Examples of Icelandic

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Konan þakti vegginn með málningu.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þakti
covered
vegg-inn
wall-the.acc
með
with
málningu
paint.dat
‘The woman covered the wall with paint.’
COVER an Alternation:
Locative Alternation with T.acc +með I.dat
(2)
Konan þekur málningunni á vegginn.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þekur
covers
málningu-nni
paint-the.dat
á
on
vegg-inn
wall-the.acc
‘The woman smears the paint on the wall.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat á+3-acc
(3)
Konan breiddi teppið yfir drenginn.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
breiddi
covered
teppi-ð
carpet-the.acc
yfir
over
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The woman pulled the carpet over the boy. / The woman covered the boy with the carpet.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc yfir+3-acc
(4)
Drengurinn borðaði ávöxtinn.
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
borðaði
ate
ávöxt-inn
fruit-the.acc
‘The boy ate the fruit.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(5)
Móðirin faðmaði drenginn.
móðir-in
mother-the.nom
faðmaði
hugged
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The mother hugged the boy.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(6)
Strákurinn horfði á stelpuna.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
horfði
watched
á
on
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy watched the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] á+2-acc
(7)
Drengurinn leit á stúlkuna.
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
leit
looked
á
at
stúlku-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] á+2-acc
(8)
Strákurinn sá björninn.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
saw
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The boy saw the bear.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(9)
Björninn fann lyktina af stráknum.
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
fann
found
lykt-ina
smell-the.acc
af
of
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] af+2-dat
(10)
Maðurinn var hræddur við björninn.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
var
was
hræddur
scared.masc
við
with
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The man was frightened of the bear.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] við+2-acc
(11)
Björninn hræddi manninn.
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
hræddi
frightened
mann-inn
man-the.acc
‘The bear frightened the man.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(12)
Stráknum líkaði nýja leikfangið sitt.
strák-num
boy-the.dat
líkaði
liked.3sg
nýja
new.nom
leikfang-ið
toy-the.nom
sitt
his.nom
‘The boy liked his new toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom
(13)
Stráknum líkaði við nýja leikfangið sitt.
strák-num
boy-the.dat
líkaði
liked
við
with
nýja
new.acc
leikfang-ið
toy-the.acc
sitt
his.acc
‘The boy liked his new toy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Prepositional Object alternation
(14)
Stelpan þekkti strákinn.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
þekkti
knew
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The girl knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(15)
Mennirnir leituðu að konunum.
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
leituðu
searched
for
konum-num
women.pl-the.dat
‘The men searched for the women.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
PP vs. Genitive Object
(16)
Stelpan hugsaði um ömmu sína.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hugsaði
thought
um
about
ömmu
grandmother.acc
sína
her.acc
‘The girl thought about her grandmother.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] um+2-acc
(17)
Mamman þvoði stráknum.
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
þvoði
washed
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The mother washed the boy.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat
(18)
Mamma þvoði strákinn.
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
þvoði
washed
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The mother washed the boy.’
WASH an Alternation:
Obj.dat vs. Obj.acc
(19)
Mamman klæddi dóttur sína í.
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
klæddi
dressed
dóttur
daughter.acc
sína
her.acc
í
in
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (í +3-acc)
(20)
Maðurinn rakaði skeggið á sér.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
rakaði
shaved
skegg-ið
beard-the.acc
á
on
sér
self.dat
‘The man shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(21)
Ég hjálpaði drengjunum.
ég
I.nom
hjálpaði
helped
drengju-num
boys-the.dat
‘I helped the boys.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat
(22)
Drengirnir eltu stelpurnar.
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
eltu
followed
stelpur-nar
girls-the.acc
‘The boys followed the girls.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(23)
Drengirnir fylgdu stelpunum.
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
fylgdu
followed
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
‘The boys accompanied the girls.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat
(24)
Stelpunum fylgdi hávaði.
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
fylgdi
accompanied
hávaði
noise.nom
‘The girls were accompanied by noise./ Some noise came with the girls.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Nom-Dat vs. Dat-Nom
(25)
Mennirnir hittu strákana.
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
hittu
met
stráka-na
boys-the.acc
‘The men met the boys.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(26)
Mennirnir og strákarnir hittust.
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
og
and
strákar-nir
boys-the.nom
hittu-st
met-refl/rcp
‘The men and the boys met.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(27)
Stelpan talaði við strákinn um hundinn sinn.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
talaði
talked
við
with
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
um
about
hund-inn
dog-the.acc
sinn
her.acc
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] við-2-acc um+3-acc
(28)
Strákurinn bað (foreldra sína) um pening.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
bað
asked
foreldra
parents.acc
sína
his.acc
um
about
pening
money.acc
‘The boy asked (his parents) for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] (2-acc) um+3-acc
(29)
Konan hrópaði á börnin.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
hrópaði
shouted
á
on
börn-in
children-the.acc
‘The woman shouted at the children.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] á+2-acc
(30)
Stelpan sagði stráknum skrítna sögu.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
told
strák-num
boy-the.dat
skrítna
funny.acc
sögu
story.acc
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(31)
Stelpan sagði "nei" við hann.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
said
nei
no
við
with
hann
him.acc
‘The girl said "no" to him.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] UTT2 við+3-acc
(32)
Foreldrarnir kölluðu barnið Önnu.
foreldrar-nir
parents-the.nom
kölluðu
called
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc 3-acc
(33)
Foreldarnir nefndu barnið Önnu.
foreldar-nir
parents-the.nom
nefndu
named
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc 3-acc
(34)
Mennirnir byggðu hús úr tré.
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
byggðu
built
hús
house.acc
úr
out_of
tré
wood.dat
‘The men built a house from wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (úr+3-dat)
(35)
Strákurinn braut rúðuna með steini.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
braut
broke
rúðu-na
glass-the.acc
með
with
steini
stone.dat
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(36)
Rúðan brotnaði.
rúða-n
glass-the.nom
brotnaði
broke
‘The window broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation with umlaut and -na
(37)
Maðurinn drap óvin sinn með kylfu.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
drap
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(38)
Maðurinn deyddi óvin sinn með kylfu.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
deyddi
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(39)
Óvinurinn dó.
óvinur-inn
enemy-the.nom
died
‘The enemy died.’
KILL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alt. with -ja
(40)
Strákurinn lamdi snákinn með priki.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
lamdi
beat
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(41)
Strákurinn sló snákinn með priki.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
sló
hit
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(42)
Strákurinn snerti snákinn.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
snerti
touched
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
‘The boy touched the snake.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(43)
Konan sker brauðið með beittum hníf.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
sker
cuts
brauð-ið
bread-the.acc
með
with
beittum
sharp.dat
hníf
knife.dat
‘The woman cuts the bread with a sharp knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(44)
Hárgreiðslukonan klippti hárið á konunni.
hárgreiðslukona-n
hairdresser-the.nom
klippti
cut
hár-ið
hair-the.acc
á
on
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The hairdresser cut the woman's hair.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(45)
Stelpan reif blaðsíðu úr bókinni.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
reif
tore
blaðsíðu
page.acc
úr
out_of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (úr+3-dat)
(46)
Maðurinn tók peningana af vini sínum.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
tók
took
peninga-na
money-the.acc
af
off
vini
friend.dat
sínum
his.dat
‘The man took the money off his friend.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc af+3-dat
(47)
Hann tók við peningunum frá vini sínum.
hann
he.nom
tók
took
við
with
peningu-num
money-the.dat
frá
from
vini
friend.dat
sínum
his.dat
‘He took the money from his friend./ He accepted the money that his friend offered him.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Prepositional Object alternation
(48)
Hann tók börkinn af prikinu.
