Mediopassive (middle) C

Description

This construction is coded with an -st form, originally a cliticization of the reflexive pronoun. The alternation mostly involves simple transitive verbs which becomes intransitive through the addition of the -st morpheme, denoting a middle reading, but this construction can also have intransitive verbs as input.
With some verbs he former subject be added as accusative argument optionally (cf. ex.147).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
WASH þvo R
(17)
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
þvoði
washed
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The mother washed the boy.’

(117)
teppi-ð
carpet-the.nom
þvæ-st
washes-refl/rcp
vel
easily
‘The carpet washes easily.’
NAME nefna R
(33)
foreldar-nir
parents-the.nom
nefndu
named
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’

(118)
barn-ið
child-the.nom
nefni-st
calls-refl/rcp
Anna
Anna.nom
‘The child is named Anna.’
NAME kalla R
(32)
foreldrar-nir
parents-the.nom
kölluðu
called
barn-ið
child-the.acc
Önnu
Anna.acc
‘The parents named the child Anna.’

(119)
barn-ið
child-the.nom
kalla-st
calls-refl/rcp
Anna
Anna.nom
‘The child is called Anna.’
BUILD byggja R
(34)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
byggðu
built
hús
house.acc
úr
out_of
tré
wood.dat
‘The men built a house from wood.’

(120)
borg-in
city-the.nom
byggist
builds.refl/rcp
upp
up
smám
little_by
saman
little
‘The city is built up gradually. / The city arises gradually.’
KILL drepa R
(37)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
drap
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’

(121)
óvinur-inn
enemy-the.nom
drapst
killed.refl/rcp
‘The enemy died.’
(315)
hann
he.nom
drap-st
killed-refl/rcp
‘He died.’
CUT skera R
(43)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
sker
cuts
brauð-ið
bread-the.acc
með
with
beittum
sharp.dat
hníf
knife.dat
‘The woman cuts the bread with a sharp knife.’

(124)
brauð-ið
bread-the.nom
skar-st
cut-refl/rcp
í
in
tvennt
two
‘The bread cut into two pieces.’
SEND senda R
(54)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sendi
sent
blóm-in
flowers-the.acc
til
to
ömmu
grandmother.gen
sinnar
hers.gen
‘The girl sent the flowers to her grandmother.’

(126)
pakk-inn
package-the.nom
sendi-st
send-refl/rcp
aftur
again
til
to
sendanda
sender.gen
‘The package should be sent back to sender.’
THROW kasta R
(57)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
kastaði
threw
bolta-num
ball-the.dat
inn
in
um
through
glugga-nn
window-the.acc
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’

(127)
bolt-inn
ball-the.nom
kastaði-st
threw-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
‘The ball bounced back and forth.’
TIE binda R
(58)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
batt
tied
hest-inn
horse-the.acc
með
with
reipi
rope.dat
við
with
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man tied the horse with a rope to the tree.’
POUR hella R
(60)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hellti
poured
vatni
water.dat
í
in
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
‘The man poured water into the glass.’

(130)
mjólk-in
milk-the.nom
hellti-st
poured-refl/rcp
niður
down
‘The milk poured down.’
FILL fylla R
(62)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
fyllti
filled
glas-ið
glass-the.acc
af
of
vatni
water.dat
‘The girl filled the glass with water.’

(131)
glas-ið
glass-the.nom
fyllti-st
filled-refl/rcp
‘The glass got full.’
LOAD hlaða R
(63)
bónd-inn
farmer-the.nom
hlóð
loaded
heyi
hay.dat
á
on
vörubíl-inn
truck-the.acc
‘The farmer loaded hay onto the truck.’

(132)
hey-ið
hay-the.nom
hleð-st
loads-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The hay piles up.’
COUGH hósta R
(67)
gamli
old.nom
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hóstaði
coughed
‘The old man coughed.’

(133)
slím-ið
mucus-the.nom
hóstaði-st
coughed-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The mucus got coughed up.’
ROLL rúlla R
(91)
bolt-inn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
‘The ball is rolling.’
(333)
bolti-nn
ball-the.nom
rúllar
rolls
niður
down
brekku-na
hill-the.acc
‘The ball rolls down the hill.’

