Examples of Hoocąk

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Wa'įnąka hiš'ųanąga hįįrašurukąną?
wa'į=nąka
blanket=POS.NTL:DIST
hi<š>'ų=anąga
<2.A>use=and
hi-hį-ha<šu>ruką-ną
APPL.INST-1E.U-<2.A>cover-POT
‘Can you cover me with that blanket?’
COVER an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(2)
Waarucra hanąąc waašurukągįnį?
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(3)
Waarucra waįragišurukąną?
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
wa-ha<hį-ra-gi-šu>ruką-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>cover-POT
‘Can you cover the tables for me?’
COVER an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(4)
Nąąra waipereci (wa)wiirukąire.
nąą=ra
wood=DEF
waipereci
canvas
wa-hi-haruką-ire
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-cover-SBJ.3PL
‘They covered the logs with canvas.’
COVER an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(5)
Jaagu'ų waipereci hiraįšurukąwi?
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi-ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
APPL.INST-<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you (PL) cover me with canvas? / Why did you have to cover us with canvas?’
COVER an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(6)
Waipereci hiš'ųanąga nąąra waįragišurukąną?
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų=anąga
<2.A>use=and
nąą=ra
wood=DEF
wa-ha<hį-ra-gi-šu>ruką-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>cover-POT
‘Can you cover all my logs with canvas for me?’
COVER an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(7)
Wa'į šjuuc yaakituką.
wa'į
blanket
šjuuc
be.warm
hi-ha<ha-kii>tuką
APPL.INST-<1E.A-RFL>cover\1E.A
‘I covered myself with a warm blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Instrumental & reflexive (+ hi + kii)
(8)
Wa'į šjuuc yaakikuruką.
wa'į
blanket
šjuuc
be.warm
hi-ha<ha-kii-ku>ruką
APPL.INST-<1E.A-RFL-POSS.RFL>cover
‘I covered myself with a warm blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(9)
Xąąwį hįį'ų(wi)anąga hįįkikiruką(wi)ną.
xąąwį
grass
hį-hi'ų-wi=anąga
1I.A-use-PL=and
hį-ha<kiki>ruką-wi-ną
1I.A-<RCP>cover-PL-POT
‘Let's cover each other with grass / We can cover each other with grass.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(10)
Xąąwį hi'ųireanąga hakikirukąire.
xąąwį
grass
hi'ų-ire-anąga
use-SBJ.3PL-and
ha<kiki>ruką-ire
<RCP>cover-SBJ.3PL
‘They used grass to cover each other.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(11)
Wiišgac waašįnįra waarakuruką?
wiišgac
toy
wa-ha<šį>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
wa-ha<ra-ku>ruką
OBJ.3PL-<2.A-POSS.RFL>cover
‘Did you cover your toys?’
COVER an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(12)
Wiisgac waašįnįra waarakurukąną?
wiišgac
toy
wa-ha<šį>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
wa-ha<ra-ku>ruką-ną
OBJ.3PL-<2.A-POSS.RFL>cover-POT
‘Can you cover your toys?’
COVER an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(13)
Wooracgąra hanąąc hoixjį wahaagįnį.
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(14)
Wooracgąra hanąąc nįį hoixjį wahaa.
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(15)
Jaagu'ų wooracgą hanįra nįįšoc hoixjį raa?
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(16)
Wooracgąnąąkre hoixjį waįragiginą?
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-hį-ra-gigi-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you fill these cups for me?’
FILL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(17)
Warucra ceep wahaanaga hoixjįxjį hakį.
waruc=ra
food=DEF
ceep_<wa>haa=anąga
<OBJ.3PL>eat/drink.up\1E.A=and
hoixjį-xjį
be.full-INTS
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I ate up all the food and I filled myself right up.’
FILL an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(18)
Haašjek kookra hoixjį hįgigiire.
haašjek
strawberry
kook=ra
box=DEF
hoixjį
be.full
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They filled my strawberry pail for me.’
FILL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(19)
Haast'ekra (eeja) wapaxų (rehaa).
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(20)
Haast'ekra (wa)waįragišawaxų?
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waxų
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-pour
‘Did you pour out my rotten berries / Did you pour out the rotten berries for me?’
