Indirect Reciprocal Reflexive C

Description

A pattern where the verb is (di)transitive and the A arguments and the recipient/benefactive argument act on each other and are both Benefactive of the verbal activity. In its non-canonical realizations A may be inanimate. In this pattern, reciprocity is often overtly expressed by means of the adverbials a vicenda, reciprocamente 'reciprocally' and by phrases such as l'un l'altro 'each other', which disambiguate the reflexive from the reciprocal interpretations (Cennamo 2011c and references therein).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
EAT mangiare N
(1)
Marco
Mark
mangi-ò
eat-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
tort-a
cake-F.SG
‘Mark ate the cake.’
SEE vedere N
(34)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
vist-o
see.PP-M.SG
quell-e
that-F.PL
pagin-e
page-F.PL
‘I have seen those pages.’
HUG abbracciare N
(94)
Marco
Mark
abbracci-a
hug-PRS.3SG
Laura
Laura
‘Mark is hugging Laura.’
LOOK AT guardare N
(99)
Marco
Mark
guarda-v-a
look-IMPF-1SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
stell-e
star-F.PL
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
balcon-e
balcony-M.SG
‘Mark looked at the stars from the balcony.’
SMELL odorare N
(93)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
odor-a
smell-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
owner-M.SG
‘The dog smells its owner.’
FEAR temere N
(82)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
re
king.M.SG
piemontes-e
Piedmontese-M.SG
tem-e
fear-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
potenz-a
power-F.SG
austriac-a
Austrian-F.SG
‘The king of Piedmont fears Austrian power.’
FRIGHTEN spaventare N
(44)
Mario
Mario
ha
have.PRS.3SG
spaventa-t-o
frighten-PP-M.SG
Laura
Laura
di
of
proposit-o
purpose-M.SG
‘Mario has frightened Laura on purpose.’
LIKE piacere N
(6)
a
to
Mario
Mario
piaccio-no
like.PRS-3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
equazion-i
equation-F.PL
‘Mario likes equations.’
KNOW conoscere N
(161)
Marco
Mark
conosc-e
know.PRS-3SG
molt-i
many-M.PL
segret-i
secret-M.PL
‘Mark knows a lot of secrets.’
THINK pensare N
(508)
Mario
Mario
pens-a
think-PRS.3SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
ricompens-a
recompense-F.SG
‘Mario is thinking about the recompense.’
SEARCH FOR cercare N
(170)
Anna
Anne
cerc-a
search-PRS.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
document-o
document-M.SG
important-e
important-M.SG
‘Anne is looking for an important document.’
WASH lavare R
(514)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mamm-a
mother-F.SG
lav-a
wash-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bambin-o
baby-M.SG
‘The mother is washing her baby.’

(522)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
lava-no
wash-PRS.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
man-i
hand-F.PL
l'
ART.DEF.M.SG
un
one.M.SG
l'
ART.DEF.M.SG
altr-a
other-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke are washing each other's hands.’
DRESS vestire N
(525)
Anna
Anne
vest-e
dress-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
cappott-o
coat-M.SG
di
of
lan-a
wool-F.SG
‘Anne always dresses her son in a woolen coat.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) radere R
(179)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
barbier-e
barber-M.SG
sta
stay.PRS.3SG
rade-ndo
shave-PROG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
barb-a
beard-F.SG
a
to
un
ART.INDF.M
client-e
customer-M.SG
‘The barber is shaving a customer’s beard.’

(535)
Marco
Mark
e
and
Giovanni
John
si
REFL
rado-no
shave-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
‘Mark and John shave each other.’
HELP aiutare N
(540)
Anna
Anne
aiut-ò
help-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
a
to
studia-re
study-INF
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne helped Luke study maths.’
FOLLOW seguire N
(186)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
turist-i
tourist-M.PL
segui-va-no
follow-IMPF-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
guid-a
guide-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
muse-o
museum-M.SG
‘In the museum the tourists followed the guide.’
MEET incontrare N
(561)
Anna
Anne
incontr-ò
meet-PST.3SG
Luca
Luke
in
in
bibliotec-a
library-F.SG
‘Anne met Luke in the library.’
TALK parlare N
(573)
Anna
Anne
parl-a
talk-PRS.3SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
de-i
of-ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
progett-i
plan-M.PL
‘Anne is talking to Luke about her plans.’
ASK FOR chiedere R
(192)
Anna
Anne
chies-e
ask.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
sold-i
money-M.PL
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne asked Luke for the money.’