(134)
teygja-n
rubber_band-the.nom
rúllaði-st
rolled-refl/rcp
upp
up
‘The rubber band rolled up.’
BURN brenna (1) R
(96)
húsi-ð
house-the.nom
brennur
burns
‘The house is burning.’
(215)
hús-ið
house-the.nom
brann
burned_down
‘The house burned down.’
HEAR heyra R
(102)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
heyrði
heard
í
in
birni-num
bear-the.dat
‘The boy heard the bear.’

(136)
rödd-in
voice-the.nom
heyri-st
hears-refl/rcp
mjög
very
vel
well
‘The voice is easily heard.’
BOIL (tr) sjóða R
(104)
ég
I.nom
sýð
boil
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘I boil the water.’

(137)
kartöflur
potatoes.nom
sjóða-st
boil-refl/rcp
vel
well
‘Potatoes boil well.’
CAPSIZE hvolfa R
(111)
ég
I.nom
hvolfdi
capsized
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I capsized the boat.’

(138)
sumir
some.nom
bátar
boats.nom
hvolfa-st
capsize-refl/rcp
betur
better
en
than
aðrir
others
‘Some boats turn upside down more easily than others. / Some boats get capsized better than others.’
SEE sjá R
(8)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
saw
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The boy saw the bear.’

(145)
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
sá-st
see-refl/rcp
í
in
skógi-num
woods-the.dat
‘The bear was seen in the woods.’
SMELL finna lykt M
(9)
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
fann
found
lykt-ina
smell-the.acc
af
of
strák-num
boy-the.dat
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
FRIGHTEN hræða R
(11)
björn-inn
bear-the.nom
hræddi
frightened
mann-inn
man-the.acc
‘The bear frightened the man.’

(147)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
hræði-st
fears-refl/rcp
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The man fears the bear.’
KNOW þekkja R
(14)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
þekkti
knew
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The girl knew the boy.’

(149)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
þekki-st
know-refl/rcp
á
on
hár-inu
hair-the.dat
‘The boy is recognizable because of his hair.’
DRESS klæða N
(19)
mamma-n
mother-the.nom
klæddi
dressed
dóttur
daughter.acc
sína
her.acc
í
in
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
CUT klippa R
(44)
hárgreiðslukona-n
hairdresser-the.nom
klippti
cut
hár-ið
hair-the.acc
á
on
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The hairdresser cut the woman's hair.’

(176)
putt-inn
finger-the.nom
á
on
afa
grandpa
klippti-st
cut-refl/rcp
af
off
‘Grandpa's finger got cut off.’
COVER þekja N
(2)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þekur
covers
málningu-nni
paint-the.dat
á
on
vegg-inn
wall-the.acc
‘The woman smears the paint on the wall.’
COVER breiða N
(3)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
breiddi
covered
teppi-ð
carpet-the.acc
yfir
over
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The woman pulled the carpet over the boy. / The woman covered the boy with the carpet.’
EAT borða N
(4)
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
borðaði
ate
ávöxt-inn
fruit-the.acc
‘The boy ate the fruit.’
HUG faðma N
(5)
móðir-in
mother-the.nom
faðmaði
hugged
dreng-inn
boy-the.acc
‘The mother hugged the boy.’
LOOK AT horfa N
(6)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
horfði
watched
á
on
stelpu-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy watched the girl.’
LOOK AT líta N
(7)
drengur-inn
boy-the.nom
leit
looked
á
at
stúlku-na
girl-the.acc
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
FEAR vera hræddur N
(10)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
var
was
hræddur
scared.masc
við
with
björn-inn
bear-the.acc
‘The man was frightened of the bear.’
LIKE líka N
(12)
strák-num
boy-the.dat
líkaði
liked.3sg
nýja
new.nom
leikfang-ið
toy-the.nom
sitt
his.nom
‘The boy liked his new toy.’
THINK hugsa N
(16)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hugsaði
thought
um
about
ömmu
grandmother.acc
sína
her.acc
‘The girl thought about her grandmother.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) raka N
(20)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
rakaði
shaved
skegg-ið
beard-the.acc
á
on
sér
self.dat
‘The man shaved his beard.’
HELP hjálpa N
(21)
ég
I.nom
hjálpaði
helped
drengju-num
boys-the.dat
‘I helped the boys.’
FOLLOW elta N
(22)
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
eltu
followed
stelpur-nar
girls-the.acc
‘The boys followed the girls.’
MEET hitta N
(25)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
hittu
met
stráka-na
boys-the.acc
‘The men met the boys.’
SEARCH FOR leita (1) N
(15)
mennir-nir
men-the.nom
leituðu
searched
for
konum-num
women.pl-the.dat
‘The men searched for the women.’
FOLLOW fylgja N
(23)
drengir-nir
boys-the.nom
fylgdu
followed
stelpu-num
girls-the.dat
‘The boys accompanied the girls.’
TALK tala N
(27)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
talaði
talked
við
with
strák-inn
boy-the.acc
um
about
hund-inn
dog-the.acc
sinn
her.acc
‘The girl talked to the boy about her dog.’
ASK FOR biðja (1) N
(28)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
bað
asked
foreldra
parents.acc
sína
his.acc
um
about
pening
money.acc
‘The boy asked (his parents) for money.’
SHOUT AT hrópa N
(29)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
hrópaði
shouted
á
on
börn-in
children-the.acc
‘The woman shouted at the children.’
SAY segja (1) N
(31)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
said
nei
no
við
with
hann
him.acc
‘The girl said "no" to him.’
BREAK brjóta N
(35)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
braut
broke
rúðu-na
glass-the.acc
með
with
steini
stone.dat
‘The boy broke the window with a stone.’
KILL deyða N
(38)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
deyddi
killed
óvin
enemy.acc
sinn
his.acc
með
with
kylfu
club.dat
‘The man killed his enemy with a club.’
BEAT lemja R
(40)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
lamdi
beat
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy beat the snake with a stick.’