POUR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(21)
Waarucra ceewasnįra hikinų hapaxų.
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
ceewasnį=ra
milk=DEF
hikinų
accidentally
ha-paaxų
APPL.SUPESS-pour\1E.A
‘I accidentally spilled milk over the table.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(22)
Ceewasnįra hireanaga nįįtašjak taaxura waaruc (hihakeja) waapaxų, hikinų.
ceewasnį=ra
milk=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
nįįtašjak_taaxu=ra
coffee=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
wa-ha-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-APPL.SUPESS-pour\1E.A
hikinų
accidentally
‘I spilled milk and coffee over the table.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(23)
Hąįnį woorucra ceewasnį haakawaxų.
hąįnį
morning
wooruc=ra
meal=DEF
ceewasnį
milk
ha-ha-ka-waxų
APPL.SUPESS-1E.A-POSS.RFL-pour
‘I put milk on my cereal.’
POUR an Alternation:
Superessive & possessive reflexive (+ ha + kara)
(24)
Mąąskok yaa'ųanąga (xąąwįoxerera) nįį waapaxų.
mąąs-kook
metal-box
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
nįį
water
wa-ha-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-APPL.SUPESS-pour\1E.A
‘I used the can and poured water over something.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(25)
Mąąskook šuucxetera wikįnį hopaxų.
mąąs-kook
metal-box
šuuc-xete=ra
be.red-be.big=DEF
wikįnį
oil
ho-paaxų
APPL.INESS-pour\1E.A
‘I put gas in the big red can.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(26)
Mąąskok šuucxete hanįra wikįnį hopaxų.
mąąs-kook
metal-box
šuuc-xete
be.red-be.big
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wikįnį
oil
ho-paaxų
APPL.INESS-pour\1E.A
‘I poured gas into my big red can.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(27)
Mąąskook šuucxete hanįra wikįnį waakawaxų.
mąąs-kook
metal-box
šuuc-xete
be.red-be.big
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
wikįnį
oil
ho-ha-ka-waxų
APPL.INESS-1E.A-POSS.RFL-pour
‘I poured my gas into the big red can.’
POUR an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(28)
Kutei, nįį hįįšawaxų!
kutei
INTJ(male)
nįį
water
ha-hį-ša-waxų
APPL.SUPESS-1E.U-2.A-pour
‘Hey, you poured water over me!’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(29)
Nąącawara nįį hųųragišawaxų!
nąącawa=ra
ear=DEF
nįį
water
ho-hį-ra-gi-ša-waxų
APPL.INESS-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-pour
‘You poured water into my ear!’
POUR an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(30)
Nįįtašjak taaxura wooracgą hanįregi hisge hųųgiwaxųre!
nįįtašjak_taaxu=ra
coffee=DEF
wooracgą
cup
hanį-regi
have.NTL\1E.A-SIM/LOC
hisge
some
ho-hį-gi-waxų-re
APPL.INESS-1E.U-APPL.BEN-pour-IMP
‘Pour some coffee here into my cup!’
POUR an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(31)
Kutei, nįį haakipaxų!
kutei
INTJ(male)
nįį
water
ha-ha-kii-paaxų
APPL.SUPESS-1E.A-RFL-pour\1E.A
‘Oh, I poured water over myself!’
POUR an Alternation:
Superessive & reflexive/reciprocal (+ ha + kii)
(32)
Wanąą, nąącawara nįį waakipaxų!
wanąą
INTJ(female)
nąącawa=ra
ear=DEF
nįį
water
ho-ha-kii-paaxų
APPL.INESS-1E.A-RFL-pour\1E.A
‘I poured water into my ear!’
POUR an Alternation:
Inessive & reflexive (+ ho + kii)
(33)
Nįį hanįra wooracgą hanįra haakikawaxų.
nįį
water
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
ha-ha-kii-ka-waxų
APPL.SUPESS-1E.A-RFL-POSS.RFL-pour
‘I spilled my water over myself.’
POUR an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(34)
Hinųga hireanąga Kųnųga nįį hakikiwaxųire.
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
hireanąga
along.with
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nįį
water
ha-kiki-waxų-ire
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-pour-SBJ.3PL
‘Hinu and Kunu spilled water over each other.’