(193)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
chiede-va-no
ask-IMPF-3PL
fedeltà
faithfulness.F.SG
reciproc-a
mutual-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke asked for mutual faithfulness of each other.’
SHOUT AT sgridare N
(195)
Anna
Anne
sgrid-a
shout_at-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
‘Anne often shouts at her son.’
TELL raccontare R
(203)
Anna
Anne
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
stori-a
story-F.SG
a
to
su-o
her-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne tells her son a story every evening.’

(205)
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
anzian-i
old_man-M.PL
si
REFL
sede-va-no
sit-IMPF-3PL
introno
around
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
fuoc-o
fire-M.SG
e
and
si
REFL
racconta-va-no
tell-IMPF-3SG
stori-e
story-F.PL
‘The old men used to sit around the fire and tell each other stories.’
(206)
è
be.PRS.3SG
ver-o
true-M.SG
amor-e
love-M.SG
solo
only
quando
when
ci
IMP
si
REFL
raccont-a
tell-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
propri-a
own-F.SG
vit-a
life-F.SG
‘It’s only true love when we/you/they(indef.) tell one another about our/your/their own lives.’
SAY dire R
(211)
Anna
Anne
dic-e
say-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne always tells the truth to Luke.’

(213)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
dico-no
say-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
‘Anne and Luke always tell each other the truth.’
NAME chiamare N
(218)
Anna
Anne
ha
have.PRS.3SG
chiama-t-o
name-PP-M.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
Laura
Laura
‘Anne has called/named her daughter Laura.’
BUILD costruire N
(14)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
ditt-a
firm-F.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
costrui-t-o
build-PP-M.SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cas-e
house-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
‘The firm has built houses out of wood.’
BREAK rompere R
(74)
Mario
Mario
rupp-e
break.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pallon-e
ball-M.SG
‘Mario broke the glass with the ball.’

(76)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
rupp-ero
break.PST-3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
matit-e
pencil-F.PL
‘The children broke each other’s pencils.’
KILL uccidere N
(64)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
uccis-o
kill.PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pistol-a
gun-F.SG
‘The man killed his victim with a gunshot.’
TOUCH toccare N
(225)
Marco
Mark
tocc-ò
touch-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
soffitt-o
ceiling-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Mark touched the ceiling with his hand.’
CUT tagliare R
(4)
Marco
Mark
tagli-a
cut-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
pan-e
bread-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
coltell-o
knife-M.SG
affilat-o
sharp-M.SG
‘Mark is cutting the bread with a sharp knife.’

(150)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sono
be.PRS.3PL
taglia-t-i
cut-PP-M.PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke cut each other’s hair.’
TAKE prendere R
(231)
Luca
Luke
pres-e
take.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
da/a
from/to
su-a
his-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
‘Luke took the money from his mother.’

(626)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
prendo-no
take-PRS.3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke are taking each other’s hands.’
TEAR strappare R
(237)
Luca
Luke
strapp-a
tear-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
pagin-a
page-F.SG
da-l
from-ART.DEF.M.SG
quadern-o
exercise_book-M.SG
‘Luke is tearing a page from the exercise book.’

(240)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
strappa-no
tear-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
capell-i
hair-M.PL
litiga-ndo
quarrel-PROG
‘Anne and Luke are tearing out each other's hair while quarreling.’
PEEL sbucciare R
(247)
Anna
Anne
sbucci-a
peel-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
mel-a
apple-F.SG
per
for
su-a
her-F.SG
figli-a
daughter-F.SG
‘Anne is peeling the apple for her daughter.’

