Impersonal passive C

Description

Originally, this impersonal passive was only found for intransitive and monotransitive verbs, but has during the last 15–20 years been extended to transitive predicates, resulting in what has been called the "New Passive" in Icelandic (cf. Barðdal & Molnár 2003). The new passive does not promote the object to subject position but keeps it in situ. Example:
Það var keypt bókina (it was bought book-the.acc). This is a systematic alternation found for all predicates, not tied to any specific verb classes.

The standard story is that only unergatives can occur in the Impersonal passive and not unaccusatives. This, however, seems to be changing and unaccusatives are gradually getting more accepted in this construction. Dative Subject predicates are not found in this construction, or any other passive construction for that matter.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LOOK AT horfa R
(6)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
horfði
watched
á
on
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy watched the girl.’

(143)
það
it
var
was
horft
watched
á
on
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The girl was being watched.’
LOOK AT líta R
(7)
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
leit
looked
á
at
stúlku-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy looked at the girl.’

(144)
það
it
var
was
litið
looked
á
at
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The girl was being looked at.’
SEARCH FOR leita (1) R
(15)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
leituðu
searched
for
konum-num
women.pl-the.dat
‘The men searched for the women.’

(150)
það
it
var
was
leitað
looked
for
honum
him.dat
‘He was looked for.’
THINK hugsa R
(16)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hugsaði
thought
um
about
ömmu
grandmother.acc
sína
her.acc
‘The girl thought about her grandmother.’

(153)
það
it
var
was
hugsað
thought
um
about
frétt-ina
news-the.acc
‘People thought about this new news item.’
TALK tala R
(27)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
talaði
talked
við
with
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
um
about
hund-inn
dog-the.acc
sinn
her.acc
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’

(161)
það
it
var
was
talað
talked
við
with
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The boy was talked with.’
ASK FOR biðja (1) R
(28)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
bað
asked
foreldra
parents.acc
sína
his.acc
um
about
pening
money.acc
‘The boy asked (his parents) for money.’

(162)
það
it
var
was
beðið
asked
um
about
bók-ina
book-the.acc
‘The book was asked for.’
SHOUT AT hrópa R
(29)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
hrópaði
shouted
á
on
börn-in
children-the.acc
‘The woman shouted at the children.’

(164)
það
it
var
was
hrópað
shouted
á
at
börn-in
children-the.acc
‘The children were shouted at.’
CLIMB klifra R
(69)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
klifraði
climbed
upp
up
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man climbed (up) the tree.’

(199)
það
it
var
was
klifrað
climbed
upp
up
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The tree was climbed.’
RUN hlaupa R
(70)
hestur-inn
horse-the.nom
hleypur
runs
‘The horse is running.’

(200)
það
it
var
was
hlaupið
ran
‘They did some running. / They ran.’
SIT sitja R
(71)
börn-in
children-the.nom
sátu
sat
á
on
gólf-inu
floor-the.dat
‘The children sat on the floor.’

(201)
það
it
var
was
setið
sat
lengi
long
‘They sat for a long time.’
JUMP hoppa R
(73)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hoppaði
jumped
‘The girl jumped.’

(202)
það
it
var
was
hoppað
jumped
‘They jumped. / Some jumping took place.’
GO fara R
(76)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
fór
went
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The woman went to the market.’

(205)
það
it
var
was
farið
gone
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘They went to the market. / The next step was going to the market.’
LIVE búa (1) R
(78)
gamla
old.nom
fólk-ið
people-the.nom
býr
live
í
in
bænum
town
‘The old people live in town.’

(207)
það
it
var
was
búið
lived
í
in
bæ-num
town-the.dat
‘The town was lived in.’
LAUGH hlæja R
(79)
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
‘The little girl laughed.’
(331)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
at
brandara-num
joke-the.dat
‘The girl laughed at the joke.’

(208)
það
it
var
was
hlegið
laughed
‘They laughed.’
SCREAM öskra R
(82)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
öskraði
screamed
‘The man screamed.’

(210)
það
it
var
was
öskrað
screamed
‘They screamed. / Some screaming took place.’
DIE deyja R
(86)
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
died
‘The snake died.’