hann
he.nom
tók
took
börk-inn
bark-the.acc
af
off
prik-inu
stick-the.dat
‘He peeled the bark off the stick.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc af+3-dat
(49)
Strákurinn faldi froskinn fyrir mömmu sinni.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
faldi
hid
frosk-inn
frog-the.acc
fyrir
for
mömmu
mother.dat
sinni
his.dat
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (fyrir+3-dat)
(50)
Stelpan sýndi kennaranum myndir.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sýndi
showed
kennara-num
teacher-the.dat
myndir
pictures.acc
‘The girl showed some pictures to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(51)
Við gáfum börnunum bækurnar.
við
we.nom
gáfum
gave
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We gave the books to the children (as a gift).’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(52)
Við réttum börnunum bækurnar.
við
we.nom
réttum
handed
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We handed the books to the children.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(53)
Við réttum bækurnar til barnanna.
við
we.nom
réttum
handed
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
til
to
barna-nna
children-the.gen
‘We offered the books to the children. / We handed the books over to the children.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dative alternation (PP)
(54)
Stelpan sendi blómin til ömmu sinnar.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sendi
sent
blóm-in
flowers-the.acc
til
to
ömmu
grandmother.gen
sinnar
hers.gen
‘The girl sent the flowers to her grandmother.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc til+3-gen
(55)
Stelpan sendi ömmu sinni blómin.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sendi
sent
ömmu
grandmother.dat
sinni
her.dat
blóm-in
flowers-the.acc
‘The girl sent her grandmother the flowers.’
SEND an Alternation:
Dative alternation (Dat-Acc)
(56)
Maðurinn bar kassana á markaðinn.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bar
carried
kassa-na
boxes-the.acc
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The man carried the boxes to the market.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc á+3-acc
(57)
Strákurinn kastaði boltanum inn um gluggann.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
kastaði
threw
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
inn
in
um
through
glugga-nn
window-the.acc
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat LOC3
(58)
Maðurinn batt hestinn með reipi við tréð.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
batt
tied
hest-inn
horse-the.acc
með
with
reipi
rope.dat
við
with
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat) (við+4-acc)
(59)
Ég setti bollann á borðið.
ég
I.nom
setti
put
bolla-nn
cup-the.acc
á
on
borð-ið
table-the.acc
‘I put the cup on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc LOC3
(60)
Maðurinn hellti vatni í glasið.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hellti
poured
vatni
water.dat
í
in
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
‘The man poured water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat LOC3
(61)
Hann hellti glasið fullt með vatni.
hann
he.nom
hellti
poured
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
fullt
full
með
with
vatni
water.dat
‘He filled the glass with water.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative Alternation with T.acc +með I.dat
(62)
Stelpan fyllti glasið af vatni.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
fyllti
filled
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
af
of
vatni
water.dat
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (af+3-dat)
(63)
Bóndinn hlóð heyi á vörubílinn.
bónd-inn
farmer-the.nom
hlóð
loaded
heyi
hay.dat
á
on
vörubíl-inn
truck-the.acc
‘The farmer loaded hay onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat á+3-acc
(64)
Bóndinn hlóð vörubílinn með heyi.
bónd-inn
farmer-the.nom
hlóð
loaded
vörubíl-inn
truck-the.acc
með
with
heyi
hay.dat
‘The farmer loaded the truck with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative Alternation with T.acc +með I.dat
(65)
Ég blikkaði augunum.
ég
I.nom
blikkaði
blinked
augu-num
eyes-the.dat
‘I blinked my eyes.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(66)
Ég blikkaði hana.
ég
I.nom
blikkaði
blinked
hana
her.acc
‘I winked at her.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Transitive from intransitive
(67)
Gamli maðurinn hóstaði.
gamli
old.nom
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hóstaði
coughed
‘The old man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] (2-dat)
(68)
Loksins hóstaði hann þessu upp úr sér.
loksins
finally
hóstaði
coughed
hann
he.nom
þessu
this.dat
upp
up
úr
out_of
sér
self.dat
‘Finally, he coughed it up.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Caused-motion from intransitive
(69)
Maðurinn klifraði (upp) tréð.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
klifraði
climbed
upp
up
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man climbed (up) the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(70)
Hesturinn hleypur.
hestur-inn
horse-the.nom
hleypur
runs
‘The horse is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(71)
Börnin sátu á gólfinu.
börn-in
children-the.nom
sátu
sat
á
on
gólf-inu
floor-the.dat
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] (LOC2)
(72)
Börnin settust á bekkinn.
börn-in
children-the.nom
settu-st
sat-refl/rcp
á
on
bekk-inn
bench-the.acc
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] (LOC2)
(73)
Stelpan hoppaði.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hoppaði
jumped
‘The girl jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(74)
Strákurinn söng (lag).
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
söng
sang
lag
song.acc
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(75)
Hann söng henni lítið ljóð.
hann
he.nom
söng
sang
henni
her.dat
lítið
litte.acc
ljóð
poem.acc
‘He sang her a little song.’
SING an Alternation:
Dative alternation (Dat-Acc)
(76)
Konan fór á markaðinn.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
fór
went
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The woman went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] (á+2-acc)
(77)
Strákurinn yfirgaf þorpið.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
yfirgaf
left
þorp-ið
village-the.acc
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(78)
Gamla fólkið býr í bænum.
gamla
old.nom
fólk-ið
people-the.nom
býr
live
í
in
bænum
town
‘The old people live in town.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] í+2-dat
(79)
Litla stelpan hló.
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
‘The little girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(80)
Bátinn rak.
bát-inn
boat-the.acc
rak
drifted
‘The boat drifted.’
DRIVE OUT an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(81)
Mér er illt í hendinni.
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
illt
ill.neut
í
in
hendi-nni
hand-the.dat
‘I’m feeling pain in my arm.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-dat V (í+2-dat)
(82)
Maðurinn öskraði.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
öskraði
screamed
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(83)
Okkur sækir syfja.
okkur
we.acc
sækir
fetches
syfja
sleepiness.nom
‘We feel sleepy.’
FEEL SLEEPY a Coding frame:
1-acc V
(84)
Mig dreymdi ömmu.
mig
me.acc
dreymdi
dreamed
ömmu
grandmother.acc
‘I dreamed of grandma.’
DREAM a Coding frame:
1-acc V 2-acc
(85)
Mér er kalt.
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
kalt
cold.neu
‘I’m cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(86)
Snákurinn dó.
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
died
‘The snake died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(87)
Barnið leikur sér.
barn-ið
child-the.nom
leikur
plays
sér
self.dat
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(88)
Litla stelpan var sorgmædd.
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
sorgmædd
sad.fem
‘The little girl was sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(89)
Barnið er svangt.
barn-ið
baby-the.nom
er
is
svangt
hungry.neut
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(90)
Barnið hungrar.
barn-ið
child-the.acc
hungrar
hungers
‘The child is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-acc V
(91)
Boltinn rúllar.
bolt-inn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
‘The ball is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(92)
Ég rúllaði vagninum niður brekkuna.
ég
I.nom
rúllaði
rolled
vagni-num
wagon-the.dat
niður
down
brekku-na
hill-the.acc
‘I rolled the wagon down the hill.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Caused-motion from intransitive
(93)
Báturinn sökk.
bátur-inn
boat-the.nom
sökk
sank
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(94)
Ég sökkti bátnum.
ég
I.nom
sökkti
sank
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive with conjugation variation
(95)
Ég rak hann út.
ég
I.nom
rak
drove
hann
him.acc
út
out
‘I drove him out.’
DRIVE OUT a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(96)
Húsið brennur.
húsi-ð
house-the.nom
brennur
burns
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(97)
Ég brenndi húsið.
