Reflexive Passive C

Description

The use of the 3sg./pl. reflexive pronoun si to mark a P-oriented pattern where the original P of a corresponding transitive verb occurs as subject and A is deleted, only marginally surfacing as a prepositional phrase headed by da parte di ('on the part of'). In its canonical realizations, in the unmarked word order [N si V] the S(ubject) occurs in the preverbal position, it is definite, referential and conveys given information (Cennamo 1995: 85-86). In compound tenses the auxiliary selected is always BE essere, in all reflexive patterns.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT mangiare R
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’

(27)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
in
in
Giappone
Japan
si
REFL
mangi-a
eat-PRS.3SG
crud-o
raw-M.SG
‘Fish in Japan is eaten raw.’
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’

(112)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cart-a
paper-F.SG
si
REFL
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
facil-mente
easy-ADV
‘Paper is easily cut.’
LOAD caricare R
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’

(119)
general-mente
general-ADV
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
si
REFL
caric-a
load-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ser-a
night-F.SG
prima
before
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
partenz-a
leaving-F.SG
‘Usually the car is loaded the night before leaving.’
BUILD costruire R
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’

(117)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stair-F.SG
si
REFL
costruisc-e
build-PRS.3SG
facil-mente
easy-ADV
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
mod-o
way-M.SG
‘The stairs are built easily in this way.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’

(35)
stasera
tonight
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
lun-a
moon-F.SG
si
REFL
ved-e
see-PRS.3SG
chiara-mente
clear-ADV
‘Tonight the Moon can be seen clearly.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare N
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’
BREAK rompere R
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’

(79)
l'=uov-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=egg-M.SG
di
of
Pasqua
Easter
si
REFL
romp-e
break-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The Easter egg is broken like this.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’

(83)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vecchiai-a
old_age-F.SG
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
senza
without
motiv-o
reason-M.SG
‘Old age is feared without any reason.’
(87)
si
REFL
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
da
from
part-e
part-F.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
partit-o
party-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
candidatur-a
candidacy-F.SG
di
of
Marco
Mark
‘The party fears Mark's candidacy.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’

(140)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
si
REFL
spavent-a
frighten-PRS.3SG
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
mod-o
way-M.SG
‘The crowd is frightened in this way.’
LIKE piacere N
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’

(147)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
quagli-a
quail-F.SG
si
REFL
uccid-e
kill-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘Quail are killed in this way.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare R
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’

(156)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tappet-o
carpet-M.SG
si
REFL
rotol-a
roll-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The carpet is rolled in this way.’
SINK (tr) affondare M
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
BURN (tr) bruciare R
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’

(49)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
rifiut-i
rubbish-M.PL
si
REFL
brucia-no
burn-PRS.3PL
in
in
quest-o
this-M.SG
capannon-e
shed-M.SG
‘Rubbish is burnt in this shed.’
(159)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
legn-a
wood-F.SG
si
REFL
bruci-a
burn-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘Wood is burnt in this way.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’

(722)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
si
REFL
abbraccia-no
hug-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
‘Friends often hug each other.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’

(146)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
si
REFL
odora-no
smell-PRS.3PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Numbing substances are smelled to relieve hunger.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’

(162)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
più
most
car-i
dear-M.PL
si
REFL
conosco-no
know-PRS.3PL
ne-ll'=infanzi-a
in-ART.DEF.F.SG=childhood-F.SG
‘Dearest friends are met in childhood.’
THINK pensare N
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’

(173)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cap-i
article_of_clothing-M.PL
in
in
sald-o
sale-M.SG
si
REFL
cerca-no
search-PRS.3PL
dopo
after
Natale
Christmas
‘Clothes on sale must be looked for after Christmas.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(521)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
si
REFL
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
apposit-o
appropriate-M.SG
detergent-e
cleanser-M.SG
‘The car is to be washed with an appropriate detergent.’
DRESS vestire R
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’

(588)
ne-lle
in-ART.DEF.F.PL
vetrin-e
shop_window-F.PL
si
REFL
vesto-no
dress.PRS-3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
manichin-i
mannequin-M.PL
con
with
abit-i
clothes-M.PL
autumnal-i
autumnal-M.PL
‘In the shop windows, mannequins are dressed with autumn clothes.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(532)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
si
REFL
rad-e
shave-PRS.3SG
con
with
accuratezz-a
care-F.SG
‘Beards are to be carefully shaved.’
(538)
si
REFL
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
ras-i
shave.PP-M.PL
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
con
with
accortezz-a
care-F.SG
‘One is carefully shaved/We/You/They(indef.) are carefully shaved by the barber.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’

(551)
un
ART.INDF.M
colleg-a
colleague-M.SG
si
REFL
aiut-a
help-PRS.3SG
con
with
discrezion-e
tact-F.SG
‘A colleague is to be helped with discretion.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’

