Passive C

Description

A pattern with P-orientation, a marked verb morphology (the auxiliary essere 'BE', venire 'COME', andare 'GO' + the past participle of the lexical verb), A suppression/deletion (optionally surfacing as a prepositional phrase introduced by the prepositions da 'by'/da parte di 'on behalf of' + A), topicalization and subjectization of non-Agent. The auxiliary is realized by: (i) BE (essere), in imperfective and perfective tenses; (ii) COME (venire), in imperfective tenses only; (iii) GO (andare), with deontic value and, marginally, in perfective tenses with some accomplishments.
Passivization is possible with achievements (e.g.
strappare 'tear'), accomplishments (e.g. bruciare 'burn', affondare 'sink', costruire 'build', uccidere 'kill'), activities (e.g. dire 'tell', abbracciare 'hug'), and marginally with states (e.g. vedere 'see', amare 'love'), but with non generic Ps (Cennamo 2003: 53, Cennamo 2010).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT mangiare R
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’

(3)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
spaghett-i
spaghetti-M.PL
fu-rono
be.PST-3PL
mangia-t-i
eat-PP-M.PL
da
by
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘The spaghetti was eaten by everyone.’
(11)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
in
in
Giappone
Japan
viene
be.PRS.3SG
mangia-t-o
eat-PP-M.SG
crud-o
raw-M.SG
‘Fish is eaten raw in Japan.’
(109)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pesc-e
fish-M.SG
non
NEG
va
go.PRS.3SG
mangia-t-o
eat-PP-M.SG
crudo
raw
‘Fish is not to be eaten raw.’
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’

(26)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-a
be.PP-F.SG
taglia-t-a
cut-PP-F.SG
da-gli
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
spos-i
married-M.PL
‘The cake has been cut by the bride and the bridegroom.’
LOAD caricare R
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’

(17)
i
ART.DEF.M.SG
camion
camion
van-no
go.PRS-3PL
carica-t-i
load-PP-M.PL
su-i
onto-ART.DEF.M.PL
tren-i
train-M.PL
‘The trucks are to be loaded onto the trains.’
(25)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tren-o
train-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
carica-t-o
load-PP-M.SG
di
of
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
facchin-i
porter-M.PL.
‘The train has been loaded with suitcases by the porters.’
SEE vedere R
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’

(37)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
progress-o
progress-M.SG
non
NEG
è
be.PRS.3SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
come
as
un-o
ART.INDF-M.SG
strument-o
instrument-M.SG
per
for
migliora-re
improve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
qualità
quality.F.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘Progress is not seen as a means of improving the quality of life.’
(39)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lavorator-e
worker-M.SG
italian-o
italian-M.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
più
more
de-lle
of-ART.DEF.F.PL
volt-e
time-F.PL
come
as
un
ART.INDF.M
pes-o
burden-M.SG
‘Italian workers are seen as a burden most of the time.’
BUILD costruire R
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’

(16)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
prim-o
first-M.SG
teatr-o
theatre-M.SG
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
da
by
Pompeo
Pompeo
‘The first theatre was built by Pompeus.’
(116)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
scal-a
stair-F.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-a
build-PP-F.SG
così
this_way
‘The stairs are to be built in this way.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare R
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’

(43)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
professor-e
professor-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
da
by
quest-o
this-M.SG
grid-o
cry-M.SG
di
of
allarm-e
alarm-M.SG
‘The professor is frightened by this cry of alarm.’
BURN (tr) bruciare R
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’

(51)
durante
during
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
matrimoni-o
wedding-M.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
incens-o
incense-M.SG
‘Incense is usually burnt during the wedding.’
(52)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
cassonett-o
bin-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
manifestant-i
demonstrator-M.PL
‘The bin was burnt by the demonstrators.’
SINK (tr) affondare R
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
KILL uccidere R
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’

(62)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
due
two
testimon-i
witness-M.PL
sar-anno
be.FUT-3PL
uccis-i
kill.PP-M.PL
‘The two witnesses will be killed.’
ASSASSINATE assassinare R
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’

(70)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giornalist-a
journalist-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
da
by
due
two
individu-i
guy-M.PL
‘The journalist was murdered by two unidentified men.’
BREAK rompere R
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’