POUR an Alternation:
Superessive & reflexive/reciprocal (+ ha + kii)
(35)
Hinųga hireanąga Kųnųga nąącawara nįį hokikiwaxųire.
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
hireanąga
along.with
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąącawa=ra
ear=DEF
nįį
water
ho-kiki-waxų-ire
APPL.INESS-RCP-pour-SBJ.3PL
‘Hinu and Kunu spilled water into each other's ears.’
POUR an Alternation:
Inessive & reflexive (+ ho + kii)
(36)
Waǧįǧįra gooja ha'ųrehaa.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(37)
Jaagu'ų waǧįǧįra hįįrorajį?
jaagu'ų
why
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hi<hį>ro<ra>jį
<1E.U><2.A>throw
‘Why did you throw the ball at me?’
BEAT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(38)
Waǧįǧįra hanąąc nąąhihakeja waš'ųreera?
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(39)
Waǧįǧįra hanąąc nįįeja woorat'ųšere?
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį-eja
water-there
wa-ho-ra-t'ųų<še>re
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-2.A-<2.A>throw.away
‘Did you throw all the balls into the water?’
THROW an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(40)
*Waǧįǧįra hįgiųre hįgigire.
*waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hį-gi-ųųree
1E.U-APPL.BEN-throw
hį-gigi-re
1E.U-let/cause-IMP
‘Throw the ball for me.’
THROW an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(41)
Waǧįǧįra hanąąc waįgi'ų huu hiire.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(42)
Waǧįǧį (ki)kii'ųrehinąąkšąną.
waǧįǧį
ball
kiki-ųųreehi=nąąk-šąną
RCP-throw=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘They're throwing balls to each other.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(43)
Nįįkjąkra waǧįǧįra wakiki'ųrehinąąkšąną.
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
wa-kiki-ųųreehi=nąąk-šąną
OBJ.3PL-RCP-throw=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The kids are throwing balls to each other.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(44)
Waǧįǧį nee hanįra nąąija ha'ųrehaa.
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(45)
Waǧįǧįra hanąąc nąąija waakara'ųrehaa.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-ija
tree-there
wa-ha-kara-ųųrehaa
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-POSS.RFL-throw\1E.A
‘I threw all my balls into the tree.’
THROW an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(46)
*Peeceja waagax ho'ųųreehi.
*peec-eeja
fire-there
waagax
paper
ho-ųųreehi
APPL.INESS-throw
‘He threw paper into the fire.’
THROW an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(47)
Waxuzizik (wiigucižą) hi'ųanąga iinįxete hižą (hi')ųreehi.
waxuzizik
rubber
wiiguc-ižą
shooting.device-one
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
iinį-xete
stone-be.big
hižą
one
hi-ųųreehi
APPL.INST-throw
‘He quickly used a rubber device and threw a big rock.’
THROW an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(48)
Kooknąąkre wašuru'ąną?
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(49)
Hįšuru'ąną?
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(50)
Kooknąąkre waįragišuru'ąną?
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry these boxes for me?’
CARRY an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(51)
Waginąnąąka hi'ųanąga nąąkre hiru'ąre.
waginą=nąka
string=POS.NTL:DIST
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
nąą-ąąkre
log-POS.HOR:PROX
hi-ru'ą-re
APPL.INST-lift/carry-IMP
‘Lift this log with the rope.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(52)
Nąą te'e waginą hįįgiru'ąre.
nąą
wood
te'e
this
waginą
rope
hi-hį-gi-ru'ą-re
APPL.INST-1E.U-APPL.BEN-lift/carry-IMP
‘Lift the log with the rope for me.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(53)
Nąąra waaceja horu'ąre.
nąą=ra
log=DEF
waac-eja
boat-there
ho-ru'ą-re
APPL.INESS-lift/carry-IMP
‘Lift the log into the boat.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(54)
Nąąra hanąąc waaceja (wa)woįgiru'ąire.
nąą=ra
wood=DEF
hanąąc
all
waac-eeja
boat-there
wa-ho-hį-gi-ru'ą-ire
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-1E.U-APPL.BEN-lift/carry-SBJ.3PL
‘They lifted all the logs into the boat for me.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(55)
Waaceja hųųru'ąire.
