Direct Reciprocal Reflexive C

Description

A pattern where the verb is (di)transitive and the two nuclear arguments A and P act on each other and are both agent and patient of the verbal activity (Benefactive in Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive). In its non-canonical realizations A may be inanimate. In this pattern, reciprocity is often overtly expressed by means of the adverbials a vicenda, reciprocamente 'reciprocally' and by phrases such as l'un l'altro 'each other', which disambiguate the reflexive from the reciprocal interpretations (Cennamo 2011c and references therein).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LIKE piacere R
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’

(9)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
piaci-ut-i
like-PP-M.PL
subito
immediately
‘Anne and Luke immediatly liked each other.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’

(45)
que-i
that-M.PL
due
two
si
REFL
spaventa-no
frighten.PRS-3PL
intenzional-mente
on.purpose-ADV
ogni
every
volt-a
time-F.SG
che
COMPL
ne
of
hanno
have.PRS.3PL
l'
ART.DEF.M.SG
occasion-e
chance-F.SG
‘Those two (men) frighten each other whenever they get the chance.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare M
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’
BREAK rompere N
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’

(134)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
temo-no
fear-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
‘Anne and Luke fear each other.’
EAT mangiare N
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’

(138)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
vedo-no
see-PRS.3PL
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
finestr-a
window-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke can see each other from their windows.’
BUILD costruire N
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’

(145)
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
duell-o
fight-M.SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
nemic-i
enemy-M.PL
si
REFL
uccise-ro
kill.PST-3PL
‘The two enemies killed each other in the duel.’
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’

(582)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
gioca-va-no
play-IMPF-3PL
a
to
taglia-r-si
cut-INF-REFL
reciprocamente
each.other
‘The two played at cutthing each other.’
LOAD caricare N
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare N
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’
SINK (tr) affondare N
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
BURN (tr) bruciare N
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’

(95)
Marco
Mark
e
and
Laura
Laura
si
REFL
abbraccia-no
hug-PRS.3PL
ogni
every
volt-a
time-F.SG
che
COMPL
si
REFL
incontra-no
meet-PRS.3PL
‘Mark and Laura hug each other every time they meet.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’

(507)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
can-i
dog-M.PL
si
REFL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
per
for
fa-re
make-INF
amicizi-a
friendship-F.SG
‘Dogs smell each other to make friends.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’

(108)
Marco
Mark
e
and
Giovanni
John
si
REFL
conosco-no
know-PRS.3PL
da
from
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘Mark and John have known each other for ages.’
THINK pensare R
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’

(169)
ci
IMP
siamo
be.PRS.1PL
cerca-t-i
search-PP-M.PL
per
for
or-e
hour-F.PL
senza
without
incontra-r-ci
meet-INF-OBJ.1PL
‘We looked for each other for hours without meeting.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(550)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
lava-no
wash-PRS.3PL
l'-un
ART.DEF.M.SG-one.M.SG
l'-altr-o
ART.DEFM.SG-other-M.SG
come
as
poss-ono
can.PRS-3PL
‘Anne and Luke wash each other as well as they can.’
DRESS vestire R
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’

(529)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Maria
Mary
si
REFL
vesto-no
dress-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
‘Anne and Mary are dressing each other.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere N
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’

(541)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
aiuta-no
help-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
‘Anne and Luke often help each other.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’

(555)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
seguo-no
follow-PRS.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
pedina-ndo-si
tail-PROG-REFL
‘Anne and Luke are following each other.’
MEET incontrare R
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’

(563)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
incontra-no
meet-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
‘Anne and Luke often meet.’
TALK parlare N
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
ASK FOR chiedere N
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’

(199)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
per
for
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
disordin-e
mess-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke are shouting at each other because of the disorder.’
(200)
tra
among
compagn-e
team_mate-F.PL
di
of
squadr-a
team-F.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
e
and
ci
IMP
si
REFL
incoraggi-a
encourage-PRS.3SG
‘Team-mates encourage and shout at each other.’
TELL raccontare N
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’
SAY dire N
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’

(221)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
chiama-no
call-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
tesor-o
treasure-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke call each other "Darling".’
TOUCH toccare R
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’