ég
I.nom
brenndi
burned
húsi-ð
house-the.acc
‘I burned the house.’
BURN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive with conjugation variation
(98)
Jörðin er þurr.
jörð-in
ground-the.nom
er
is
þurr
dry.fem
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(99)
Það rigndi.
það
it.nom
rigndi
rained
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(100)
Hann rigndi.
hann
he.nom
rigndi
rained
‘It rained.’
RAIN an Alternation:
It–he alternation
(101)
Þjófurinn stal peningum frá gömlu konunni.
þjófur-inn
thief-the.nom
stal
stole
peningum
money.dat
frá
from
gömlu
old.dat
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The thief stole money from the old lady.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat (frá+3-dat)
(102)
Strákurinn heyrði í birninum.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
heyrði
heard
í
in
birni-num
bear-the.dat
‘The boy heard the bear.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] í+2-dat
(103)
Vatnið sýður.
vatn-ið
water-the.nom
sýður
boils
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(104)
Ég sýð vatnið.
ég
I.nom
sýð
boil
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘I boil the water.’
BOIL (tr) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(105)
Hann er veikur.
hann
he.nom
er
is
veikur
sick.masc
‘He is sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(106)
Mér er óglatt.
mér
I.dat
er
is
óglatt
sick.neut
‘I feel sick.’
FEEL SICK a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(107)
Mér barst pakki (frá mömmu).
mér
I.dat
barst
received
pakki
package.nom
frá
from
mömmu
mother.dat
‘I got a package (from mom).’
GET a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom (frá+3-dat)
(108)
Maðurinn bað konunnar.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bað
asked
konu-nnar
woman-the.gen
‘The man proposed to the woman.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-gen
(109)
Mig fýsir þess.
mig
me.acc
fýsir
urge
þess
that.gen
‘I'm eager for that.’
LONG FOR a Coding frame:
1-acc V 2-gen
(110)
Bátnum hvolfdi.
bát-num
boat-the.dat
hvolfdi
capsized
‘The boat capsized.’
CAPSIZE an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(111)
Ég hvolfdi bátnum.
ég
I.nom
hvolfdi
capsized
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I capsized the boat.’
CAPSIZE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat
(112)
Honum skrikaði fótur.
honum
him.dat
skrikaði
lost
fótur
foot.nom
‘He stumbled.’
STUMBLE a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(113)
Þess getur í gömlum bókum.
þess
it.gen
getur
mentions
í
in
gömlum
old.dat
bókum
books.dat
‘It says in old books. / It is mentioned in old books.’
SAY (impersonal) an Alternation:
Genitive Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(114)
Hans varð vart í sveitinni.
hans
he.gen
varð
became
vart
aware
í
in
sveit-inni
province-the.dat
‘He made his presence known in the province.’
MAKE ONE'S PRESENCE KNOWN a Coding frame:
1-gen V
(115)
Þess er þörf.
þess
it.gen
er
is
þörf
need.nom
‘It is needed.’
BE NEEDED a Coding frame:
1-gen V
(116)
Málningin þekur vel.
málning-in
paint-the.nom
þekur
covers
vel
well
‘The paint covers well. / The paint has good covering qualities.’
COVER an Alternation:
Middle
(117)
Teppið þvæst vel.
teppi-ð
carpet-the.nom
þvæ-st
washes-refl/rcp
vel
easily
‘The carpet washes easily.’
WASH an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(118)
Barnið nefnist Anna.
barn-ið
child-the.nom
nefni-st
calls-refl/rcp
Anna
Anna.nom
‘The child is named Anna.’
NAME an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(119)
Barnið kallast Anna.
barn-ið
child-the.nom
kalla-st
calls-refl/rcp
Anna
Anna.nom
‘The child is called Anna.’
NAME an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(120)
Borgin byggist upp smám saman.
borg-in
city-the.nom
byggist
builds.refl/rcp
upp
up
smám
little_by
saman
little
‘The city is built up gradually. / The city arises gradually.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(121)
Óvinurinn drapst.
óvinur-inn
enemy-the.nom
drapst
killed.refl/rcp
‘The enemy died.’
KILL an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(122)
Strákarnir slógust.
strákar-nir
boys-the.nom
slógu-st
hit-refl/rcp
‘The boys fought.’
HIT an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(123)
Þau snertust.
þau
they.nom
snertu-st
touched-refl/rcp
‘They touched each other.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(124)
Brauðið skarst í tvennt.
brauð-ið
bread-the.nom
skar-st
cut-refl/rcp
í
in
tvennt
two
‘The bread cut into two pieces.’
CUT an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(125)
Blaðsíðan rifnaði úr bókinni.
blaðsíða-n
page-the.nom
rifnaði
tore
úr
out_of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
‘The page got torn from the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Ambitransitive alternation with umlaut and -na
(126)
Pakkinn sendist aftur til sendanda.
pakk-inn
package-the.nom
sendi-st
send-refl/rcp
aftur
again
til
to
sendanda
sender.gen
‘The package should be sent back to sender.’
SEND an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(127)
Boltinn kastaðist til og frá.
bolt-inn
ball-the.nom
kastaði-st
threw-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
‘The ball bounced back and forth.’
THROW an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(128)
Þau bundust hvort öðru.
þau
they.nom
bundu-st
tied-refl/rcp
hvort
each
öðru
other.dat
‘They committed to each other.’
TIE an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(129)
Þau settust.
þau
they.nom
settu-st
sat-refl/rcp
‘They sat down. (lit. They sat themselves).’
PUT an Alternation:
Reflexive (mediopassive form)
(130)
Mjólkin helltist niður.
mjólk-in
milk-the.nom
hellti-st
poured-refl/rcp
niður
down
‘The milk poured down.’
POUR an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(131)
Glasið fylltist.
glas-ið
glass-the.nom
fyllti-st
filled-refl/rcp
‘The glass got full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(132)
Heyið hleðst upp.
hey-ið
hay-the.nom
hleð-st
loads-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The hay piles up.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(133)
Slímið hóstaðist upp.
slím-ið
mucus-the.nom
hóstaði-st
coughed-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The mucus got coughed up.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(134)
Teygjan rúllaðist upp.
teygja-n
rubber_band-the.nom
rúllaði-st
rolled-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The rubber band rolled up.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(135)
Hún brenndist á puttunum.
hún
she.nom
brenndi-st
burned-refl/rcp
á
on
puttu-num
fingers-the.dat
‘She got her fingers burned. /lit. She burns herself on the finger.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive (mediopassive form)
(136)
Röddin heyrist mjög vel.
rödd-in
voice-the.nom
heyri-st
hears-refl/rcp
mjög
very
vel
well
‘The voice is easily heard.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(137)
Kartöflur sjóðast vel.
kartöflur
potatoes.nom
sjóða-st
boil-refl/rcp
vel
well
‘Potatoes boil well.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(138)
Sumir bátar hvolfast betur en aðrir.
sumir
some.nom
bátar
boats.nom
hvolfa-st
capsize-refl/rcp
betur
better
en
than
aðrir
others
‘Some boats turn upside down more easily than others. / Some boats get capsized better than others.’
CAPSIZE an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(139)
Veggurinn var þakinn.
veggur-inn
wall-the.nom
var
was
þakinn
covered
‘The wall was covered.’
COVER an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(140)
Teppið var breitt yfir manninn.
teppi-ð
blanket-the.nom
var
was
breitt
covered
yfir
over
mann-inn
man-the.acc
‘The blanket covered the man. / The man was covered by the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(141)
Ávöxturinn var borðaður.
ávöxtur-inn
fruit-the.nom
var
was
borðaður
eaten
‘The fruit was eaten.’