(557)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
rott-a
course-F.SG
prestabilit-a
predetermined-F.SG
si
REFL
segu-e
follow-PRS.3SG
senza
without
variazion-i
variation-F.PL
‘The predetermined course is to be followed without variations.’
MEET incontrare R
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’

(567)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
intelligent-i
clever-F.PL
non
NEG
si
REFL
incontra-no
meet-PRS.3PL
spesso
often
‘One doesn’t often/We/You/They (indef.) don’t often meet intelligent people.’
TALK parlare N
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
ASK FOR chiedere R
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’

(617)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
si
REFL
chiedo-no
ask-PRS.3PL
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
amic-i
friend-M.PL
‘Friends can be asked for money.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’

(197)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
spesso
often
si
REFL
sgrida-no
shout_at-PRS.3PL
a_malincuore
reluctantly
‘Children are often scolded with reluctance.’
TELL raccontare R
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’

(619)
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
libr-o
book-M.SG
si
REFL
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
crisi
crisis.F.SG
interior-e
inner-F.SG
di
of
un
ART.INDF.M
medic-o
doctor-M.SG
‘A doctor's inner crisis is described in this book.’
SAY dire R
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’

(215)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
si
REFL
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
con
with
coraggi-o
courage-M.SG
‘The truth is to be said with courage.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’

(223)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
figl-i
son-M.PL
spesso
often
si
REFL
chiama-no
name-PRS.3PL
co-l
with-ART.DEF.M.SG
nom-e
name-M.SG
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
nonn-i
grandparent-M.PL
‘Children are often named after their grandparents.’
TOUCH toccare R
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’

(228)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
neonat-i
new_born_baby-M.PL
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
con
with
delicatezz-a
delicacy-F.SG
‘Newborn babies are to be touched delicately.’
(623)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
lampad-e
lamp-F.PL
alogen-e
halogen-F.PL
si
REFL
tocca-no
touch-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
guant-i
glove-M.PL
‘Halogen lamps are to be touched with gloves.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’

(235)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
repert-o
find-M.SG
si
REFL
prend-e
take-PRS.3SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
guant-i
glove-M.PL
‘The find is to be taken when wearing gloves.’
TEAR strappare R
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’

(244)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
da-i
from-ART.DEF.M.PL
quadern-i
exercise_book-M.PL
solo
only
rara-mente
rare-ADV
‘Only rarely are pages to be torn out of exercise books.’
PEEL sbucciare R
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’

(250)
oggi
today
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutta
fruit.F.SG
si
REFL
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
‘Today fruit is always peeled.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(497)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
spesso
often
si
REFL
nascond-e
hide-PRS.3SG
per
for
non
NEG
allarma-re
alarm-INF
‘The truth is often hidden, so as not to alarm people.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’

(265)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
miglior-e
best-F.SG
si
REFL
mostr-a
show-PRS.3SG
solo
only
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
assidu-i
abitual-M.PL
‘The best goods are only shown to habitual customers.’
GIVE dare R
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’

(273)
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
si
REFL
give.PRS.3SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘The pay rise is given to deserving workers.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(282)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
invit-i
invitation-M.PL
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
due
two
mes-i
month-M.PL
prima
before
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
‘Invitations are sent out two months before the wedding.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(287)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
di
of
porcellan-a
chine-F.SG
si
REFL
trasporta-no
carry-PRS.3PL
in
in
apposit-e
appropriate-F.PL
scatol-e
box-F.PL
‘Porcelain plates are transported in the correct boxes.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’

(297)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barc-a
boat-F.SG
si
REFL
leg-a
tie-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mol-o
dock-M.SG
‘The boat is to be tied to the dock in this way.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’

(303)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
vestit-i
clothes-M.PL
si
REFL
metto-no
put-PRS.3PL
ne-ll'=armadi-o
in-ART.DEF.M.SG=wardrobe-M.SG
in
in
ordin-e
order-M.SG
‘Clothes are to be put neatly in the wardrobe.’
POUR versare R
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’

(313)
l'=impast-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=dough-M.SG
si
REFL
vers-a
pour-PRS.3SG
ne-ll'=oli-o
in-ART.DEF.M.SG=oil-M.SG
quando
when
è
be.PRS.3SG
bollent-e
boiling-M.SG
‘The dough is to be poured into the oil when it is boiling.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’

(319)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
si
REFL
copr-e
cover-PRS.3SG
di
of
fior-i
flower-M.PL
per
for
un
ART.INDF.M
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
‘The floor is covered with flowers for a wedding.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’