(252)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
sbuccia-no
peel-PRS.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
frutt-a
fruit-F.SG
ogni
every
ser-a
evening-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke peel each other the fruit every evening.’
HIDE nascondere R
(255)
Anna
Anne
nascos-e
hide.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
regal-o
gift-M.SG
a
to
Luca
Luke
‘Anne hid the gift from Luke.’

(732)
Marco
Mark
e
and
Giovanna
Jane
si
REFL
nascondo-no
hide-PRS.3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
verità
truth.F.SG
‘Mark and Jane are hiding the truth from each other.’
SHOW mostrare R
(259)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
negoziant-e
storekeeper-M.SG
mostr-ò
show-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merc-e
merchandise-F.SG
a-i
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
client-i
customer-M.PL
‘The shopkeeper showed the goods to the customer.’

(268)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
mostra-rono
show-PST.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
foto
photo.F.PL
di
of
quando
when
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke showed each other the pictures of when they were little.’
GIVE dare R
(269)
Anna
Anne
give.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a
to
Luca
Luke
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
‘Anne often gives Luke a gift.’

(270)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
died-ero
give.PST-3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
man-o
hand-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke shook hands.’
SEND inviare R
(276)
Anna
Anne
invi-ò
send-PST.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
letter-a
letter-F.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
‘Anne sent a letter to her friend.’

(280)
Anna
Anne
e
and
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
amic-a
friend-F.SG
si
REFL
invia-no
send-PRS.3PL
sempre
always
messagg-i
message-M.PL
‘Anne and her friend always send each other messages.’
CARRY trasportare R
(283)
Luca
Luke
trasport-ò
carry-PST.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
a
to
cas-a
home-F.SG
‘Luke carried the suitcases home.’

(288)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
trasporta-va-no
carry-IMPF-3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
‘Anne and Luke carried each other’s books.’
TIE legare R
(290)
Luca
Luke
leg-ò
tie-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
pal-o
post-M.SG
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
cord-a
chain-F.SG
‘Luke tied the dog to the post with the chain.’
PUT mettere R
(298)
Luca
Luke
mis-e
put.PST-3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
piatt-i
dish-M.PL
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
‘Luke put the dishes on the table.’

(302)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
metto-no
put-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
lo
ART.DEF.M.SG
zain-o
backpack-M.SG
su-lle
on-ART.DEF.F.PL
spall-e
shoulder-F.PL
‘Anne and Luke are putting each other’s rucksack on each other’s backs.’
POUR versare R
(307)
Anna
Anne
vers-ò
pour-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
brod-o
broth-M.SG
ne-lla
in-ART.DEF.F.SG
zuppier-a
tureen-F.SG
‘Anna poured the soup into the tureen.’

(504)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
versa-no
pour-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vin-o
wine-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke are pouring each other wine.’
COVER coprire N
(315)
Anna
Anne
copr-ì
cover-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
paviment-o
floor-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
telon-e
large_piece_of_cloth-M.SG
‘Anne covered the floor with the tarpaulin.’
FILL riempire R
(328)
Anna
Anne
riemp-ì
fill-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
modul-o
form-M.SG
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
suo-i
her-M.PL
dat-i
generality-M.PL
‘Anne filled in the form with her generalities.’