EAT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(142)
Drengurinn var faðmaður.
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
var
was
faðmaður
hugged
‘The boy was hugged.’
HUG an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(143)
Það var horft á stelpuna.
það
it
var
was
horft
watched
á
on
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The girl was being watched.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(144)
Það var litið á stelpuna.
það
it
var
was
litið
looked
á
at
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The girl was being looked at.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(145)
Björninn sást í skóginum.
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
sá-st
see-refl/rcp
í
in
skógi-num
woods-the.dat
‘The bear was seen in the woods.’
SEE an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(146)
Lyktin fannst af birninum.
lykt-in
smell-the.nom
fann-st
felt-refl/rcp
af
of
birni-num
bear-the.dat
‘One could feel the smell of the bear.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(147)
Maðurinn hræðist björninn.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hræði-st
fears-refl/rcp
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The man fears the bear.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(148)
Maðurinn var hræddur til þess að ...
maður-inn
man-the.nom
var
was
hræddur
scared.masc
til
in_order
þess
it.gen
to
‘The man was frightened (in order) to ...’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(149)
Strákurinn þekkist á hárinu.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
þekki-st
know-refl/rcp
á
on
hár-inu
hair-the.dat
‘The boy is recognizable because of his hair.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(150)
Það var leitað að honum.
það
it
var
was
leitað
looked
for
honum
him.dat
‘He was looked for.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(151)
Ég leitaði hans lengi.
ég
I.nom
leitaði
looked
hans
he.gen
lengi
long
‘I looked for him for a long time.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
PP vs. Genitive Object
(152)
Hans var leitað lengi.
hans
he.gen
var
was
leitað
looked
lengi
long
‘He was looked for for a long time.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Genitive Passive
(153)
Það var hugsað um fréttina.
það
it
var
was
hugsað
thought
um
about
frétt-ina
news-the.acc
‘People thought about this new news item.’
THINK an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(154)
Strákurinn var þveginn.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
var
was
þveginn
washed
‘The boy was (being) washed.’
WASH an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(155)
Hann klæddist alltaf fallegum fötum.
hann
he.nom
klæddi-st
wore-refl/rcp
alltaf
always
fallegum
beautiful.dat
fötum
clothes.dat
‘He always wore beautiful clothes. /lit. He dresses himself in beautiful clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Reflexive (mediopassive form)
(156)
Hún var klædd í fallega kápu.
hún
she.nom
var
was
klædd
dressed
í
in
fallega
beautiful.dat
kápu
coat.dat
‘She was dressed in a beautiful coat.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(157)
Hann var rakaður.
hann
he.nom
var
was
rakaður
shaved
‘He was shaved.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(158)
Honum var hjálpað.
honum
him.dat
var
was
hjálpað
helped
‘He was helped.’
HELP an Alternation:
Dative passive
(159)
Stelpurnar voru eltar.
stelpur-nar
girls-the.nom
voru
were
eltar
followed
‘The girls were followed.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(160)
Stelpunum var fylgt á leið.
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
var
was
fylgt
followed
á
on
leið
way
‘The girls were taken part of the way.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Dative passive
(161)
Það var talað við strákinn.
það
it
var
was
talað
talked
við
with
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The boy was talked with.’
TALK an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(162)
Það var beðið um bókina.
það
it
var
was
beðið
asked
um
about
bók-ina
book-the.acc
‘The book was asked for.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(163)
Foreldrarnir voru beðnir um bókina.
foreldrar-nir
parents-the.nom
voru
were
beðnir
asked
um
about
bók-ina
book-the.acc
‘The parents were asked for the book.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(164)
Það var hrópað á börnin.
það
it
var
was
hrópað
shouted
á
at
börn-in
children-the.acc
‘The children were shouted at.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(165)
Sagan var sögð aftur og aftur.
saga-n
story-the.nom
var
was
sögð
said
aftur
again
og
and
aftur
again
‘The story was told again and agian.’
TELL an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(166)
Honum var sögð sagan aftur og aftur.
honum
him.dat
var
was
sögð
said
saga-n
story-the.nom
aftur
again
og
and
aftur
again
‘He was told the story again and again.’
TELL an Alternation:
Dative passive
(167)
Stúlkan var nefnd Anna.
stúlka-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
nefnd
named
Anna
Anna
‘The girl was named Anna.’
NAME an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(168)
Stúlkan var kölluð Anna.
stúlka-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
kölluð
called
Anna
Anna
‘The girl was called Anna.’
NAME an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(169)
Húsið var byggt.
hús-ið
house-the.nom
var
was
byggt
built
‘The house was built.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(170)
Rúðan var brotin.
rúða-n
glass-the.nom
var
was
brotin
broken
‘The window glass was broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(171)
Óvinurinn var drepinn.
óvinur-inn
enemy-the.nom
var
was
drepinn
killed
‘The enemy was killed.’
KILL an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(172)
Snákurinn var laminn.
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
var
was
laminn
beaten
‘The snake was beaten.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(173)
Snákurinn var sleginn.
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
var
was
sleginn
hit
‘The snake was hit.’
HIT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(174)
Snákurinn var snertur.
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
var
was
snertur
touched
‘The snake was touched.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(175)
Brauðið var skorið.
brauð-ið
bread-the.nom
var
was
skorið
cut
‘The bread was cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(176)
Puttinn á afa klipptist af.
putt-inn
finger-the.nom
á
on
afa
grandpa
klippti-st
cut-refl/rcp
af
off
‘Grandpa's finger got cut off.’
CUT an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(177)
Hárið var klippt.
hár-ið
hair-the.nom
var
was
klippt
cut
‘The hair was cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(178)
Blaðsíðan var rifin úr bókinni.
blaðsíða-n
page-the.nom
var
was
rifin
torn
úr
out_of
bóki-nni
book-the.dat
‘The page was torn out of the book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(179)
Peningarnir voru teknir.
peningar-nir
money-the.nom
voru
were
teknir
taken
‘The money was taken.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(180)
Froskurinn var falinn.
froskur-inn
frog-the.nom
var
was
falinn
hidden
‘The frog was hidden.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(181)
Kennaranum voru sýndar myndir.
kennara-num
teacher-the.dat
voru
were
sýndar
shown
myndir
pictures.nom
‘The teacher was shown pictures.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Dative passive
(182)
Myndirnar voru sýndar.
myndir-nar
pictures-the.nom
voru
were
sýndar
shown
‘The pictures were shown.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(183)
Börnunum voru gefnar bækurnar.
börnu-num
children-the.dat
voru
were
gefnar
given
bækur-nar
books-the.nom
‘The children were given the books.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dative passive
(184)
Bækurnar voru gefnar.
bækur-nar
books-the.nom
voru
were
gefnar
given
‘The books were given.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(185)
Börnunum voru réttar bækurnar.
börnu-num
children-the.dat
voru
were
réttar
handed
bækur-nar
books-the.nom
‘The children were given the books.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dative passive
(186)
Bækurnar voru réttar Sveini.
bækur-nar
books-the.nom
voru
were
réttar
handed
Svein-i
Svein-dat
‘The books were handed to Sveinn.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(187)
Ömmu voru send blóm.
ömmu
grandmother.dat
voru
were
send
sent
blóm
flowers.nom
‘Grandma was sent flowers.’
SEND an Alternation:
Dative passive
(188)
Blómin voru send til ömmu.
blóm-in
flowers-the.nom
voru
were
send
sent
til
to
ömmu
grandmother.gen
‘The flowers were sent to grandma.’
SEND an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(189)
Kassarnir voru bornir á markaðinn.
kassar-nir
boxes-the.nom
voru
were
bornir
carried
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The boxes were carried to the market.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(190)
Boltanum var kastað.