(211)
það
it
var
was
dáið
died
í
in
partý-inu
party-the.dat
‘Some people fell asleep at the party (because of extensive alchohol use).’
PLAY leika sér R
(87)
barn-ið
child-the.nom
leikur
plays
sér
self.dat
‘The child is playing.’

(212)
það
it
var
was
leikið
played
sér
self.dat
í
in
garði-num
garden-the.dat
‘They played in the garden.’
HEAR heyra R
(102)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
heyrði
heard
í
in
birni-num
bear-the.dat
‘The boy heard the bear.’

(218)
reglulega
regularly
er
is
heyrt
heard
í
in
öðrum
other.dat
greinendum
analysers.dat
‘We are regularly contacted by other analysers ...’
CARRY bera (1) R
(56)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bar
carried
kassa-na
boxes-the.acc
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The man carried the boxes to the market.’

(225)
það
it
var
was
borið
carried
kassa-na
boxes-the.acc
‘The boxes were carried.’
TIE binda M
(58)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
batt
tied
hest-inn
horse-the.acc
með
with
reipi
rope.dat
við
with
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
BLINK blikka (augunum) R
(65)
ég
I.nom
blikkaði
blinked
augu-num
eyes-the.dat
‘I blinked my eyes.’

(367)
það
it
var
was
blikkað
blinked
‘It blinked.’
EAT borða R
(4)
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
borðaði
ate
ávöxt-inn
fruit-the.acc
‘The boy ate the fruit.’

(228)
það
it
var
was
borðað
eaten
mat-inn
food-the.acc
‘The food was eaten.’
COVER breiða M
(3)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
breiddi
covered
teppi-ð
carpet-the.acc
yfir
over
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The woman pulled the carpet over the boy. / The woman covered the boy with the carpet.’
BURN brenna (1) R
(96)
húsi-ð
house-the.nom
brennur
burns
‘The house is burning.’
(215)
hús-ið
house-the.nom
brann
burned_down
‘The house burned down.’
BREAK brjóta R
(35)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
braut
broke
rúðu-na
glass-the.acc
með
with
steini
stone.dat
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’

(231)
það
it
var
was
brotið
broken
rúðu-na
glass-the.acc
‘The glass was broken.’
BUILD byggja R
(34)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
byggðu
built
hús
house.acc
úr
out_of
tré
wood.dat
‘The men built a house from wood.’

(232)
það
it
var
was
byggt
built
skýli
shelter.acc
í
in
garði-num
garden-the.dat
‘They built a shelter in the garden.’
KILL drepa R
(37)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
drap
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’

(233)
það
it
var
was
drepið
killed
mann
man.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘A man was killled yesterday.’
FOLLOW elta R
(22)
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
eltu
followed
stelpur-nar
girls-the.acc
‘The boys followed the girls.’

(234)
það
it
var
was
elt
chased
stelpu
girl.acc
út
out
um
about
allan
all.acc
garð
garden.acc
‘A girl was chased all around the garden.’
HUG faðma R
(5)
móðir-in
mother-the.nom
faðmaði
hugged
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The mother hugged the boy.’

(235)
það
it
var
was
faðmað
hugged
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The boy was hugged.’
HIDE fela R
(49)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
faldi
hid
frosk-inn
frog-the.acc
fyrir
for
mömmu
mother.dat
sinni
his.dat
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’

(236)
það
it
var
was
falið
hidden
frosk-inn
frog-the.acc
‘The frog was hidden.’
FILL fylla R
(62)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
fyllti
filled
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
af
of
vatni
water.dat
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’

(237)
það
it
var
was
fyllt
filled
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
með
with
vatni
water.dat
‘The glass was filled with water.’
GIVE gefa R
(51)
við
we.nom
gáfum
gave
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We gave the books to the children (as a gift).’

(238)
það
it
var
was
gefið
given
allan
all.acc
mat-inn
food-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘All the food was given away yesterday.’
LOAD hlaða R
(63)
bónd-inn
farmer-the.nom
hlóð
loaded
heyi
hay.dat
á
on
vörubíl-inn
truck-the.acc
‘The farmer loaded hay onto the truck.’