waac-eja
boat-there
ho-hį-ru'ą-ire
APPL.INESS-1E.U-lift/carry-SBJ.3PL
‘They lifted me into the boat.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(56)
Kookra waakuru'ą.
kook=ra
box=DEF
wa-ha-ku-ru'ą
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-POSS.RFL-lift/carry
‘I carried my boxes.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(57)
Nąąra waaceja waakuru'ą rehaa.
nąą=ra
log=DEF
waac-eja
boat-there
wa-ho-ha-ku-ru'ą
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-1E.A-POSS.RFL-lift/carry
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I (quickly) lifted my logs into the boat.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(58)
Waginą yaa'ųanąga hakitu'ą.
waginą
rope
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
ha-kii-tuu'ą
1E.A-RFL-lift/carry\1E.A
‘I hoisted myself with a rope.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(59)
Kikiru'ą ųųnąąk'ų hijaahiire.
kiki-ru'ą
RCP-lift/carry
ųų=nąąk=ų
do/make=POS.NTL.PL=SIM
hija-ha-hii-ire
there-COLL-arrive.there-SBJ.3PL
‘Lifting each other they arrived there.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(60)
Hakikuru'ą nąą'įra tuuš'akšąną.
ha-kii-ku-ru'ą
1E.A-RFL-POSS.RFL-lift/carry
nąą<ha>'į=ra
<1E.A>try=DEF
tuuš'ak-šąną
fail.at\1E.A-DECL
‘I attempted to pull myself up, but I couldn't.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(61)
Kųnųga homįk hihakeja haru'ąjee.
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
homįk
bed
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha-ru'ą=jee
APPL.SUPESS-lift/carry=POS.VERT
‘He was holding Kunu over the bed.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(62)
Waaceja neexjį waakitu'ą.
waac-eja
boat-there
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ho-ha-kii-tuu'ą
APPL.INESS-1E.A-RFL-lift/carry\1E.A
‘I lifted myself into the boat.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Inessive & reflexive (+ ho + kii)
(63)
Wiiceja eexjį (ha)kiru'ą.
wiic-eja
island-there
ee-xjį
3EMPH-INTS
ha-kii-ru'ą
APPL.SUPESS-RFL-lift/carry
‘He lifted himself onto the island/beach.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Superessive & reflexive/reciprocal (+ ha + kii)
(64)
Kšeera wamąąšųnų?
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(65)
Kšeera hanąąc wamąįragišųnų?
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi-šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>steal
‘Did you steal all the apples from me / Did you steal all the apples for me?’
STEAL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(66)
Wažą mąįragišųnų?
wažą
something
mąą<hį-ra-gi-šų>nų
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>steal
‘Did you steal something for me?’
STEAL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(67)
Mąąkinų haji waa'ųnąkšąną.
mąą<ha-kii>nų
<1E.A-RFL>steal
ha-jii
1E.A-arrive.here
wa<ha>'ų=nąk-šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL\1E.A-DECL
‘I stole away and I'm here.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(68)
Wiišgacra nųųxąwą waažu.
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(69)
Woorak že'e hanųxąwą hįšiire.
woorak
story
že'e
that
ha-nųųxąwą
APPL.SUPESS-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep that story secret.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(70)
Woorakra hanąąc wawaanųxąwą haje.
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<ha>nųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>keep.secret
ha-jee
1E.A-POS.VERT
‘I'm keeping these stories secret.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(71)
Woorakra wanąnųxąwą wašaraje?
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(72)
(Ha)nąąkixąwą waa'ųnąkšąną haji.
ha-nųų<ha-kii>xąwą
APPL.SUPESS-<1E.A-RFL>hide
wa<ha>'ų=nąk-šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL-DECL
ha-jii
1E.A-arrive.here
‘I'm hiding myself here.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(73)
Wasge hožu (hihak)eja (ha)nųxąwą kąnąkšąną.
wasge_hožu
cupboard
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
ha-nųųxąwą
APPL.SUPESS-hide
kąnąk-šąną
place-DECL
‘He put something on top of the cupboard up there.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(74)
Cąąkeja nųki(ki)xąwą naakšąną.