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
var
was
kastað
thrown
‘The ball was thrown.’
THROW an Alternation:
Dative passive
(191)
Hesturinn var bundinn með reipi.
hestur-inn
horse-the.nom
var
was
bundinn
tied
með
with
reipi
rope.dat
‘The horse was tied with a rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(192)
Bollinn var settur á borðið.
boll-inn
cup-the.nom
var
was
settur
put
á
on
borð-ið
table-the.acc
‘The cup was put on the table.’
PUT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(193)
Mjólkinni var hellt niður.
mjólk-inni
milk-the.dat
var
was
hellt
poured
niður
down
‘The milk was poured down.’
POUR an Alternation:
Dative passive
(194)
Glasið var fyllt með vatni.
glas-ið
glass-the.nom
var
was
fyllt
filled
með
with
vatni
water.dat
‘The glass was filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(195)
Vörubíllin var hlaðinn heyi.
vörubíll-in
truck-the.nom
var
was
hlaðinn
loaded
heyi
hay.dat
‘The truck was loaded with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(196)
Augunum var blikkað.
augu-num
eyes-the.dat
var
was
blikkað
blinked
‘The eyes were blinked.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Dative passive
(197)
Stelpan var blikkuð.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
blikkuð
blinked
‘The girl was winked at.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(198)
Slíminu var hóstað upp.
slím-inu
mucus-the.dat
var
was
hóstað
coughed
upp
up
‘The mucus was coughed up.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Dative passive
(199)
Það var klifrað upp tréð.
það
it
var
was
klifrað
climbed
upp
up
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The tree was climbed.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(200)
Það var hlaupið.
það
it
var
was
hlaupið
ran
‘They did some running. / They ran.’
RUN an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(201)
Það var setið lengi.
það
it
var
was
setið
sat
lengi
long
‘They sat for a long time.’
SIT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(202)
Það var hoppað.
það
it
var
was
hoppað
jumped
‘They jumped. / Some jumping took place.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(203)
Henni var sunginn lítill sálmur.
henni
her.dat
var
was
sunginn
sung
lítill
little.nom
sálmur
psalm.nom
‘She was sung a little psalm.’
SING an Alternation:
Dative passive
(204)
Ljóðið var sungið.
ljóð-ið
poem-the.nom
var
was
sungið
sung
‘The song was sung.’
SING an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(205)
Það var farið á markaðinn.
það
it
var
was
farið
gone
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘They went to the market. / The next step was going to the market.’
GO an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(206)
Þorpið var yfirgefið.
þorp-ið
village-the.nom
var
was
yfirgefið
abandoned
‘The village was abandoned.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(207)
Það var búið í bænum.
það
it
var
was
búið
lived
í
in
bæ-num
town-the.dat
‘The town was lived in.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(208)
Það var hlegið.
það
it
var
was
hlegið
laughed
‘They laughed.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(209)
Hann var rekinn út.
hann
he.nom
var
was
rekinn
driven
út
out
‘He was driven out.’
DRIVE OUT an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(210)
Það var öskrað.
það
it
var
was
öskrað
screamed
‘They screamed. / Some screaming took place.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(211)
Það var dáið í partýinu.
það
it
var
was
dáið
died
í
in
partý-inu
party-the.dat
‘Some people fell asleep at the party (because of extensive alchohol use).’
DIE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(212)
Það var leikið sér í garðinum.
það
it
var
was
leikið
played
sér
self.dat
í
in
garði-num
garden-the.dat
‘They played in the garden.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(213)
Boltanum var rúllað.
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
var
was
rúllað
rolled
‘The ball was rolled.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Dative passive
(214)
Bátnum var sökkt.
bát-num
boat-the.dat
var
was
sökkt
sunk
‘The boat was sunk.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Dative passive
(215)
Húsið brann.
hús-ið
house-the.nom
brann
burned_down
‘The house burned down.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(216)
Húsið var brennt.
hús-ið
house-the.nom
var
was
brennt
burned
‘The house was burned down.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(217)
Peningunum var stolið.
peningu-num
money-the.dat
var
was
stolið
stolen
‘The money was stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Dative passive
(218)
Reglulega er heyrt í öðrum greinendum ...
reglulega
regularly
er
is
heyrt
heard
í
in
öðrum
other.dat
greinendum
analysers.dat
‘We are regularly contacted by other analysers ...’
HEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(219)
Vatnið var soðið lengi.
vatn-ið
water-the.nom
var
was
soðið
boiled
lengi
long
‘The water was boiled for a long time.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(220)
Aðdáendabréf hafði borist mér from ...
aðdáendabréf
fan_letter.nom
hafði
had
borist
received
mér
I.dat
frá
from
‘A fan letter had come to me from ...’
GET an Alternation:
Nom-Dat vs. Dat-Nom
(221)
Konunnar var beðið.
konu-nnar
woman-the.gen
var
was
beðið
asked
‘The woman was proposed to.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) an Alternation:
Genitive Passive
(222)
Bátnum var hvolft.
bát-num
boat-the.dat
var
was
hvolft
capsized
‘The boat was capsized.’
CAPSIZE an Alternation:
Dative passive
(223)
Þess var getið í gömlum bókum.
þess
it.gen
var
was
getið
mentioned
í
in
gömlum
old.dat
bókum
books.dat
‘It was mentioned in old books.’
SAY (impersonal) an Alternation:
Genitive Passive
(224)
Ég gat þess í bréfinu.
ég
I.nom
gat
mentioned
þess
it.gen
í
in
bréf-inu
letter-the.dat
‘I mentioned it in the letter.’
SAY (impersonal) a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-gen (í+3-dat)
(225)
Það var borið kassana.
það
it
var
was
borið
carried
kassa-na
boxes-the.acc
‘The boxes were carried.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(226)
Það var bundið hestinn með reipi.
það
it
var
was
bundið
tied
hest-inn
horse-the.acc
með
with
reipi
rope.dat
‘The horse was tied with rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(227)
Það var blikkað stelpuna.
það
it
var
was
blikkað
blinked
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The girl was winked at.’
BLINK the Verb form blikka (augunum)
(228)
Það var borðað matinn.
það
it
var
was
borðað
eaten
mat-inn
food-the.acc
‘The food was eaten.’
EAT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(229)
Það var breitt teppið yfir hann.
það
it
var
was
breitt
pulled
teppi-ð
blanket-the.acc
yfir
over
hann
him.acc
‘The blanked was pulled over him.’
COVER an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(230)
Það var brennt húsið.
það
it
var
was
brennt
burned
hús-ið
house-the.acc
‘The house was burned down.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(231)
Það var brotið rúðuna.
það
it
var
was
brotið
broken
rúðu-na
glass-the.acc
‘The glass was broken.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(232)
Það var byggt skýli í garðinum.
það
it
var
was
byggt
built
skýli
shelter.acc
í
in
garði-num
garden-the.dat
‘They built a shelter in the garden.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(233)
Það var drepið mann í gær.
það
it
var
was
drepið
killed
mann
man.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘A man was killled yesterday.’
KILL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(234)
Það var elt stelpu út um allan garð.
það
it
var
was
elt
chased
stelpu
girl.acc
út
out
um
about
allan
all.acc
garð
garden.acc
‘A girl was chased all around the garden.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(235)
Það var faðmað drenginn.
það
it
var
was
faðmað
hugged
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The boy was hugged.’
HUG an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(236)
Það var falið froskinn.
það
it
var
was
falið
hidden
frosk-inn
frog-the.acc
‘The frog was hidden.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(237)
Það var fyllt glasið með vatni.
það
it
var
was
fyllt
filled
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
með
with
vatni
water.dat
‘The glass was filled with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(238)
Það var gefið allan matinn í gær.