(239)
það
it
var
was
hlaðið
loaded
öllu
all.dat
hey-inu
hay-the.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘All the hay was loaded up yesterday.’
FRIGHTEN hræða M
(11)
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
hræddi
frightened
mann-inn
man-the.acc
‘The bear frightened the man.’
NAME kalla M
(32)
foreldrar-nir
parents-the.nom
kölluðu
called
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’
DRESS klæða R
(19)
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
klæddi
dressed
dóttur
daughter.acc
sína
her.acc
í
in
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’

(242)
það
it
var
was
klætt
dressed
hana
her.acc
í
in
úlpu
jacket.acc
og
and
skó
shoes.acc
‘She was dressed in jacket and shoes.’
CUT klippa R
(44)
hárgreiðslukona-n
hairdresser-the.nom
klippti
cut
hár-ið
hair-the.acc
á
on
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The hairdresser cut the woman's hair.’

(243)
það
it
var
was
klippt
cut
mig
me.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘My hair was cut yesterday.’
BEAT lemja R
(40)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
lamdi
beat
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’

(245)
það
it
var
was
lamið
beaten
hann
him.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was beaten yesterday.’
NAME nefna R
(33)
foreldar-nir
parents-the.nom
nefndu
named
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’

(246)
það
it
var
was
nefnt
named
þetta
this.acc
við
with
mig
me.acc
‘This was mentioned to me.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) raka R
(20)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
rakaði
shaved
skegg-ið
beard-the.acc
á
on
sér
self.dat
‘The man shaved his beard.’

(247)
það
it
var
was
rakað
shaved
hann
him.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was shaved yesterday.’
DRIVE OUT reka R
(95)
ég
I.nom
rak
drove
hann
him.acc
út
out
‘I drove him out.’

(248)
það
it
var
was
rekið
driven
hann
him.acc
út
out
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was thrown out yesterday.’
GIVE rétta R
(52)
við
we.nom
réttum
handed
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We handed the books to the children.’

(249)
það
it
var
was
rétt
handed
þeim
them.dat
þetta
this.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘They were handed this yesterday.’
TEAR rífa R
(45)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
reif
tore
blaðsíðu
page.acc
úr
out_of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’

(250)
það
it
var
was
rifið
torn
blaðsíðu-na
page-the.acc
út
out
úr
of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The page was torn out of the book yesterday.’
SAY segja (1) M
(31)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
said
nei
no
við
with
hann
him.acc
‘The girl said "no" to him.’
SEND senda R
(54)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sendi
sent
blóm-in
flowers-the.acc
til
to
ömmu
grandmother.gen
sinnar
hers.gen
‘The girl sent the flowers to her grandmother.’

(252)
það
it
var
was
sent
sent
hana
her.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was sent yesterday.’
PUT setja R
(59)
ég
I.nom
setti
put
bolla-nn
cup-the.acc
á
on
borð-ið
table-the.acc
‘I put the cup on the table.’

(253)
það
it
var
was
sett
put
hana
her.acc
af
off
stað
labor
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘Her labor was started yesterday.’
BOIL (tr) sjóða R
(104)
ég
I.nom
sýð
boil
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘I boil the water.’

(254)
það
it
var
was
soðið
boiled
hangikjöt-ið
smoked_meat-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The smoked meat was boiled yesterday.’
CUT skera R
(43)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
sker
cuts
brauð-ið
bread-the.acc
með
with
beittum
sharp.dat
hníf
knife.dat
‘The woman cuts the bread with a sharp knife.’

(255)
það
it
var
was
skorið
cut
á
on
naflastreng-inn
umbilical_cord-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The umbilical cord was cut yesterday.’
HIT slá R
(41)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
sló
hit
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(256)
það
it
var
was
slegið
hit
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The boy was hit yesterday.’
TOUCH snerta R
(42)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
snerti
touched
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
‘The boy touched the snake.’

(257)
það
it
var
was
óvert
unintentionally
snert
touched
hana
her.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was unintentionally touched yesteday.’
SHOW sýna R
(50)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sýndi
showed
kennara-num
teacher-the.dat
myndir
pictures.acc
‘The girl showed some pictures to the teacher.’