(630)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
riempi-rono
fill-PST.3PL
a_vicenda
mutually
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
bicchier-e
glass-M.SG
di
of
vin-o
wine-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke filled each other’s wine glasses.’
LOAD caricare N
(21)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
venditor-i
seller-M.PL
carica-no
load-PRS.3PL
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
giornal-i
newspaper-M.PL
e
and
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
libr-i
book-M.PL
su-lla
on-ART.DEF.F.SG
loro
their
macchin-a
car-F.SG
‘The sellers load the newspapers and the books into their car.’
COUGH tossire N
(346)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
vecchi-o
old_man-M.SG
tossi-sc-e
cough-PRS-3SG
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
‘The old man coughs all day long.’
CLIMB scalare N
(350)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
ladr-i
thief-M.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
scala-t-o
climb-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
mur-o
wall-M.SG
de-l
of-ART.DEF.M.SG
giardin-o
garden-M.SG
‘The thieves climbed over the wall of the garden.’
RUN correre N
(583)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
corr-e
run-PRS.3SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
prat-o
meadow-M.SG
‘The dog is running on the lawn.’
SIT sedere N
(369)
Mario
Mario
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario sits there, in the second row.’
JUMP saltare N
(372)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
salta-no
jump-PRS.3PL
tutt-o
all-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
su-l
on-ART.DEF.M.SG
lett-o
bed-M.SG
‘The children jump on the bed all day long.’
SING cantare R
(597)
Anna
Anne
cant-a
sing-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
‘Anne often sings.’
GO andare N
(382)
Anna
Anne
va
go.PRS.3SG
spesso
often
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
mercat-o
market-M.SG
‘Anne often goes to the market.’
LEAVE partire N
(384)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
parti-t-a
leave-PP-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
quindici
fifteen
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Anne left Sardinia when she was fifteen.’
LIVE abitare N
(356)
Mario
Mario
abit-a
live-PRS.3SG
in
in
campagn-a
countryside-F.SG
‘Mario lives in the countryside.’
LAUGH ridere N
(391)
Anna
Anne
rid-e
laugh-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
su-e
her-F.PL
amich-e
friend-F.PL
‘Anne often laughs with her friends.’
SCREAM urlare N
(393)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
foll-a
crowd-F.SG
urla-v-a
scream-IMPF-3SG
furiosa-mente
furious-ADV
‘The crowd shouted furiously.’
FEEL PAIN sentire dolore N
(395)
Anna
Anne
sent-e
feel-PRS.3SG
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
a-l
to-ART.DEF.M.SG
bracci-o
arm-M.SG
‘Anne is feeling pain in her arm.’
FEEL COLD sentire freddo N
(398)
Marco
Mark
senti-v-a
feel-IMPF-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
back_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘Mark was feeling cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL COLD avere freddo N
(401)
ebb-e
have.PST-3SG
fredd-o
cold-M.SG
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
nuc-a
nape_of_the_neck-F.SG
‘He felt cold at the back of his neck.’
FEEL PAIN avere dolore N
(404)
molt-e
many-F.PL
person-e
person-F.PL
ha-nno
have-PRS.3PL
dolor-e
pain-M.SG
solo
only
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
giorn-o
day-M.SG
dopo
after
l'=incident-e
ART.DEF.M.SG=accident-M.SG
‘A lot of people only feel pain the day after the accident.’
DIE morire N
(407)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
gatt-o
cat-M.SG
mor-ì
die-PST.3SG
dopo
after
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
padron-e
master-M.SG
‘The cat died after its owner.’
PLAY giocare N
(90)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
nostr-i
our-M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
gioca-no
play-PRS.3PL
con
with
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
coetane-i
peer-M.PL
‘Our children play with children of their own age.’
BE SAD essere triste N
(409)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
trist-e
sad-F.SG
da
since
giorn-i
day-M.PL
‘Anne has been sad for days.’
BE HUNGRY avere fame N
(411)
Luca
Luke
ha
have.PRS.3SG
sempre
always
fam-e
hunger-F.SG
‘Luke is always hungry.’
BE HUNGRY essere affamato N
(413)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
cucciol-i
puppy-M.PL
era-no
be.IMPF-3PL
affamat-i
hungry-M.PL
‘The puppies were hungry.’
ROLL (tr) rotolare N
(28)
er-o
be.IMPF-1SG
pront-o
ready-M.SG
a
to
rotola-re
roll-INF
fust-i
barrel-M.PL
d'
of
oli-o
oil-M.SG
‘I was ready to roll oil barrels.’
SINK (tr) affondare N
(55)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
capitan-o
captain-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
affonda-t-o
sink-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
nav-e
ship-F.SG
con
with
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
cannonat-e
cannon_shot-F.PL
‘The captain sank the ship by cannonfire.’
BURN (tr) bruciare N
(50)
tu
you
brucia-v-i
burn-IMPF-2SG
tutt-a
all-F.SG
quell-a
that-F.SG
cartacci-a
waste_paper-F.SG
‘You were burning all that waste paper.’
(788)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
campeggiator-e
camper-M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
brucia-t-o
burn-PP-M.SG
gli
ART.DEF.M.PL
arbust-i
shrub-M.PL
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
lanciafiamme
flamethrower.M.SG
‘The camper has burnt the shrubs with the flamethrower.’
BE DRY essere arido N
(415)
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
terr-a
earth-F.SG
è
be.PRS.3SG
arid-a
dry-F.SG
‘The land is dry.’
RAIN piovere N
(416)
piov-e
rain-PRS.3SG
a
to
dirotto
hard
‘It is raining hard.’
(609)
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
molt-o
a_lot-M.SG
in
in
poc-o
a_few-M.SG
temp-o
time-M.SG
‘It rained a lot in a short time.’
(610)
improvvisa-mente
sudden-ADV
ha
have.PRS.3SG
/
/
è
be.PRS.3SG
piovut-o
rain.PP-M.SG
‘Suddenly it rained.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
ASSASSINATE assassinare N
(66)
l'=omicida
ART.DEF.M.SG=killer.M.SG
ha
have.PRS.3SG
assassina-t-o
kill-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
vittim-a
victim-F.SG
con
with
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
cord-a
rope-F.SG
‘The killer killed his victim with a rope.’
BEAT colpire N
(419)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
colp-ì
beat-PST.3SG
l'=avversari-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=rival-M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
pugn-o
fist-M.SG
‘The man punched his rival.’
HIT urtare N
(427)
l'=uom-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=man-M.SG
urt-ò
hit-PST.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
tavol-o
table-M.SG
con
with
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
baston-e
stick-M.SG
‘The man hit the table with the stick.’
THROW lanciare R
(433)
Marco
Mark
lanci-ò
throw-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
a-ll'=allenator-e
to-ART.DEF.M.SG=trainer-M.SG
‘Mark threw the ball to the trainer.’