það
it
var
was
gefið
given
allan
all.acc
mat-inn
food-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘All the food was given away yesterday.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(239)
Það var hlaðið öllu heyinu í gær.
það
it
var
was
hlaðið
loaded
öllu
all.dat
hey-inu
hay-the.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘All the hay was loaded up yesterday.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(240)
Það var hrætt manninn til að ...
það
it
var
was
hrætt
scared
mann-inn
man-the.acc
til
to
that
‘The man was scared into ...’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(241)
Það var kallað hana Önnu.
það
it
var
was
kallað
called
hana
her.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘She was called Anna.’
NAME an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(242)
Það var klætt hana í úlpu og skó.
það
it
var
was
klætt
dressed
hana
her.acc
í
in
úlpu
jacket.acc
og
and
skó
shoes.acc
‘She was dressed in jacket and shoes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(243)
Það var klippt mig í gær.
það
it
var
was
klippt
cut
mig
me.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘My hair was cut yesterday.’
CUT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(244)
Þeim gaf góðan byr.
þeim
them.dat
gaf
gave
góð-an
good-acc
byr
wind.acc
‘They received good wind.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dat-Acc Ambiditransitive
(245)
Það var lamið hann í gær.
það
it
var
was
lamið
beaten
hann
him.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was beaten yesterday.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(246)
Það var nefnt þetta við mig.
það
it
var
was
nefnt
named
þetta
this.acc
við
with
mig
me.acc
‘This was mentioned to me.’
NAME an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(247)
Það var rakað hann í gær.
það
it
var
was
rakað
shaved
hann
him.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was shaved yesterday.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(248)
Það var rekið hann út í gær.
það
it
var
was
rekið
driven
hann
him.acc
út
out
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was thrown out yesterday.’
DRIVE OUT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(249)
Það var rétt þeim þetta í gær.
það
it
var
was
rétt
handed
þeim
them.dat
þetta
this.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘They were handed this yesterday.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(250)
Það var rifið blaðsíðuna út úr bókinni í gær.
það
it
var
was
rifið
torn
blaðsíðu-na
page-the.acc
út
out
úr
of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The page was torn out of the book yesterday.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(251)
Það var sagt honum í gær að ...
það
it
var
was
sagt
said
honum
him.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
that
‘Yesterday he was told that ...’
TELL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(252)
Það var sent hana í gær.
það
it
var
was
sent
sent
hana
her.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was sent yesterday.’
SEND an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(253)
Það var sett hana af stað í gær.
það
it
var
was
sett
put
hana
her.acc
af
off
stað
labor
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘Her labor was started yesterday.’
PUT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(254)
Það var soðið hangikjötið í gær.
það
it
var
was
soðið
boiled
hangikjöt-ið
smoked_meat-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The smoked meat was boiled yesterday.’
BOIL (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(255)
Það var skorið á naflastrenginn í gær.
það
it
var
was
skorið
cut
á
on
naflastreng-inn
umbilical_cord-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The umbilical cord was cut yesterday.’
CUT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(256)
Það var slegið strákinn í gær.
það
it
var
was
slegið
hit
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The boy was hit yesterday.’
HIT an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(257)
Það var óvert snert hana í gær.
það
it
var
was
óvert
unintentionally
snert
touched
hana
her.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was unintentionally touched yesteday.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(258)
Það var sýnt henni sönunnargögnin í gær.
það
it
var
was
sýnt
shown
henni
her.dat
sönunnargögn-in
evidence-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was shown the evidence yesterday.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(259)
Það var sungið þjóðsönginn í gær.
það
it
var
was
sungið
sung
þjóðsöng-inn
national_anthem-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The national anthem was sung yesterday.’
SING an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(260)
Það var tekið niður jólastjörnuna í gær.
það
it
var
was
tekið
taken
niður
down
jólastjörnu-na
christmas_star-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The christmas star was taken down yesterday.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(261)
Það var yfirgefið svæðið í gær.
það
it
var
was
yfirgefið
abandoned
svæð-ið
area-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The area was abandoned yesterday.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(262)
Það var þakið garðinn með blómum.
það
it
var
was
þakið
covered
garð-inn
garden-the.acc
með
with
blómum
flowers.dat
‘The garden was covered with flowers.’
COVER an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(263)
Það var þvegið honum í gær.
það
it
var
was
þvegið
washed
honum
him.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was washed yesterday.’
WASH an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(264)
Það var beðið hennar með pompi og prakt í gær.
það
it
var
was
beðið
proposed
hennar
her.gen
með
with
pompi
pomp.dat
og
and
prakt
circumstance.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was proposed to with pomp and circumstance yesterday.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(265)
Ekki var getið þess í auglýsingunni að ...
ekki
not
var
was
getið
mentioned
þess
it.gen
í
in
auglýsingu-nni
ad-the.dat
that
‘It wasn't mentioned in the ad that ...’
SAY (impersonal) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(266)
Það var leitað hans stíft og allir héldu í vonina.
það
it
var
was
leitað
searched
hans
he.gen
stíft
without_a_break
og
and
allir
everybody.nom
héldu
held
í
in
von-ina
hope-the.acc
‘He was searched for without a break and everybody clinged to the hope.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(267)
Það var fylgt stelpunum á leið.
það
it
var
was
fylgt
followed
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
á
on
leið
way
‘The girls were taken a part of the way.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(268)
... þegar var hellt vatninu yfir hausinn á henni.
þegar
when
var
was
hellt
poured
vatn-inu
water-the.dat
yfir
over
haus-inn
head-the.acc
á
on
henni
her.dat
‘... when water was poured over her head.’
POUR an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(269)
Það var hjálpað henni að taka til.
það
it
var
was
hjálpað
helped
henni
her.dat
to
taka
tidy
til
up
‘She was helped tidying up.’
HELP an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(270)
Það var hóstað upp blóðinu og ...
það
it
var
was
hóstað
coughed
upp
up
blóð-inu
blood-the.dat
og
and
‘The blood was coughed up and ...’
COUGH an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(271)
Það var hvolft bátnum á eyrinni.
það
it
var
was
hvolft
capsized
bát-num
boat-the.dat
á
on
eyri-nni
sandbank-the.dat
‘The baot was capsized on the sandbank.’
CAPSIZE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(272)
Það var sökkt líkinu úti á rúmsjó.
það
it
var
was
sökkt
sunk
lík-inu
corpse-the.dat
úti
out
á
on
rúmsjó
open_sea
‘The corpse was sunk out on the open sea.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(273)
Það var stolið peningunum hans bróður míns.
það
it
var
was
stolið
stolen
peningu-num
money-the.dat
hans
he.gen
bróður
brother.gen
míns
mine
‘My brother's money got stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(274)
Það sást til hans í skóginum.
það
it
sá-st
see-refl/rcp
til
to
hans
he.gen
í
in
skógi-num
woods-the.dat
‘He was seen in the woods.’
SEE an Alternation:
Impersonal mediopassive
(275)
Það fannst lykt af birninum.
það
it
fann-st
found-refl/rcp
lykt
smell
af
of
birni-num
bear-the.dat
‘They could smell the bear.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Impersonal mediopassive
(276)
Það heyrðist í honum í skóginum.
það
it
heyrði-st
heard-refl/rcp
í
in
honum
him.dat
í
in
skógi-num
woods-the.dat
‘He was heard in the woods.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Impersonal mediopassive
(277)
Veginn sá óglöggt.
veg-inn
road-the.acc
saw
óglöggt
badly
‘The road was difficult to see.’