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
nųų<kiki>xąwą
<RCP>hide
nąąk-šąną
POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘They're playing hide and seek (=hiding from each other) outside.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(75)
?Wa'įra hinųxąwąjee.
wa'į=ra
blanket=DEF
hi-nųųxąwą-jee
APPL.INST-hide-POS.VERT
‘He's using a blanket to hide.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(76)
Hįįrakiš'o?
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(77)
Peera hįgiki'oaje!
pee=ra
forehead=DEF
hi<hį-gi>ki'o-aje
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>touch-IMP.POST
‘Touch my forehead!’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(78)
Wakąra hiki'o.
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(79)
Wakąra reezi (hikarak'ųanąga) hįįki'o.
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(80)
Siipajora wawikaraki'ore!
siipajo=ra
toe=DEF
wa-hi<kara>ki'o-re
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>touch-IMP
‘Touch your toes!’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(81)
Yaakiki'o('o).
hi<ha-kii>ki'o-'o
<1E.A-RFL>touch-RDP
‘I touched myself (in different places).’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(82)
Yaakiki'owi.
hi<ha-kii>ki'o-wi
<1E.A-RCP/RFL>touch-PL
‘We touched each other.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(83)
Nąąksikra hi'ųireanaga hikiki'oire.
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hi'ų-ire=anąga
use-SBJ.3PL=and
hi<kii>ki'o-ire
<RCP/RFL>touch-SBJ.3PL
‘They touched each other with sticks.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(84)
T'ee nįįkjene.
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
KILL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(85)
Wijukįkra hiragikaragaja t'ee gigi.
wijuk-nįk
cat-DIM
hira<gi>kara-gają
<APPL.BEN>take.care.of-SEQ
t'ee
die
gigi
let/cause
‘He was baby-sitting a cat and he caused it to die.’
KILL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(86)
Caa t'ee hįgigiire.
caa
deer
t'ee
die
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed a deer for me.’
KILL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(87)
Wašjįkra waaruc hihakeja t'ee hiire.
wašjįk=ra
rabbit=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
t'ee
die
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed the rabbit on the table.’
KILL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(88)
Caa ze'e wiižukxete hit'e hiire.
caa
deer
žee
that
wiižuk-xete
gun-be.big
hi-t'ee
APPL.INST-die
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed this deer with a gun.’
KILL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(89)
Caa te'e wiižuk hi'ųireanąga t'ee hįgigiire.
caa
deer
te'e
this
wiižuk
gun
hi'ų-ire-anąga
use-SBJ.3PL-and
t'ee
die
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed a deer for me with a gun.’
KILL an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(90)
Šųųkra t'ee hakaragi.
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
t'ee
die
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I killed my own dog.’
KILL an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive causative (karagi)
(91)
T'ee hakįkjene.
t'ee
die
ha-kįį-kjene
1E.A-make.self-FUT
‘I'm going to kill myself.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(92)
Wažą hinįgekjene.
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(93)
Waną'į hirujis higanąąkšąną.
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(94)
Xjąnąre waną'į hirujis hįįgaire.
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(95)
Xjąnąre waną'į hirujis yaakige.
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<ha-kii>ge
<1E.A-RFL>say.to
‘Yesterday I called myself an idiot.’
NAME an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(96)
Waną'į hirujis hiki(ki)gaire.
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<kiki>ge-ire
<RCP>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘They called each other idiots.’
NAME an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(97)
Nįįkjąkra wažą yaakarage.
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wažą
something
hi<ha-kara>ge
<1E.A-POSS.RFL>say.to
‘I said something to my child.’
NAME an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(98)
Wažą wawiraigiganą?
wažą
something
wa-hi<ra-hį-gi>ge-ną
OBJ.3PL-<2.A-1E.U-APPL.BEN>say.to-POT
‘Can you say something to them for me?’
NAME an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(99)
Woowąkireže wawiyaakara(gi)ge.
woowąk-ire-že
be.naughty-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
wa-hi<ha-kara-gi>ge
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-POSS.RFL-APPL.BEN>say.to
‘I told them they were naughty.’
NAME an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(100)
Toora xerenąąk.
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 und[1].V
(101)
Toora xere wahaa.
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere
boil
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I boiled the potatoes.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(102)
Toora xere wairagiginą?
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere
boil
wa-hį-ra-gigi-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you boil these potatoes for me? / Can you boil my potatoes?’