(230)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
balcon-i
balcony-M.PL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
così
so
vicin-i
close-M.PL
che
COMPL
quasi
nearly
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
‘Our balconies are so close that they nearly touch each other.’
TAKE prendere N
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’
TEAR strappare
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’
PEEL sbucciare
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(560)
si
REFL
nascos-ero
hide.PST-3PL
a_vicenda
each.other
‘They hid each other.’
SHOW mostrare
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’
GIVE dare
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’
SEND inviare
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(586)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
scimpanzé
chimpanzee.M.PL
si
REFL
trasporta-no
carry.PRS-3PL
a_vicenda
each.other
su-lle
on-ART.DEF.F.PL
spall-e
shoulder-F.PL
‘Chimpanzees alternate in carrying each other on their shoulders.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’

(294)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
lega-t-i
tie-PP-M.PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke tied each other to the boat.’
PUT mettere
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’
POUR versare N
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’

(506)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
copro-no
cover-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
con
with
lo
ART.DEF.M.SG
sciall-e
shawl-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke are covering each other with the shawl.’
FILL riempire N
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’
COUGH tossire N
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
CLIMB scalare N
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’
RUN correre N
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
SIT sedere N
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare N
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’
SING cantare N
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’
GO andare N
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire N
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’

(600)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Marco
Mark
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
lascia-t-i
leave-PP-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke have split up.’
LIVE abitare N
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere N
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare N
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’

(578)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
e
and
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
cinghial-e
boar-M.SG
si
REFL
senti-va-no
hear-IMPF-3PL
a
by
distanza
far
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
bosc-o
wood-M.SG
‘The dog and the boar heard each other from afar in the woods.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore N
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo N
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo N
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore N
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire N
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
BE SAD essere triste N
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame N
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato N
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido N
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’

(420)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
pugil-i
boxer-M.PL
si
REFL
colpi-rono
beat-PST.3PL
violente-mente
violent-ADV
‘The two boxers punched each other violently.’
(424)
ci
IMP
si
REFL
colpi-sc-e
beat-PRS-3SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
spad-a
sword-F.SG
e
and
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
fiorett-o
foil-M.SG
‘We/you/they (indef) strike each other with épées and with foils.’
(638)
ci
IMP
si
REFL
colpi-sc-e
beat-PRS-3SG
a_vicenda
mutually
con
with
calc-i
kick-M.PL
e
and
pugn-i
fist-M.PL
‘We beat each other /They (indef.) beat each other with kicks and fists.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’

(430)
in
in
un
ART.INDF.M
ascensor-e
lift-M.SG
affollat-o
crowded-M.SG
ci
IMP
si
REFL
urt-a
hit-PRS.3SG
casual-mente
casual-ADV
‘In a crowded lift people/we/you/they (indef.) accidentally bump against each other.’
(431)
quando
when
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
temperatur-a
temperature-F.SG
sal-e
raise-PRS.3SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
atom-i
atom-M.PL
si
REFL
urta-no
hit-PRS.3PL
‘When the temperature rises, the atoms strike each other.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’

(548)
Marco
Mark
e
and
Giovanna
Jane
si
REFL
lancia-rono
throw-PST.3PL
in
in
ari-a
air-F.SG
a_vicenda
each.other
‘Mark and Jane threw each other into the air.’
WANT volere R
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’

(444)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
voglio-no
want-PRS.3PL
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke love each other for life.’
(649)
ci
IMP
si
REFL
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
per
for
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘One loves/We/They (indef.) love each other for life.’
GET ricevere M
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’
FALL cadere N
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’
CRY piangere N
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
BE ILL essere malato N
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire N
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
DIG dissotterrare N
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’
PLAY giocare N
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
BOIL (tr) bollire N
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’
TEACH insegnare N
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’

(481)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
spingo-no
push-PRS.3PL
ride-ndo
laugh-PROG
‘The children are pushing each other laughing.’
(658)
a_volte
sometimes
involontaria-mente
unintentional-ADV
ci
IMP
si
REFL
sping-e
push-PRS.3SG
‘Sometimes we/you/They (indef.) accidentally push each other.’
MAKE fare N
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’
CLEAN pulire
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’
GRIND macinare N
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’
BRING portare
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’
STEAL rubare
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre N
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
COOK cuocere
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’

(101)
si
REFL
guarda-va-no
look-IMPF-3PL
con
with
odi-o
hatred-M.SG
‘They looked at each other with hatred.’
HEAR udire N
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’