SEE an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(278)
Bílinn bar hratt yfir.
bíl-inn
car-the.acc
bar
carried
hratt
fast
yfir
over
‘The car went by quickly.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(279)
Bátinn braut í spón.
bát-inn
boat-the.acc
braut
broke
í
in
spón
pieces
‘The boat was smashed to pieces.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(280)
Veggina drepur.
vegg-ina
walls-the.acc
drepur
kills
‘The walls leak.’
KILL an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(281)
Bátinn fyllti.
bát-inn
boat-the.acc
fyllti
filled
‘The boat got swamped.’
FILL an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(282)
Seglin rífur.
segl-in
sails-the.acc
rífur
tear
‘The sails bursted.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(283)
Manninn tók út.
mann-inn
man-the.acc
tók
took
út
out
‘The man was seized by the sea. / The sea seized the man.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Accusative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(284)
Honum ber heiðurinn.
honum
him.dat
ber
carries
heiður-inn
honor-the.nom
‘He deserves the credit.’
DESERVE a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom
(285)
Honum býr þetta í brjósti.
honum
him.dat
býr
live
þetta
this.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has this on his mind.’
BE BURDENED a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom
(286)
Þetta býr honum í brjósti.
þetta
this.nom
býr
live
honum
him.dat
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘This is on his mind.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Nom-Dat vs. Dat-Nom
(287)
Honum brennur eitthvað fyrir brjósti.
honum
him.dat
brennur
burns
eitthvað
something.nom
fyrir
for
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has something on his mind.’
BE BURDENED a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom
(288)
Það brennur honum fyrir brjósti.
það
it.nom
brennur
burns
honum
him.dat
fyrir
for
brjósti
breast.dat
‘It burdens him.’
BE BURDENED an Alternation:
Nom-Dat vs. Dat-Nom
(289)
Þeim hljóp kapp í kinn.
þeim
them.dat
hljóp
ran
kapp
eagerness.nom
í
in
kinn
cheek
‘They got overexcited.’
GET EXCITED a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(290)
Honum hló hugur í brjósti.
honum
him.dat
hló
laughed
hugur
interest.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘His heart was gladdened.’
BE GLAD a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(291)
Honum kastaði fyrir brjóst.
honum
him.dat
kastaði
threw
fyrir
for
brjóst
breast
‘He felt nauseous.’
THROW an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(292)
Honum leikur allt í lyndi.
honum
him.dat
leikur
plays
allt
everything
í
in
lyndi
harmony
‘Everything goes well for him.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-dat V.agr[2] 2-nom
(293)
Spurningunum rigndi yfir hann.
spurningu-num
questions-the.dat
rigndi
rained
yfir
over
hann
him.acc
‘He was showered with questions.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(294)
Mér segir svo hugur um að ...
mér
I.dat
segir
says
svo
so
hugur
mind.nom
um
about
that
‘I have the intuition that ...’
HAVE AN INTUITION a Coding frame:
1-dat V um+2
(295)
Eldingu sló niður í húsið.
eldingu
lightning.dat
sló
hit
niður
down
í
in
hús-ið
house-the.acc
‘A lightning struck the house.’
SETTLE an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(296)
Skipi tekur vel.
skipi
ship.dat
tekur
takes
vel
well
‘The ship can make good use of the wind.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(297)
Snjónum hleður niður.
snjó-num
snow-the.dat
hleður
loads
niður
down
‘The snow is piling up.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Dative Subject Ambitransitive vs. Transitive
(298)
Ég hugsaði það.
ég
I.nom
hugsaði
thought
það
it.acc
‘I thought that thought.’
THINK an Alternation:
Direct Object alternation
(299)
Þetta var hugsað þannig að ...
þetta
this.nom
var
was
hugsað
thought
þannig
such
that
‘This was thought of in such a way that ...’
THINK an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(300)
Hún var klædd fallegri kápu.
hún
she.nom
var
was
klædd
dressed
fallegri
beautiful.dat
kápu
coat.dat
‘She was dressed in a beautiful coat.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(301)
Svo var hitt hana Maríu mína og ...
svo
then
var
was
hitt
met
hana
her.acc
Maríu
Maria.acc
mína
mine.acc
og
and
‘Then I met with my Maria and ...’
MEET an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(302)
Þeir sáust.
þeir
they.nom
sáu-st
saw-refl/rcp
‘They saw each other.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(303)
Þeir föðmuðust.
þeir
they.nom
föðmuðu-st
hugged-refl/rcp
‘They hugged each other.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(304)
Þær horfðust í augu.
þær
they.nom
horfðu-st
watched-refl/rcp
í
in
augu
eyes.acc
‘They looked each other in the eyes.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(305)
Þær þekkjast.
þær
they.nom
þekkja-st
know-refl/rcp
‘They know each other.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(306)
Þeir hjálpuðust að.
þeir
they.nom
hjálpuðu-st
helped-refl/rcp
at
‘They helped each other.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(307)
Þeir fylgdust að áleiðis.
þeir
they.nom
fylgdu-st
followed-refl/rcp
at
áleiðis
on_way
‘They kept each other company a part of the way. / They walked together a part of the way.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(308)
Þeir töluðust ekki við.
þeir
they.nom
töluðu-st
spoke-refl/rcp
ekki
not
við
with
‘They didn't talk to each other. / They were not on speaking terms with each other.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(309)
Ég talaði hann til.
ég
I.nom
talaði
talked
hann
him.acc
til
to
‘I persuaded him.’
TALK an Alternation:
Direct Object alternation
(310)
Þeir hrópast á.
þeir
they.nom
hrópa-st
shout-refl/rcp
á
on
‘They shout to each other.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(311)
Ég hrópaði hann út.
ég
I.nom
hrópaði
shouted
hann
him.acc
út
out
‘I slandered him.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Direct Object alternation
(312)
Hann sagðist ekki vilja ...
hann
he.nom
sagði-st
said-refl/rcp
ekki
not
vilja
want
‘He said that he didn't want ...’
SAY an Alternation:
Reflexive (mediopassive form)
(313)
Þeir kölluðust á.
þeir
they.nom
kölluðu-st
shouted-refl/rcp
á
on
‘They shouted at each other.’
NAME an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(314)
Hann braust inn í húsið.
hann
he.nom
brau-st
broke-refl/rcp
inn
in
í
in
hús-ið
house-the.acc
‘He broke his way into the house. / He broke into the house.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Reflexive (mediopassive form)
(315)
Hann drapst.
hann
he.nom
drap-st
killed-refl/rcp
‘He died.’
KILL an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(316)
Glugginn lamdist til og frá í vindinum.
glugg-inn
window-the.nom
lamdi-st
beat-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
í
in
vindi-num
wind-the.dat
‘The window was banging back and forth in the wind.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(317)
Glugginn slóst til og frá í vindinum.
glugg-inn
window-the.nom
sló-st
beat-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
í
in
vindi-num
wind-the.dat
‘The window was banging back and forth in the wind.’
HIT an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(318)
Þeir rifust.
þeir
they.nom
rifu-st
tore-refl/rcp
‘They argued with each other.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(319)
Hann tók þessu vel.
hann
he.nom
tók
took
þessu
this.dat
vel
well
‘He took it well.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Obj.dat vs. Obj.acc
(320)
Ég bað um þetta.
ég
I.nom
bað
asked
um
for
þetta
this.acc
‘I asked for this.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) an Alternation:
PP vs. Genitive Object
(321)
Hann stal af peningum.
hann
he.nom
stal
stole
af
of
peningum
money.dat
‘He stole parts of the money.’
STEAL the Verb form stela
(322)
Hann brenndi af spýtunum.
hann
he.nom
brenndi
burned
af
of
spýtu-num
sticks-the.dat
‘He burned some of the sticks.’