(77)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
sigill-o
seal-M.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
vostr-a
your-F.SG
scatol-a
box-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
rott-o
break.PP-M.SG
‘The seal of your box has been broken.’
FEAR temere R
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’

(85)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
general-e
general-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
temut-o
fear.PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
his-M.PL
soldat-i
soldier-M.PL
‘The general is feared by his troops.’
LIKE piacere N
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare R
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’

(155)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'=oli-o
of=oil-M.SG
fu-rono
be.PST-3PL
rotola-t-i
roll-PP-M.PL
a
to
fondovall-e
downhill-F.SG
‘The oil barrels were rolled to the bottom of the valley.’
HUG abbracciare R
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’

(81)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
abbraccia-t-o
hug-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
his-M.PL
genitor-i
parent-M.PL
‘The baby is hugged by his parents.’
SMELL odorare R
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’

(100)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
tossich-e
toxic-F.PL
non
NEG
va-nno
go.PRS-3PL
odora-t-e
smell-PP-F.PL
‘Toxic substances must not be smelled.’
(139)
alcun-e
some-F.PL
sostanz-e
substance-F.PL
che
REL
stordisco-no
daze-PRS.3PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
odora-t-e
smell-PP-F.PL
per
for
allevia-re
relieve-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Some numbing substances are sniffed to relieve hunger.’
KNOW conoscere R
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’

(164)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
situazion-e
situation-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
ben
well
conosciut-a
know.PP-F.SG
da
by
tutt-i
everybody-M.PL
in
in
paes-e
village-M.SG
‘The situation is well-known by everyone in the village.’
THINK pensare M
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
SEARCH FOR cercare R
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’

(175)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
cerca-t-a
search-PP-F.SG
con
with
umiltà
humility.F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
sagg-i
wise-M.PL
‘Wise men search for truth with humility (lit. truth is searched for with humility by wise men).’
(176)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-a
be.PP-F.SG
cerca-t-a
search-PP-F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
familiar-i
relative-M.PL
per
for
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘The truth has been searched for by the relatives for years.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(517)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
macchin-a
car-F.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
lava-t-a
wash-PP-F.SG
ogni
every
due
two
settiman-e
week-F.PL
‘The car is to be washed every two weeks.’
DRESS vestire R
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’

(526)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
vesti-t-o
dress-PP-M.SG
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘The child is dressed by his mother in a woolen coat.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(531)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
pecor-e
sheep-F.PL
veng-ono
come.PRS-3PL
rasa-t-e
shave-PP-F.PL
un-a
one-F.SG
volt-a
time-F.SG
l'=ann-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=year-M.SG
‘Sheep are shorn once a year.’
HELP aiutare R
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’

(543)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
più
most
debol-i
weak-M.PL
va-nno
go.PRS-3PL
aiuta-t-i
help-PP-M.PL
‘The weakest are to be helped.’
FOLLOW seguire R
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’

(576)
quell-a
that-F.SG
rott-a
course-F.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
segui-t-a
follow-PP-F.SG
regolarmente
regularly
da-lle
by-ART.DEF.F.PL
nav-i
ship-F.PL
‘That course is regularly followed by the ships.’
MEET incontrare R
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’

(569)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
dittator-e
dictator-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
incontra-t-o
meet-PP-M.SG
in
in
carcer-e
prison-M.SG
‘The dictator was met in prison.’
TALK parlare N
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
ASK FOR chiedere R
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’

(194)
a
to
Mario
Mario
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
chiest-i
ask.PP-M.PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
document-i
paper-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
poliziott-i
policeman-M.PL
‘Mario is asked for his identity papers by the policemen.’
SHOUT AT sgridare R
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’

(196)
Marco
Mark
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
sgrida-t-o
shout_at-PP-M.SG
spesso
often
‘Mark is often scolded.’
TELL raccontare R
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’

(207)
l'=episodi-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=episode-M.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
racconta-t-o
tell-PP-M.SG
magistral-mente
masterful-ADV
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
film
film
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
regist-a
director-M.SG
‘The episode is masterly narrated in the film by the director.’
SAY dire R
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’

(216)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
dett-a
say.PP-F.SG
con
with
coraggi-o
courage-M.SG
‘The truth is said with courage.’
NAME chiamare R
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’