(258)
það
it
var
was
sýnt
shown
henni
her.dat
sönunnargögn-in
evidence-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was shown the evidence yesterday.’
SING syngja R
(74)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
söng
sang
lag
song.acc
‘The boy sang (a song).’

(259)
það
it
var
was
sungið
sung
þjóðsöng-inn
national_anthem-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The national anthem was sung yesterday.’
(356)
það
it.expl
var
was
sungið
sung
hann
it.acc
‘It was sung.’
PEEL taka R
(46)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
tók
took
peninga-na
money-the.acc
af
off
vini
friend.dat
sínum
his.dat
‘The man took the money off his friend.’
(48)
hann
he.nom
tók
took
börk-inn
bark-the.acc
af
off
prik-inu
stick-the.dat
‘He peeled the bark off the stick.’

(260)
það
it
var
was
tekið
taken
niður
down
jólastjörnu-na
christmas_star-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The christmas star was taken down yesterday.’
LEAVE yfirgefa R
(77)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
yfirgaf
left
þorp-ið
village-the.acc
‘The boy left the village.’

(261)
það
it
var
was
yfirgefið
abandoned
svæð-ið
area-the.acc
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘The area was abandoned yesterday.’
COVER þekja M
(2)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þekur
covers
málningu-nni
paint-the.dat
á
on
vegg-inn
wall-the.acc
‘The woman smears the paint on the wall.’
WASH þvo R
(17)
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
þvoði
washed
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The mother washed the boy.’

(263)
það
it
var
was
þvegið
washed
honum
him.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘He was washed yesterday.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) biðja (2) R
(108)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bað
asked
konu-nnar
woman-the.gen
‘The man proposed to the woman.’

(264)
það
it
var
was
beðið
proposed
hennar
her.gen
með
with
pompi
pomp.dat
og
and
prakt
circumstance.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
‘She was proposed to with pomp and circumstance yesterday.’
SAY (impersonal) geta R
(224)
ég
I.nom
gat
mentioned
þess
it.gen
í
in
bréf-inu
letter-the.dat
‘I mentioned it in the letter.’

(265)
ekki
not
var
was
getið
mentioned
þess
it.gen
í
in
auglýsingu-nni
ad-the.dat
that
‘It wasn't mentioned in the ad that ...’
FOLLOW fylgja R
(23)
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
fylgdu
followed
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
‘The boys accompanied the girls.’

(267)
það
it
var
was
fylgt
followed
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
á
on
leið
way
‘The girls were taken a part of the way.’
POUR hella R
(60)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hellti
poured
vatni
water.dat
í
in
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
‘The man poured water into the glass.’

(268)
þegar
when
var
was
hellt
poured
vatn-inu
water-the.dat
yfir
over
haus-inn
head-the.acc
á
on
henni
her.dat
‘... when water was poured over her head.’
HELP hjálpa R
(21)
ég
I.nom
hjálpaði
helped
drengju-num
boys-the.dat
‘I helped the boys.’

(269)
það
it
var
was
hjálpað
helped
henni
her.dat
to
taka
tidy
til
up
‘She was helped tidying up.’
COUGH hósta R
(67)
gamli
old.nom
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hóstaði
coughed
‘The old man coughed.’

(270)
það
it
var
was
hóstað
coughed
upp
up
blóð-inu
blood-the.dat
og
and
‘The blood was coughed up and ...’
CAPSIZE hvolfa R
(111)
ég
I.nom
hvolfdi
capsized
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I capsized the boat.’

(271)
það
it
var
was
hvolft
capsized
bát-num
boat-the.dat
á
on
eyri-nni
sandbank-the.dat
‘The baot was capsized on the sandbank.’
SINK sökkva (1) M
(93)
bátur-inn
boat-the.nom
sökk
sank
‘The boat sank.’
STEAL stela R
(101)
þjófur-inn
thief-the.nom
stal
stole
peningum
money.dat
frá
from
gömlu
old.dat
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The thief stole money from the old lady.’

