
si
REFL
trasporta-rono
carry-PST.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
quint-o
fifth-M.SG
pian-o
floor-M.SG
‘We/They (indef.) carried the books to the fifth floor.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’

(295)
si
REFL
leg-a
tie-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mol-o
dock-M.SG
e
and
poi
then
si
REFL
esc-e
go_out.PRS-3SG
‘One ties/We/You/They (indef.) tie the boat to the dock and then one goes out /we/you/they(indef.) go out.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’

(304)
si
REFL
metto-no
put-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
vestit-i
clothes-M.PL
in
in
ordin-e
order-M.SG
ne-ll'=armadi-o
in-ART.DEF.M.SG=wardrobe-M.SG
‘One tidies/We/You/They (indef.) tidy the clothes in the wardrobe.’
POUR versare R
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’

(310)
si
REFL
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vin-o
wine-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
per
for
protest-a
protest-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) spilled the wine onto the table as a protest.’
(312)
si
REFL
vers-a
pour-PRS.3SG
l'=impast-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=dough-M.SG
ne-ll'=oli-o
in-ART.DEF.M.SG=oil-M.SG
quando
when
è
be.PRS.3SG
bollent-e
boiling-M.SG
‘One pours/We//YouThey (indef.) pour the dough into hot boiling oil.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’

(321)
si
REFL
copr-e
cover-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
di
of
fior-i
flower-M.PL
per
for
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
‘One covers/We/They (indef.) cover the floor with flowers for the wedding.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’

(336)
si
REFL
riempi-e
fill-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
propri-a
own-F.SG
cas-a
house-F.SG
di
of
oggett-i
thing-M.PL
‘One fills one’s house/We/You/They(indef.) fill our/your/their houses with things.’
COUGH tossire R
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’

(348)
si
REFL
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
per
for
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
fum-o
smoke-M.SG
‘One coughs/We//You/They(indef.) cough because of the smoke.’
CLIMB scalare R
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’

(352)
si
REFL
scal-ò
climb-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
montagn-a
mountain-F.SG
impervi-a
inaccessible-F.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) climbed up a difficult mountain.’
(358)
si
REFL
scal-a
climb-PRS.3SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
sol-a
only-F.SG
forz-a
strength-F.SG
de-lle
of-ART.DEF.F.PL
man-i
hand-F.PL
e
and
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
pied-i
foot-M.PL
‘One climbs/We/You/They (indef.) climb up with the strength of one’s/our/your/their hands and feet alone.’
RUN correre R
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’

(365)
se
if
si
REFL
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
con
with
regolarità
regularity.F.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
mantien-e
keep.PRS-3SG
in
in
form-a
form-F.SG
‘If one runs regularly one keeps fit. If we/you/they(indef.) run regularly, we/you/they(indef.) keep fit.’
(585)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
cors-i
run.PP-M.PL
a_lungo
a_long_time
senza
without
met-a
destination-F.SG
‘One has/We/You/They (indef.) have run aimlessly for a long time.’
(587)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
cors-i
run.PP-M.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘One has/We/You/They (indef.) have run home.’
SIT sedere R
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’

(371)
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
a
to
tavol-a
table-F.SG
composta-mente
composed-ADV
‘One sits/We/You/They(indef.) sit up straight at the dining table.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare R
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’

(592)
si
REFL
salt-a
jump-PRS.3SG
per
to
allena-r-si
train-INF-REFL
‘One jumps/We/You/They (indef.) jump for training.’
(593)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
salta-t-o
jump-PP-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
per
for
or-e
hour-F.PL
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) jumped on the bed for hours.’
(594)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
salta-t-i
jump-PP-M.PL
in
in
pied-i
foot-M.PL
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) jumped to one’s/our/your/their feet.’
SING cantare R
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’

(377)
si
REFL
canta-no
sing-PRS.3PL
ancora
still
molt-e
many-F.PL
canzon-i
song-F.PL
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
passat-o
past-M.SG
‘One still sings/We/You/They(indef.) still sing a lot of songs from the past.’
(381)
a
at
volt-e
time-F.PL
si
REFL
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
per
for
scaccia-re
get_rid_of-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
malinconi-a
melancholy-F.SG
‘Sometimes one sings/We/You/They(indef.) sing to get rid of melancholy.’
GO andare R
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’

(383)
si
REFL
va
go.PRS.3SG
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
a
by
pied-i
foot-M.PL
per
to
evita-re
avoid-INF
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
traffic-o
traffic-M.SG
‘One walks/We/You/They(indef.) walk home to avoid the traffic.’
(598)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
anda-t-i
go-PP-M.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
a
by
pied-i
foot-M.PL
‘One has/We/You/They (indef.) walked home.’
LEAVE partire R
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’