(220)
mi-o
my-M.SG
padr-e
father-M.SG
in
in
fabbric-a
factory-F.SG
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
chiama-t-o
call-PP-M.SG
nuvol-a
cloud-F.SG
ner-a
black-F.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
‘In the factory, my father was called "Black Cloud" by the workers.’
TOUCH toccare N
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’

(233)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
pres-i
take.PP-M.PL
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
biliotecar-i
librarian-M.PL
e
and
consegna-t-i
give-PP-M.PL
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lettor-i
reader-M.PL
‘The books are taken by the librarians and given to the readers.’
TEAR strappare R
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’

(246)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
strappa-t-a
tear-PP-F.SG
da-ll'=insegnant-e
by-ART.DEF.F.SG=teacher-F.SG
‘The letter was torn up by the teacher.’
PEEL sbucciare R
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’

(248)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
sbuccia-t-a
peel-PP-F.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
adatt-o
proper-M.SG
‘Apples are peeled with the right knife.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(258)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vallat-a
valley-F.SG
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
nascost-a
hide.PP-F.SG
da-lla
by-ART.DEF.F.SG
nebbi-a
fog-F.SG
‘The valley was hidden by the fog.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’

(267)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
prov-e
proof-F.PL
venn-ero
come.PST-3PL
mostra-t-e
show-PP-F.PL
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
giudic-i
judge-M.PL
da-ll=avvocat-o
by-ART.DEF.M.SG=lawyer-M.SG
‘The evidence was shown to the judges by the lawyer.’
GIVE dare R
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’

(272)
l'=aument-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=pay_rise-M.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
da-t-o
give-PP-M.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
lavorator-i
worker-M.PL
meritevol-i
deserving-M.PL
‘The pay rise is to be given to deserving workers.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(281)
lo
ART.DEF.M.SG
stess-o
same-M.SG
messaggi-o
message-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
invia-t-o
send-PP-M.SG
a
to
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘The same message is sent to everybody.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(286)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ferit-o
victim-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
trasporta-t-o
carry-PP-M.SG
a-ll'=ospedal-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=hospital-M.SG
‘The injured person is taken to hospital.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’

(293)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
can-i
dog-M.PL
feroc-i
ferocious-M.PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
lega-t-i
tie-PP-M.PL
‘Ferocious dogs are tied up.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’

(305)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
miel-e
honey-M.SG
veni-v-a/er-a
come-IMPF-3SG/be.IMPF-3SG
mess-o
put.PP-M.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
vin-o
wine-M.SG
‘Honey used to be put into wine.’
POUR versare R
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’

(311)
l'=impast-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=dough-M.SG
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
versa-t-o
pour-PP-M.SG
ne-ll'=oli-o
in-ART.DEF.M.SG=oil-M.SG
bollent-e
boiling-M.SG
‘The dough is poured into the boiling oil.’
COVER coprire R
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’

(320)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
coper-t-o
cover-PP-M.SG
di
of
fior-i
flower-M.PL
‘The floor is covered with flowers.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’

(340)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contenitor-e
container-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
riempi-t-o
fill-PP-M.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
fond-o
bottom-M.SG
di
of
acqu-a
water-F.SG
‘The container is filled from the bottom with water.’
(627)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cas-a
house-F.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
riempi-t-a
fill-PP-F.SG
di
of
quadr-i
picture-M.PL
‘The house is filled with pictures.’
COUGH tossire N
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
CLIMB scalare R
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’

(354)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
K2
K2
da
since
due
two
ann-i
year-M.PL
non
NEG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
a_causa
because
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
cattiv-o
bad-M.SG
temp-o
weather-M.SG
‘K2 has not been climbed for two years because of bad weather.’
RUN correre N
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
SIT sedere N
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare M
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’
SING cantare M
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’
GO andare N
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire N
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LEAVE lasciare R
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’

(603)
Marco
Mark
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
sol-o
alone-M.SG
da
by
tutt-i
all-M.PL
‘Mark has been left alone by everybody.’
LIVE abitare M
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere N
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare N
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
HEAR sentire R
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’

(661)
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
senti-t-o
hear-PP-M.SG
da-i
by-ART.DEF.M.PL
can-i
dog-M.PL
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘The bear is heard in the distance by the dogs.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore N
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo N
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo N
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore N
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire N
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
BE SAD essere triste N
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame N
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato N
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
BE DRY essere arido N
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
BEAT colpire R
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’