(273)
það
it
var
was
stolið
stolen
peningu-num
money-the.dat
hans
he.gen
bróður
brother.gen
míns
mine
‘My brother's money got stolen.’
SEE sjá N
(8)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
saw
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The boy saw the bear.’
SMELL finna lykt N
(9)
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
fann
found
lykt-ina
smell-the.acc
af
of
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
FEAR vera hræddur N
(10)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
var
was
hræddur
scared.masc
við
with
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The man was frightened of the bear.’
LIKE líka N
(12)
strák-num
boy-the.dat
líkaði
liked.3sg
nýja
new.nom
leikfang-ið
toy-the.nom
sitt
his.nom
‘The boy liked his new toy.’
KNOW þekkja N
(14)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
þekkti
knew
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The girl knew the boy.’
MEET hitta R
(25)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
hittu
met
stráka-na
boys-the.acc
‘The men met the boys.’

(301)
svo
then
var
was
hitt
met
hana
her.acc
Maríu
Maria.acc
mína
mine.acc
og
and
‘Then I met with my Maria and ...’
KILL deyða N
(38)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
deyddi
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’
BE NEEDED vera þörf N
(115)
þess
it.gen
er
is
þörf
need.nom
‘It is needed.’
MAKE ONE'S PRESENCE KNOWN verða vart N
(114)
hans
he.gen
varð
became
vart
aware
í
in
sveit-inni
province-the.dat
‘He made his presence known in the province.’
STUMBLE skrika fótur N
(112)
honum
him.dat
skrikaði
lost
fótur
foot.nom
‘He stumbled.’
LONG FOR fýsa N
(109)
mig
me.acc
fýsir
urge
þess
that.gen
‘I'm eager for that.’
GET berast N
(107)
mér
I.dat
barst
received
pakki
package.nom
frá
from
mömmu
mother.dat
‘I got a package (from mom).’
FEEL SICK vera óglatt N
(106)
mér
I.dat
er
is
óglatt
sick.neut
‘I feel sick.’
BE ILL vera veikur N
(105)
hann
he.nom
er
is
veikur
sick.masc
‘He is sick.’
RAIN rigna N
(99)
það
it.nom
rigndi
rained
‘It rained.’
BE DRY vera þurr N
(98)
jörð-in
ground-the.nom
er
is
þurr
dry.fem
‘The ground is dry.’
ROLL rúlla N
(91)
bolt-inn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
‘The ball is rolling.’
(333)
bolti-nn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
niður
down
brekku-na
hill-the.acc
‘The ball rolls down the hill.’
BE HUNGRY hungra N
(90)
barn-ið
child-the.acc
hungrar
hungers
‘The child is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY vera svangur N
(89)
barn-ið
baby-the.nom
er
is
svangt
hungry.neut
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE SAD vera sorgmæddur N
(88)
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
sorgmædd
sad.fem
‘The little girl was sad.’
FEEL COLD vera kalt N
(85)
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
kalt
cold.neu
‘I’m cold.’
DREAM dreyma N
(84)
mig
me.acc
dreymdi
dreamed
ömmu
grandmother.acc
‘I dreamed of grandma.’
FEEL SLEEPY sækja syfja N
(83)
okkur
we.acc
sækir
fetches
syfja
sleepiness.nom
‘We feel sleepy.’
FEEL PAIN vera illt N
(81)
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
illt
ill.neut
í
in
hendi-nni
hand-the.dat
‘I’m feeling pain in my arm.’
SIT DOWN setjast N
(72)
börn-in
children-the.nom
settu-st
sat-refl/rcp
á
on
bekk-inn
bench-the.acc
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
THROW kasta N
(57)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
kastaði
threw
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
inn
in
um
through
glugga-nn
window-the.acc
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
DIG grafa R
(347)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
grefur
digs
eftir
after
kartöflum
potatoes.dat
‘The woman digs for potatoes.’