BURN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive with conjugation variation
(323)
Þeir lékust á.
þeir
they.nom
léku-st
played-refl/rcp
á
on.part
‘They played with each other.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(324)
Þeir öskruðust á.
þeir
they.nom
öskruðu-st
screamed-refl/rcp
á
on
‘They screamed at each other.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(325)
Þeir rákust á.
þeir
they.nom
ráku-st
bumped-refl/rcp
á
on
‘They bumped into each other.’
DRIVE OUT an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(326)
Það var sest á bekkinn.
það
it
var
was
se-st
sat-refl/rcp
á
on
bekk-inn
bench-the.acc
‘They sat down on the bank.’
SIT DOWN an Alternation:
Impersonal mediopassive
(327)
Hann hljópst undan ábyrgðinni.
hann
he.nom
hljóp-st
ran-refl/rcp
undan
from
ábyrgð-inni
responsibility-the.dat
‘He ran away from the responsibility.’
RUN an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(328)
Það var hlaupist undan ábyrgðinni.
það
it
var
was
hlaupi-st
ran-refl/rcp
undan
from
ábyrgð-inni
responsibility-the.dat
‘They ran away from the responsibility.’
RUN an Alternation:
Impersonal mediopassive
(329)
Ég kastaði boltanum til hans.
ég
I.nom
kastaði
threw
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
til
to
hans
he.gen
‘I threw the ball to him.’
THROW an Alternation:
Dative alternation (PP)
(330)
Strákurinn söng.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
söng
sang
‘The boy sang.’
SING the Verb form syngja
(331)
Stelpan hló að brandaranum.
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
at
brandara-num
joke-the.dat
‘The girl laughed at the joke.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(332)
Maðurinn öskraði á konuna.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
öskraði
yell
á
at
konu-na
woman-the.acc
‘The man yelled at the woman.’
SCREAM the Verb form öskra
(333)
Boltinn rúllar niður brekkuna.
bolti-nn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
niður
down
brekku-na
hill-the.acc
‘The ball rolls down the hill.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(334)
Maðurinn er veiðimaður.
maður-inn
man-the.nom
er
is
veiðimaður
hunter.nom
‘The man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1]
(335)
Konan malar kornið með áhaldi.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
malar
grinds
korn-ið
corn-the.acc
með
with
áhaldi
tool.dat
‘The woman grinds the corn with a tool.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (með+3-dat)
(336)
Konan eldar kjúkling.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
eldar
cooks
kjúkling
chicken
‘The woman cooks chicken.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc
(337)
Kjúklingurinn var eldaður.
kjúklingur-inn
chicken-the.nom
var
was
eldaður
cooked
‘The chicken was cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(338)
Gamla konan kenndi stelpunni söng.
gamla
old.nom
kona-n
woman-the.nom
kenndi
taught
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
söng
song.acc
‘The old woman taught the girl a song.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(339)
Stelpunni var kenndur söngur.
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
var
was
kenndur
taught
söngur
song.nom
‘The girl was taught a song.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Dative passive
(340)
Söngurinn var kenndur.
söngur-inn
song-the.nom
var
was
kenndur
taught
‘The song was taught.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(341)
Konan þurrkaði skítinn af borðinu.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þurrkaði
wiped
skít-inn
dirt-the.acc
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘The woman wiped the dirt off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-acc (af+3-dat)
(342)
Skíturinn var þurrkaður af borðinu.
skítur-inn
dirt-the.nom
var
was
þurrkaður
wiped
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘The dirt was wiped off the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(343)
Stúlkan færði mér blóm.
stúlka-n
girl-the.nom
færði
brought
mér
I.dat
blóm
flowers.acc
‘The girl brought me flowers.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat 3-acc
(344)
Mér voru færð blóm.
mér
I.dat
voru
were
færð
brought
blóm
flowers.nom
‘I was brought some flowers.’
BRING an Alternation:
Dative passive
(345)
Strákurinn ýtti stelpunni út í vatnið.
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
ýtti
pushed
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] 2-dat (í+3-acc)
(346)
Stelpunni var ýtt út í vatnið.
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
var
was
ýtt
pushed
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘The girl was pushed into the water.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Dative passive
(347)
Konan grefur eftir kartöflum.
kona-n
woman-the.nom
grefur
digs
eftir
after
kartöflum
potatoes.dat
‘The woman digs for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] eftir+2-dat
(348)
Það var grafið eftir kartöflum.
það
it
var
was
grafið
dug
eftir
after
kartöflum
potatoes.dat
‘The potatoes were dug for.’
DIG an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(349)
Þau slógu sér niður í bænum.
þau
they.nom
slógu
settled
sér
self.dat
niður
down
í
in
bæ-num
town-the.dat
‘They settled in the town.’
SETTLE a Coding frame:
1-nom V.agr[1] í+2-dat
(350)
Því fór fjarri að ...
því
it.dat
fór
left
fjarri
distant
that
‘It was far from the truth that ...’
BE FAR FROM THE TRUTH a Coding frame:
1-dat V
(351)
Honum var sagt að ...
honum
him.dat
var
was
sagt
told
that
‘He was told that ...’
TELL an Alternation:
Dative passive
(352)
Það var sagt söguna aftur og aftur.
það
it
var
was
sagt
told
sögu-na
story-the
aftur
again
og
and
aftur
again
‘The story was told again and again.’
TELL an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(353)
Það var malað það.
það
it.expl
var
was
malað
ground
það
it.acc
‘It was ground.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(354)
Kornið var malað.
korn-ið
corn-the.nom
var
was
malað
ground
‘The corn was ground.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(355)
Það var eldað hann.
það
it.expl
var
was
eldað
cooked
hann
it.acc
‘It was cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(356)
Það var sungið hann.
það
it.expl
var
was
sungið
sung
hann
it.acc
‘It was sung.’
SING an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(357)
Það var þurrkað hann af borðinu.
það
it.expl
var
was
þurrkað
dried
hann
it.acc
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘It was dried off the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(358)
Blómin voru færð Sveini.
blóm-in
flowers-the.nom
voru
were
færð
brought
Svein-i
Svein-i.dat
‘The flowers were brought to Sveinn.’
BRING an Alternation:
Nominative Passive
(359)
Það var ýtt henni út í vatnið.
það
it.expl
var
was
ýtt
pushed
henni
her.dat
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘She was pushed into the water.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Impersonal passive
(360)
Kartöflurnar grófust niður.
kartöflur-nar
potatoes-the.nom
grófu-st
dug-refl/rcp
niður
down
‘The potatoes got dug down.’
DIG an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(361)
Ég þurrkaði barninu.
ég
I.nom
þurrkaði
dried
barn-inu
child-the.dat
‘I dried the child.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Obj.dat vs. Obj.acc
(362)
Barninu var þurrkað.
barn-inu
child-the.dat
var
was
þurrkað
dried
‘The child was dried.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Dative passive
(363)
Textinn þurrkaðist út.
text-inn
text-the.nom
þurrkaðist
wiped
út
out
‘The text got wiped out.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(364)
Kornið malaðist af sjálfu sér.
korn-ið
corn-the.nom
malaðist
got.grounded
af
by
sjálfu
it.dat
sér
self.dat
‘The corn got grounded by itself.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(365)
Músin færðist.
mús-in
mouse-the.nom
færði-st
moved-refl/rcp
‘The mouse moved.’
BRING an Alternation:
Mediopassive (middle)
(366)
Þær horfðu á hvor aðra.
þær
they.nom
horfðu
watched
á
on
hvor
each
aðra
other
‘They watched each other.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal Alternation
(367)
Það var blikkað.
það
it
var
was
blikkað
blinked
‘It blinked.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Impersonal passive