(332)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cas-a
house-F.SG
si
REFL
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
di
of
quadr-i
picture-M.PL
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘The house filled with pictures in a short while.’
(338)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tanic-a
can-F.SG
si
REFL
riempi-e
fill-PRS.3SG
così
this_way
‘The can is to be filled in this way.’
COUGH tossire N
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
CLIMB scalare R
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’

(360)
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
montagn-a
mountain-F.SG
si
REFL
scal-a
climb-PRS.3SG
pass-o
step-M.SG
dopo
after
pass-o
step-M.SG
‘A mountain is to be climbed one step at a time.’
RUN correre N
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
SIT sedere N
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare N
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’
SING cantare M
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’
GO andare N
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire N
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’

(602)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
propri-o
own-M.SG
paes-e
country-M.SG
si
REFL
lasci-a
leave-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
con
with
dispiacer-e
regret-M.SG
‘One always leaves his own country with regret.’
LIVE abitare N
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere N
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare N
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’

(663)
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
si
REFL
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
a
at
distanz-a
distance-F.SG
‘The bear is heard in the distance.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore N
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo N
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo N
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore N
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire N
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
BE SAD essere triste N
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame N
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato N
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido N
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’

(425)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bersagli-o
target-M.SG
si
REFL
colpi-sc-e
beat-PRS-3SG
così
this_way
‘The target is to be hit in this way.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’

(432)
in
in
que-ll'=angol-o
that-ART.DEF.M.SG=corner-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vas-o
vase-M.SG
si
REFL
può
can.PRS.3SG
urta-re
hit-INF
in-avvertita-mente
not-intentional-ADV
‘In that corner the vase can be knocked over inadvertently.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’

(438)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
missil-e
missile-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
lancia-t-o
throw-PP-M.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
pontil-e
landing-M.SG
‘The missile is launched from the landing stage.’
WANT volere R
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’

(442)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
diritt-o
right-M.SG
a-llo
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
scioper-o
strike-M.SG
si
REFL
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
ferma-mente
firm-ADV
da
from
part-e
part-F.SG
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
‘The right to strike is firmly demanded by the workers.’
GET ricevere R
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’

(447)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
regal-i
gift-M.PL
si
IMP
ricevo-no
receive-PRS.3PL
con
with
gratitudin-e
gratefulness-F.SG
‘Gifts are to be received with gratitude.’
FALL cadere N
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’
CRY piangere M
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
BE ILL essere malato N
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire N
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
DIG dissotterrare R
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’

(704)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
si
REFL
dissotterra-no
dig-PRS.3PL
a
at
fin-e
end-F.SG
estat-e
summer-F.SG
‘Potatoes are dug up in late summer.’
PLAY giocare M
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
BOIL (tr) bollire R
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’

(469)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
si
REFL
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
per
for
un'=antic-a
ART.INDF.F=ancient-F.SG
abitudin-e
habit-F.SG
‘Milk is boiled because of an old habit.’
TEACH insegnare R
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’

(473)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
si
REFL
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
con
with
pazienza
patience.F.SG
‘Maths is to be taught with patience.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’

(480)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
si
REFL
sping-e
push-PRS.3SG
con
with
calma
calm.F.SG
‘The trolley is to be pushed slowly.’
MAKE fare R
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’

(754)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
chitarr-a
guitar-F.SG
si
REFL
fa
make.PRS.3SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SF
‘The guitar is to be made out of deal (wood).’
CLEAN pulire R
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’

(674)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
si
REFL
puli-sc-e
wipe-PRS-3SG
con
with
cur-a
care-F.SG
‘The table is to be cleaned carefully.’
GRIND macinare R
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’

(684)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
si
REFL
macin-a
grind-3SG
fresc-o
fresh-M.SG
‘Coffee is freshly ground.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’

(689)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
si
REFL
porta-no
bring-PRS.3PL
come
as
omaggi-o
gift-M.SG
‘Flowers are brought as a homage.’
STEAL rubare R
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’

(695)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
si
REFL
ruba-no
steal-PRS.3PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Jewels are frequently stolen.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre M
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
COOK cuocere R
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’

(714)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
si
REFL
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
con
with
attenzion-e
care-F.SG
‘Meat is to be cooked carefully.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’

(104)
l'=humus
ART.DEF.M.SG=humus
si
REFL
guard-a
look-PRS.3SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
microscopi-o
microscope-M.SG
‘Humus is seen through a microscope.’
(495)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
film
film
di
of
avventur-a
adventure-F.SG
si
REFL
guarda-no
look-PRS.3PL
con
with
piacer-e
pleasure-M.SG
di
of
nott-e
night-F.SG
‘Adventure films are watched with pleasure at night.’
HEAR udire R
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’

(760)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
boat-o
blast-M.SG
si
REFL
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
a
at
distanz-a
distance-F.SG
‘The blast was heard in the distance.’