(348)
það
it
var
was
grafið
dug
eftir
after
kartöflum
potatoes.dat
‘The potatoes were dug for.’
HAVE AN INTUITION segja hugur um N
(294)
mér
I.dat
segir
says
svo
so
hugur
mind.nom
um
about
that
‘I have the intuition that ...’
TELL segja (2) R
(30)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
told
strák-num
boy-the.dat
skrítna
funny.acc
sögu
story.acc
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’

(251)
það
it
var
was
sagt
said
honum
him.dat
í
in
gær
yesterday
that
‘Yesterday he was told that ...’
(352)
það
it
var
was
sagt
told
sögu-na
story-the
aftur
again
og
and
aftur
again
‘The story was told again and again.’
BE A HUNTER vera veiðmaður N
(334)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
er
is
veiðimaður
hunter.nom
‘The man is a hunter.’
COOK elda R
(336)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
eldar
cooks
kjúkling
chicken
‘The woman cooks chicken.’

(355)
það
it.expl
var
was
eldað
cooked
hann
it.acc
‘It was cooked.’
TEACH kenna N
(338)
gamla
old.nom
kona-n
woman-the.nom
kenndi
taught
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
söng
song.acc
‘The old woman taught the girl a song.’
WIPE þurrka R
(341)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þurrkaði
wiped
skít-inn
dirt-the.acc
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘The woman wiped the dirt off the table.’

(357)
það
it.expl
var
was
þurrkað
dried
hann
it.acc
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘It was dried off the table.’
DESERVE bera (2) N
(284)
honum
him.dat
ber
carries
heiður-inn
honor-the.nom
‘He deserves the credit.’
BE BURDENED búa (2) N
(285)
honum
him.dat
býr
live
þetta
this.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has this on his mind.’
BE BURDENED brenna fyrir brjósti N
(287)
honum
him.dat
brennur
burns
eitthvað
something.nom
fyrir
for
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has something on his mind.’
BE GLAD hlæja hugur í brjósti N
(290)
honum
him.dat
hló
laughed
hugur
interest.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘His heart was gladdened.’
GO WELL leika allt í lyndi N
(292)
honum
him.dat
leikur
plays
allt
everything
í
in
lyndi
harmony
‘Everything goes well for him.’
SETTLE slá niður N
(349)
þau
they.nom
slógu
settled
sér
self.dat
niður
down
í
in
bæ-num
town-the.dat
‘They settled in the town.’
GET EXCITED hlaupa kapp í kinn N
(289)
þeim
them.dat
hljóp
ran
kapp
eagerness.nom
í
in
kinn
cheek
‘They got overexcited.’
BRING færa M
(343)
stúlka-n
girl-the.nom
færði
brought
mér
I.dat
blóm
flowers.acc
‘The girl brought me flowers.’
PUSH ýta R
(345)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
ýtti
pushed
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’

(359)
það
it.expl
var
was
ýtt
pushed
henni
her.dat
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘She was pushed into the water.’
GRIND mala R
(335)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
malar
grinds
korn-ið
corn-the.acc
með
with
áhaldi
tool.dat
‘The woman grinds the corn with a tool.’

(353)
það
it.expl
var
was
malað
ground
það
it.acc
‘It was ground.’
BE FAR FROM THE TRUTH fara fjarri N
(350)
því
it.dat
fór
left
fjarri
distant
that
‘It was far from the truth that ...’
SEARCH FOR leita (2) R
(151)
ég
I.nom
leitaði
looked
hans
he.gen
lengi
long
‘I looked for him for a long time.’

(266)
það
it
var
was
leitað
searched
hans
he.gen
stíft
without_a_break
og
and
allir
everybody.nom
héldu
held
í
in
von-ina
hope-the.acc
‘He was searched for without a break and everybody clinged to the hope.’
SINK (tr) sökkva (2) R
(94)
ég
I.nom
sökkti
sank
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I sank the boat.’

(272)
það
it
var
was
sökkt
sunk
lík-inu
corpse-the.dat
úti
out
á
on
rúmsjó
open_sea
‘The corpse was sunk out on the open sea.’
BURN (tr) brenna (2) R
(97)
ég
I.nom
brenndi
burned
húsi-ð
house-the.acc
‘I burned the house.’

(230)
það
it
var
was
brennt
burned
hús-ið
house-the.acc
‘The house was burned down.’