(385)
si
REFL
part-e
leave-PRS.3SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
rifugi-o
refuge-M.SG
molto
very
presto
early
ogni
every
mattin-a
morning-F.SG
‘One leaves/We/They (indef.) leave the refuge very early every morning.’
(599)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-i
leave-PP-M.PL
molto
very
presto
early
ieri
yesterday
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) left very early yesterday.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’

(387)
si
REFL
lasci-a
leave-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
propri-o
own-M.SG
paes-e
country-M.SG
per
to
cerca-re
look_for-INF
lavor-o
job-M.SG
‘One leaves one’s country/We leave our country/You leave your country/They(indef.) leave their country to look for work.’
LIVE abitare R
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’

(388)
there
si
REFL
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
ancora
still
in
in
vecch-i
old-M.PL
casal-i
farmhouse-M.PL
immers-i
plunged-M.PL
tra
among
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
vign-e
vineyard-F.PL
‘There one stills lives/we/you/they(indef.) still live in old farmhouses among the vines.’
LAUGH ridere R
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’

(392)
vede-ndo
see-PROG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
film
film
si
REFL
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
e
and
si
REFL
piang-e
cry-PRS.3SG
a-llo
at-ART.DEF.M.SG
stess-o
same-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘Watching the film one laughs and cries/we/you/they(indef.) laugh and cry at the same time.’
SCREAM urlare R
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’

(394)
si
REFL
url-ò
shout-PST.3SG
di
of
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
‘One/We/You/They(indef.) screamed in pain.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’

(662)
si
IMP
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) can hear the bear in the distance.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore R
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’

(397)
si
REFL
sent-e
feel-PRS.1SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘One feels pain/We feel pain in our arm/You feel pain in your arm/They (indef.) feel pain in their arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo R
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’

(400)
si
REFL
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
evening-F.SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘One feels cold/We/You/They(indef) feel cold in the evening in the countryside.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo R
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’

(403)
si
REFL
ha
have.PRS.3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
evening-F.SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘One feels cold/We/You/They (indef.) feel cold in the evening in the countryside.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore R
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’

(406)
ne-lle
in-ART.DEF.F.PL
contrattur-e
contracture-F.PL
si
REFL
ha
have.PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
muscol-o
muscle-M.SG
‘With a contracture, one feels/we/you/they(indef.) feel pain in the muscle.’
DIE morire R
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’

(408)
anche
also
in
in
temp-o
time-M.SG
di
of
pac-e
peace-F.SG
si
REFL
muor-e
die-PRS.3SG
in-giusta-mente
not-fair-ADV
‘People also die unfairly in peacetime.’
BE SAD essere triste R
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’

(410)
se
if
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-i
sad-M.PL
si
REFL
lavor-a
work-PRS.3SG
male
badly
‘If one is sad/we/you/they(indef.) are sad, one works/we/you/they(indef.) work badly.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame R
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’

(412)
non
NEG
si
REFL
dev-e
must-PRS.3SG
mangia-re
eat-INF
quando
when
non
not
si
REFL
ha
have.PRS.3SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘One/We/You/They(indef.) must not eat when one isn’t/we/you/they (indef.) aren’t hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato R
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’

(414)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
cib-o
food-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
più
more
sapor-e
taste-M.SG
se
if
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘Food has more taste if one is/we/you/they(indef.) are hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido M
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart R
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’

(421)
se
if
si
REFL
colpi-sc-e
beat-PRS-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
fall-o
foul-M.SG
‘If one touches/we/you/they(indef.) touch the ball with one’s/our/your/their hand, it is a foul.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’

(428)
se
if
si
REFL
urt-a
hit-PRS.3SG
per
for
cas-o
chance-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
person-a
person-F.SG
gli
DAT.3SG.M
si
REFL
chied-e
beg-PRS.3SG
scus-a
pardon-F.SG
‘If one hits/we/you/they (indef.) hit someone by chance one apologises /we/you/they (indef.) apologise.’
(640)
si
REFL
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vas-o
vase-M.SG
in-avvertita-mente
not-intentional-ADV
‘One hit/We/They (indef.) hit the vase accidentally.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’

(437)
si
IMP
lanci-a
throw-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dad-o
dice-M.SG
tenta-ndo
try-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fortun-a
luck-F.SG
‘One rolls/We/You/They (indef.) roll the die trying one's/our/your/their luck.’
WANT volere R
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’

(648)
si
REFL
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
subito
immediately
‘One wants/We/You/They (indef.) want everything immediately.’
GET ricevere R
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’