(434)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
lancia-no
threw-PRS.3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
pall-a
ball-F.SG
‘The children are throwing the ball to each other.’
WANT volere N
(440)
mi-o
my-M.SG
figli-o
son-M.SG
vuol-e
want-PRS.3SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
bicilett-a
bike-F.SG
nuov-a
new-F.SG
‘My son wants a new bike.’
GET ricevere M
(445)
Anna
Anne
ricev-e
receive-PRS.3SG
spesso
often
un
ART.INDF.M
regal-o
gift-M.SG
da
from
Luca
Luke
‘Anne often receives a gift from Luke.’
FALL cadere N
(449)
Anna
Anne
è
be.PRS.3SG
cadut-a
fall.PP-F.SG
‘Anne fell.’
CRY piangere N
(456)
Mario
Mario
pians-e
cry.PST-3SG
di
of
gioi-a
joy-F.SG
‘Mario cried with joy.’
BE ILL essere malato N
(457)
Luca
Luke
er-a
be.IMPF-3SG
malat-o
ill-M.SG
‘Luke was ill.’
APPEAR apparire N
(460)
Anna
Anne
appar-e
appear-PRS.3SG
sollevat-a
relieved-F.SG
‘Anne seems relieved.’
BOIL (tr) bollire N
(464)
Anna
Anne
boll-e
boil-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
latt-e
milk-M.SG
prima
before
di
of
ber-lo
drink.INF-OBJ.M.3SG
‘Anne always boils milk before drinking it.’
TEACH insegnare R
(470)
Anna
Anne
insegn-a
teach-PRS.3SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
a-gli
to-ART.DEF.M.PL
student-i
student-M.PL
‘Anne teaches maths to the students.’

