nąąǧire hii

show comment

consists of v.inact.+v.caus.
lit. means 'make so. be afraid, be frightened'

Coding frame

Complex Verb form
Verb type: VV

Examples

(117)
Nąąǧire wįįrera, iiyaajanįk.
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
Haǧep rakirinąkgają, nąąǧire hįraa!
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# FRIGHTEN Coding set Argument type
1 frightener act.V A
2 frightenee obj:und.V P

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
R y
(569)
‘He went to war, so I was afraid for him.’
C
R y
‘They scared the kid with a toy animal.’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(572)
‘Dogs and cats are afraid of each other.’
C
R y
(570)
‘Hinu is afraid of her dog.’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R already part of the counterpart given here, but ex 578 shows the usage of the verb without CAUS, another CAUS can also be added y
(567)
‘Thunder frightens me.’
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I made Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
C
N replaces hii, naaǧire hii kįį seems impossible y
(571)
‘Last night I went outside and scared myself.’
‘They walked to the stream in the dark and saw something, they scared themselves (it was their own fault for walking around in the dark).’
‘When they ran into each other in the dark they scared each other.’
C
R possessive meaning only, either replaces hii or can be added y
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I let Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I made my Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
C
N y