(446)
si
IMP
ricevo-no
receive-PRS.3PL
a_volte
sometimes
regal-i
gift-M.PL
non
NEG
gradit-i
pleasant-M.PL
‘One sometimes receives/We/You/They(indef.) sometimes receive undesired gifts.’
FALL cadere R
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’

(450)
da
as
anzian-i
old_man-M.PL
si
REFL
cad-e
fall-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Old people often fall down.’
(639)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-i
fall.PP-M.PL
a
to
terr-a
ground-F.SG
‘One has/We/You/They (indef.) fell to the ground.’
CRY piangere R
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’

(454)
si
REFL
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
per
for
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘One/We/You/they (indef.) cried for days.’
(654)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
piant-o
cry.PP-M.SG
per
for
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘One has cried/We/You/They (indef.) have cried for many days.’
BE ILL essere malato R
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’

(458)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
malat-i
ill-M.PL
da
as
anzian-i
old_man-M.PL
‘One is/We/You/They(indef.) are often ill when one is/we/you/they(indef.) are old.’
APPEAR apparire R
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’

(461)
si
REFL
è
be.PRS.3SG
appars-i
appear.PP-M.PL
sollevat-i
relieved-M.PL
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) seemed relieved.’
DIG dissotterrare R
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’

(703)
si
IMP
dissotterra-no
dig-PRS.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
a
at
fin-e
end-F.SG
estat-e
summer-F.SG
‘One digs up/We/You/They (indef.) dig up potatoes in late summer.’
PLAY giocare R
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’

(38)
si
REFL
gioc-a
play-PRS.3SG
a
to
cart-e
card-F.PL
tutt-a
all-F.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘One plays cards/We/They (indef.) play cards all night.’
(490)
si
REFL
gioc-a
play-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
partit-a
match-F.SG
important-e
important-F.SG
oggi
today
‘One plays/We/You/They (indef.) are playing an important match today.’
BOIL (tr) bollire R
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’

(468)
si
REFL
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
spesso
often
senza
without
ragion-e
reason-F.SG
‘One often boils/We/You/They(indef.) often boil milk for no reason.’
TEACH insegnare R
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’

(472)
si
REFL
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
da-l
since-ART.DEF.M.PL
prim-o
first-M.SG
ann-o
year-M.SG
‘One teaches/We/You/They (indef.) teach Maths to the students from the first year.’
(476)
si
REFL
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
con
with
pazienza
patience.F.SG
‘One teaches/We/You/They (indef.) teach with patience.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’

(479)
si
REFL
sping-e
push-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
con
with
calma
calm.F.SG
verso
towards
l'=uscit-a
ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘One slowly pushes/We/You/They (indef.) slowly push the trolley towards the exit.’
MAKE fare R
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’

(753)
si
REFL
fa
make.PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitar-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘One makes/We/You/They (indef.) make a guitar out of deal (wood).’
CLEAN pulire R
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’

(673)
si
REFL
pul-ì
wipe-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
detersiv-o
cleaner-M.SG
biodregradabil-e
biodegradable-M.SG
‘One/We/They (indef.) wiped the floor with a biodegradable floor-cleaner.’
GRIND macinare R
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’

(683)
un
ART.INDF.M
temp-o
time-M.SG
si
REFL
macina-v-a
grind-IMPF-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
in
at
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Once one/we/you/They (indef.) ground coffee at home.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’

(688)
si
IMP
porta-no
bring-PRS.3PL
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
a-lle
to-ART.DEF.F.PL
puerper-e
puerperant-F.PL
‘One brings/We/You/They (indef.) bring some flowers to the puerperas.’
STEAL rubare R
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’

(696)
si
IMP
ruba-no
steal-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
più
most
prezios-i
precious-M.PL
‘One steals/We/You/They (indef.) steal the most precious jewels.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre R
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’

(708)
si
REFL
sbatto-no
blink-PRS.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
in-consapevol-mente
not-conscious-ADV
‘One blinks one’s eyes/We blink our eyes/You blink your eyes/They blink their eyes unconsciously.’
COOK cuocere R
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’

(715)
si
REFL
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
con
with
attenzion-e
care-F.SG
‘One cooks/We/You/They (indef.) cook the meat carefully.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’

(496)
si
REFL
guarda-no
look-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
film
film
di
of
avventur-a
adventure-F.SG
di
of
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘At night one often watches/We/You/They (indef.) watch adventure films with pleasure.’
HEAR udire R
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’

(761)
si
REFL
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
boat-o
blast-M.SG
‘One/We/You/They (indef.) heard a blast.’