(316)
glugg-inn
window-the.nom
lamdi-st
beat-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
í
in
vindi-num
wind-the.dat
‘The window was banging back and forth in the wind.’
HIT slá R
(41)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
sló
hit
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
með
with
priki
stick.dat
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’

(317)
glugg-inn
window-the.nom
sló-st
beat-refl/rcp
til
to
og
and
frá
from
í
in
vindi-num
wind-the.dat
‘The window was banging back and forth in the wind.’
TOUCH snerta N
(42)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
snerti
touched
snák-inn
snake-the.acc
‘The boy touched the snake.’
TEAR rífa N
(45)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
reif
tore
blaðsíðu
page.acc
úr
out_of
bók-inni
book-the.dat
‘The girl tore a page from the book.’
PEEL taka N
(46)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
tók
took
peninga-na
money-the.acc
af
off
vini
friend.dat
sínum
his.dat
‘The man took the money off his friend.’
(48)
hann
he.nom
tók
took
börk-inn
bark-the.acc
af
off
prik-inu
stick-the.dat
‘He peeled the bark off the stick.’
HIDE fela N
(49)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
faldi
hid
frosk-inn
frog-the.acc
fyrir
for
mömmu
mother.dat
sinni
his.dat
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
SHOW sýna N
(50)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sýndi
showed
kennara-num
teacher-the.dat
myndir
pictures.acc
‘The girl showed some pictures to the teacher.’
GIVE gefa N
(51)
við
we.nom
gáfum
gave
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We gave the books to the children (as a gift).’
BE NEEDED vera þörf N
(115)
þess
it.gen
er
is
þörf
need.nom
‘It is needed.’
MAKE ONE'S PRESENCE KNOWN verða vart N
(114)
hans
he.gen
varð
became
vart
aware
í
in
sveit-inni
province-the.dat
‘He made his presence known in the province.’
SAY (impersonal) geta N
(224)
ég
I.nom
gat
mentioned
þess
it.gen
í
in
bréf-inu
letter-the.dat
‘I mentioned it in the letter.’
STUMBLE skrika fótur N
(112)
honum
him.dat
skrikaði
lost
fótur
foot.nom
‘He stumbled.’
LONG FOR fýsa N
(109)
mig
me.acc
fýsir
urge
þess
that.gen
‘I'm eager for that.’
PROPOSE (a marriage) biðja (2) N
(108)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bað
asked
konu-nnar
woman-the.gen
‘The man proposed to the woman.’
GET berast N
(107)
mér
I.dat
barst
received
pakki
package.nom
frá
from
mömmu
mother.dat
‘I got a package (from mom).’
FEEL SICK vera óglatt N
(106)
mér
I.dat
er
is
óglatt
sick.neut
‘I feel sick.’
BE ILL vera veikur N
(105)
hann
he.nom
er
is
veikur
sick.masc
‘He is sick.’
STEAL stela N
(101)
þjófur-inn
thief-the.nom
stal
stole