(474)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
insegna-no
teach-PRS.3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
matematic-a
maths-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke are teaching each other maths.’
PUSH spingere
(477)
Anna
Anne
spins-e
push.PST-3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
carrell-o
trolley-M.SG
a-ll'=uscit-a
to-ART.DEF.F.SG=exit-F.SG
‘Anne pushed the trolley to the exit.’
SIT DOWN sedersi N
(742)
Mario
Mario
si
REFL
sied-e
sit.PRS-3SG
sempre
always
there
in
in
second-a
second-F.SG
fil-a
row-F.SG
‘Mario always sits there, in the second row.’
LEAVE lasciare N
(386)
Maria
Mary
ha
have.PRS.3SG
lascia-t-o
leave-PP-M.SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
Sardegna
Sardinia
a
at
trenta
thirty
ann-i
year-M.PL
‘Mary left Sardinia when she was thirty.’
HEAR sentire N
(483)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
can-e
dog-M.SG
sent-e
hear-PRS.3SG
l'=ors-o
ART.DEF.M.SG=bear-M.SG
‘The dog can hear the bear.’
MAKE fare R
(751)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
fatt-o
make.PP-M.SG
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitare-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘I have made a guitar out of deal (wood).’

(756)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
fa-nno
make-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
un-a
ART.INDF-F.SG
chitarr-a
guitar-F.SG
di
of
legn-o
wood-M.SG
d'=abet-e
of=fir-M.SG
‘Anne and Luke are making each other guitars out of deal (wood).’
COOK cuocere R
(489)
Anna
Anne
cuoc-e
cook-PRS.3SG
sempre
always
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
ne-l
in-ART.DEF.M.SG
forn-o
oven-M.SG
‘Anne always cooks meat in the oven.’

(717)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
cuocio-no
cook-PRS.3PL
reciproca-mente
mutual-ADV
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
carn-e
meat-F.SG
‘Anne and Luke cook each other the meat.’
CLEAN pulire M
(484)
Anna
Anne
pul-ì
clean-PST.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
stanz-a
room-F.SG
‘Anne cleaned the room.’
GRIND macinare N
(487)
Anna
Anne
macin-a
grind-PRS.3SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
caffè
coffee.M.SG
con
with
un
ART.INDF.M
macinin-o
grinder-M.SG
‘Anne is grinding the coffee with a grinder.’
BRING portare R
(488)
Luca
Luke
port-ò
bring-PST.3SG
de-i
some-ART.DEF.M.PL
fior-i
flower-M.PL
ad
to
Anna
Anne
‘Luke brought Anne some flowers.’

(692)
Anna
Anne
e
and
Luca
Luke
si
REFL
porta-no
bring-PRS.3PL
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
valigi-e
suitcase-F.PL
‘Anne and Luke carry each other the suitcases.’
STEAL rubare R
(694)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
ladr-o
thief-M.SG
rub-ò
steal-PST.3SG
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
gioiell-i
jewel-M.PL
a-lla
to-ART.DEF.F.SG
signor-a
lady-F.SG
‘The thief stole the jewels from the lady.’
(812)
ho
have.PRS.1SG
ruba-t-o
steal-PP-M.SG
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
denar-o
money-M.SG
a
to
mi-a
my-F.SG
madr-e
mother-F.SG
da-lla
from-ART.DEF.F.SG
su-a
her-F.SG
bors-a
bag-F.SG
‘I stole my mother’s money from her bag.’

(699)
i
ART.DEF.M.PL
bambin-i
child-M.PL
si
REFL
ruba-no
steal-PRS.3PL
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merend-a
snack-F.SG
‘Children steal each other’s snacks.’
(700)
a
at
scuol-a
school-F.SG
spesso
often
ci
IMP
si
REFL
rub-a
steal-PRS.3SG
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
merend-a
snack-F.SG
‘At school, we/you/They (indef.) steal each other’s snacks.’
BLINK sbattere le palpebre N
(707)
Anna
Anne
sbatt-e
blink-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
palpebr-e
eyelid-F.PL
frequente-mente
frequent-ADV
‘Anne often blinks her eyes.’
DIG dissotterrare N
(701)
il
ART.DEF.M.SG
contadin-o
farmer-M.SG
dissotterr-a
dig-PRS.3SG
le
ART.DEF.F.PL
patat-e
potato-F.PL
con
with
la
ART.DEF.F.SG
zapp-a
hoe-F.SG
‘The farmer digs up potatoes with a hoe.’
HEAR udire N
(758)
Marco
Mark
ud-ì
hear-PST.3SG
un
ART.INDF.M
rumor-e
noise-M.SG
in
in
lontananz-a
distance-F.SG
‘Mark heard a noise in the distance.’