(462)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pugil-e
boxer-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
colpi-t-o
beat-PP-M.SG
dura-mente
violent-ADV
da-ll'=avversari-o
by-ART.DEF.M.SG=opponent-M.SG
‘The boxer is being struck violently by his opponent.’
HIT urtare R
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’

(429)
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
urta-t-o
hit-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
fianc-o
side-M.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
vettur-a
car-F.SG
‘The side of the car has been hit.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’

(435)
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
lancia-t-o
throw-PP-M.SG
un
ART.INDF.M
missil-e
missile-M.SG
‘A missile is launched.’
WANT volere R
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’

(441)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
restaur-o
refurbishment-M.SG
de-lla
of-ART.DEF.F.SG
cappell-a
chapel-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
volut-o
want.PP-M.SG
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
vescov-o
bishop-M.SG
‘The restoration of the chapel is desired by the bishop.’
GET ricevere R
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’

(448)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
regal-i
gift-M.PL
sono/vengo-no
be.PRS.3PL/come.PRS-3PL
ricevut-i
receive.PP-M.PL
con
with
gratitudin-e
gratefulness-F.SG
‘Gifts are received with gratitude.’
FALL cadere N
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’
CRY piangere M
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
BE ILL essere malato N
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire N
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
DIG dissotterrare R
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’

(702)
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
va-nno
go.PRS-3PL
dissotterra-t-e
dig-PP-F.PL
a
at
fin-e
end-F.SG
estat-e
summer-F.SG
‘Potatoes are to be dug up in late summer.’
PLAY giocare M
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
BOIL (tr) bollire R
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’

(465)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
bolli-t-o
boil-PP-M.SG
per
for
cinque
five
minut-i
minute-M.PL
‘The milk is boiled for five minutes.’
TEACH insegnare R
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’

(353)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
va
go.PRS.3SG
insegna-t-a
teach-PP-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
da-l
since-ART.DEF.M.SG
prim-o
first-M.SG
ann-o
year-M.SG
‘Maths is to be taught to the students from the first year.’
(471)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
vien-e
come-PRS.3SG
insegna-t-a
teach-PP-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
da-l
since-ART.DEF.M.SG
prim-o
first-M.SG
ann-o
year-M.SG
‘Maths is taught to the students from the first year.’
PUSH spingere R
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’

(478)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
spint-o
push.PP-M.SG
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
commess-o
shop_assistant-M.SG
‘The trolley is pushed by the shop-assistant.’
MAKE fare R
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’

(752)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
chitarr-a
guitar-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
fatt-a
make.PP-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘The guitar is made out of deal (wood).’
CLEAN pulire R
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’

(486)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
puli-t-a
clean-PP-F.SG
tutt-i
all-M.PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘The room was cleaned all day long.’
GRIND macinare R
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’

(682)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
è/vien-e
be.PRS.3SG/come.PRS-3SG
macina-t-o
grind-PP-M.SG
fresc-o
fresh-M.SG
‘The coffee is freshly ground.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’

(690)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
vengo-no
come.PRS-3PL
porta-t-i
bring-PP-M.PL
ne-lle
in-ART.DEF.F.PL
ricorrenz-e
anniversary-F.PL
important-i
important-F.PL
‘Flowers are brought when an important anniversary takes place.’
STEAL rubare R
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’

(620)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
fu-rono
be.PST-3PL
ruba-t-i
steal-PP-M.PL
da-l
by-ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
‘The jewels were stolen by the thief.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre M
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
COOK cuocere R
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’

(713)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
vien-e
come.PRS-3SG
cott-a
cook.PP-F.SG
lenta-mente
slow-ADV
‘The meat is cooked slowly.’
LOOK AT guardare R
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’

(494)
Marco
Mark
è
be.PRS.3SG
stat-o
be.PP-M.SG
guarda-t-o
look-PP-M.SG
con
with
scetticism-o
scepticism-M.SG
‘Mark was viewed with scepticism.’
HEAR udire R
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’

(759)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
venn-e
come.PST-3SG
udi-t-o
hear-PP-M.SG
da
by
Giovanna
Jane
‘The noise was heard by Jane.’