peningum
money.dat
frá
from
gömlu
old.dat
konu-nni
woman-the.dat
‘The thief stole money from the old lady.’
RAIN rigna N
(99)
það
it.nom
rigndi
rained
‘It rained.’
BE DRY vera þurr N
(98)
jörð-in
ground-the.nom
er
is
þurr
dry.fem
‘The ground is dry.’
SINK sökkva (1) N
(93)
bátur-inn
boat-the.nom
sökk
sank
‘The boat sank.’
BE HUNGRY hungra N
(90)
barn-ið
child-the.acc
hungrar
hungers
‘The child is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY vera svangur N
(89)
barn-ið
baby-the.nom
er
is
svangt
hungry.neut
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE SAD vera sorgmæddur N
(88)
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
var
was
sorgmædd
sad.fem
‘The little girl was sad.’
PLAY leika sér N
(87)
barn-ið
child-the.nom
leikur
plays
sér
self.dat
‘The child is playing.’
DIE deyja N
(86)
snákur-inn
snake-the.nom
died
‘The snake died.’
FEEL COLD vera kalt N
(85)
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
kalt
cold.neu
‘I’m cold.’
DREAM dreyma N
(84)
mig
me.acc
dreymdi
dreamed
ömmu
grandmother.acc
‘I dreamed of grandma.’
FEEL SLEEPY sækja syfja N
(83)
okkur
we.acc
sækir
fetches
syfja
sleepiness.nom
‘We feel sleepy.’
SCREAM öskra N
(82)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
öskraði
screamed
‘The man screamed.’
FEEL PAIN vera illt N
(81)
mér
I.dat
er
is.3sg
illt
ill.neut
í
in
hendi-nni
hand-the.dat
‘I’m feeling pain in my arm.’
DRIVE OUT reka N
(95)
ég
I.nom
rak
drove
hann
him.acc
út
out
‘I drove him out.’
LAUGH hlæja N
(79)
litla
little.nom
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
‘The little girl laughed.’
(331)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hló
laughed
at
brandara-num
joke-the.dat
‘The girl laughed at the joke.’
LIVE búa (1) N
(78)
gamla
old.nom
fólk-ið
people-the.nom
býr
live
í
in
bænum
town
‘The old people live in town.’
LEAVE yfirgefa N
(77)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
yfirgaf
left
þorp-ið
village-the.acc
‘The boy left the village.’
GO fara N
(76)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
fór
went
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The woman went to the market.’
SING syngja N
(74)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
söng
sang
lag
song.acc
‘The boy sang (a song).’
JUMP hoppa N
(73)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
hoppaði
jumped
‘The girl jumped.’
SIT DOWN setjast N
(72)
börn-in
children-the.nom
settu-st
sat-refl/rcp
á
on
bekk-inn
bench-the.acc
‘The children sat down on the bench.’
SIT sitja N
(71)
börn-in
children-the.nom
sátu
sat
á
on
gólf-inu
floor-the.dat
‘The children sat on the floor.’
RUN hlaupa R
(70)
hestur-inn
horse-the.nom
hleypur
runs
‘The horse is running.’

(327)
hann
he.nom
hljóp-st
ran-refl/rcp
undan
from
ábyrgð-inni
responsibility-the.dat
‘He ran away from the responsibility.’
CLIMB klifra N
(69)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
klifraði
climbed
upp
up
tré-ð
tree-the.acc
‘The man climbed (up) the tree.’
BLINK blikka (augunum) N
(65)
ég
I.nom
blikkaði
blinked
augu-num
eyes-the.dat
‘I blinked my eyes.’
PUT setja N
(59)
ég
I.nom
setti
put
bolla-nn
cup-the.acc
á
on
borð-ið
table-the.acc
‘I put the cup on the table.’
GIVE rétta N
(52)
við
we.nom
réttum
handed
börnu-num
children-the.dat
bækur-nar
books-the.acc
‘We handed the books to the children.’
CARRY bera (1) N
(56)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
bar
carried
kassa-na
boxes-the.acc
á
on
markað-inn
market-the.acc
‘The man carried the boxes to the market.’
HAVE AN INTUITION segja hugur um N
(294)
mér
I.dat
segir
says
svo
so
hugur
mind.nom
um
about
that
‘I have the intuition that ...’
TELL segja (2) N
(30)
stelpa-n
girl-the.nom
sagði
told
strák-num
boy-the.dat
skrítna
funny.acc
sögu
story.acc
‘The girl told the boy a funny story.’
BE A HUNTER vera veiðmaður N
(334)
maður-inn
man-the.nom
er
is
veiðimaður
hunter.nom
‘The man is a hunter.’
COOK elda N
(336)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
eldar
cooks
kjúkling
chicken
‘The woman cooks chicken.’
TEACH kenna N
(338)
gamla
old.nom
kona-n
woman-the.nom
kenndi
taught
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
söng
song.acc
‘The old woman taught the girl a song.’
WIPE þurrka R
(341)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
þurrkaði
wiped
skít-inn
dirt-the.acc
af
off
borð-inu
table-the.dat
‘The woman wiped the dirt off the table.’

(363)
text-inn
text-the.nom
þurrkaðist
wiped
út
out
‘The text got wiped out.’
DESERVE bera (2) N
(284)
honum
him.dat
ber
carries
heiður-inn
honor-the.nom
‘He deserves the credit.’
BE BURDENED búa (2) N
(285)
honum
him.dat
býr
live
þetta
this.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has this on his mind.’
BE BURDENED brenna fyrir brjósti N
(287)
honum
him.dat
brennur
burns
eitthvað
something.nom
fyrir
for
brjósti
breast.dat
‘He has something on his mind.’
BE GLAD hlæja hugur í brjósti N
(290)
honum
him.dat
hló
laughed
hugur
interest.nom
í
in
brjósti
breast.dat
‘His heart was gladdened.’
GO WELL leika allt í lyndi N
(292)
honum
him.dat
leikur
plays
allt
everything
í
in
lyndi
harmony
‘Everything goes well for him.’
SETTLE slá niður N
(349)
þau
they.nom
slógu
settled
sér
self.dat
niður
down
í
in
bæ-num
town-the.dat
‘They settled in the town.’
GET EXCITED hlaupa kapp í kinn N
(289)
þeim
them.dat
hljóp
ran
kapp
eagerness.nom
í
in
kinn
cheek
‘They got overexcited.’
DIG grafa R
(347)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
grefur
digs
eftir
after
kartöflum
potatoes.dat
‘The woman digs for potatoes.’

(360)
kartöflur-nar
potatoes-the.nom
grófu-st
dug-refl/rcp
niður
down
‘The potatoes got dug down.’
BRING færa R
(343)
stúlka-n
girl-the.nom
færði
brought
mér
I.dat
blóm
flowers.acc
‘The girl brought me flowers.’

(365)
mús-in
mouse-the.nom
færði-st
moved-refl/rcp
‘The mouse moved.’
PUSH ýta N
(345)
strákur-inn
boy-the.nom
ýtti
pushed
stelpu-nni
girl-the.dat
út
out
í
in
vatn-ið
water-the.acc
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
GRIND mala R
(335)
kona-n
woman-the.nom
malar
grinds
korn-ið
corn-the.acc
með
with
áhaldi
tool.dat
‘The woman grinds the corn with a tool.’

(364)
korn-ið
corn-the.nom
malaðist
got.grounded
af
by
sjálfu
it.dat
sér
self.dat
‘The corn got grounded by itself.’
BE FAR FROM THE TRUTH fara fjarri N
(350)
því
it.dat
fór
left
fjarri
distant
that
‘It was far from the truth that ...’
SEARCH FOR leita (2) N
(151)
ég
I.nom
leitaði
looked
hans
he.gen
lengi
long
‘I looked for him for a long time.’
SINK (tr) sökkva (2) N
(94)
ég
I.nom
sökkti
sank
bát-num
boat-the.dat
‘I sank the boat.’
BURN (tr) brenna (2) N
(97)
ég
I.nom
brenndi
burned
húsi-ð
house-the.acc
‘I burned the house.’