BOIL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(103)
Toora nee xere waakaragi.
too=ra
potato=DEF
nee
1EMPH
xere
boil
wa-ha-karagi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-cause.own
‘I boiled my potatoes.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive causative (karagi)
(104)
Toora wiirohą te'e hi'ųanąga xere wahiire.
too=ra
potato=DEF
wiirohą
kettle
te'e
this
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
xere
boil
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘Using this kettle they boiled the potatoes.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(105)
Waacra hasaware.
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 und[1].V
(106)
Waacra hasaware haa.
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I sank the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(107)
Waac hanįra hasaware raa?
waac
boat
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Did you sink my boat?’
SINK an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(108)
Coowexjį hįįsawarenągajeere.
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 und[1].V
(109)
Coowe hasaware hakįną.
coowe
almost
hasaware
drown/sink
ha-kįį-ną
1E.A-make.self-POT
‘I almost drowned.’
SINK an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(110)
Waac hanįra nee hasaware haa.
waac
boat
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hasaware
drown/sink
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘My boat, I sank it.’
SINK an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(111)
Toora tuuc wahaa.
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(112)
Toora tuuc waakaragi.
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-ha-karagi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-cause.own
‘I cooked my potatoes.’
COOK an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive causative (karagi)
(113)
Toora tuuc waigigire.
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They cooked potatoes for me.’
COOK an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(114)
Too tuuc hakį.
too
potato
tuuc
be.cooked
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I cooked potatoes for myself.’
COOK an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(115)
Toora tuuc kįįre.
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
kįį-ire
make.self-SBJ.3PL
‘They cooked potatoes for each other/themselves.’
COOK an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(116)
Toora hisgešąną tuuc hįkįįkje.
too=ra
potato=DEF
hisge-šąną
some-each&every
tuuc
be.cooked
hį-kįį-kje
1I.A-make.self-FUT
‘Let's cook some potatoes for each other.’
COOK an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(117)
Nąąǧire wįįrera, iiyaajanįk.
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(118)
Jaagu'ų rawąwąraje?
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(119)
Iijanįk hįraigi.
iijanįk
scream
hį-ra-gigi
1E.U-2.A-let/cause
‘You made me scream.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(120)
Iijanįk wįįre.
iijanįk
scream
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me scream.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(121)
Iijanįk nįįre?
iijanįk
scream
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you scream?’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(122)
Iijanįk nįį?
iijanįk
scream
nįį
make/CAUS\1&2
‘Did I make you scream?’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(123)
Iijanįk hakį.
iijanįk
scream
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself scream.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(124)
Wagax ųųra hįgigųsire.
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(125)
Nįįpra hįragigųsną?
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(126)
Hoocąk hit'e nįįgigųsikjene.
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(127)
Nįįkjąk ee waanįra wanąp'įikišere waagigųs hįšįį.
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(128)
Wanąp'į hikišere nee hakigųs.
wanąp'į
beads
hikišere
work.with
nee
1EMPH
ha-kii-gigųs
1E.A-RFL-teach
‘I taught myself how to do beadwork.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(129)
Hoocąk hit'e (kii)kigųsire.
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
kiki-gigųs-ire
RCP-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught each other Hoocak.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(130)
Nįįkjąįk nee waanįra wanąp'įikišerera nee waagigųs.
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3) und[2].act[1].V
(131)
Waǧįǧįra xeeja howanąną rahe.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(132)
Waǧįǧįra howanąną haa.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I rolled the ball down the hill.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(133)
Hocįcįįkra xeeja howanąną.
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(134)
Xeeja howaną(ną) hakį.
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself roll down the hill.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(135)
Waǧįǧį hanįra xeeja howaną(ną).
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(136)
Waǧįǧį hanįra xeeja howaną raa?
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną
roll
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Did you roll my ball down the hill?’
ROLL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(137)
Waǧįǧįra waaruc hihakeja howaną(ną) hiinąąkšąną.
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
hii=nąąk-šąną
make/CAUS=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘They are rolling the ball on the table.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(138)
Waamįnąkra hapaja.
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(139)
Hįįwajaire.
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(140)
Hikijąija hųųwajaire.
hikiją-ija
on.side-there
ho<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me aside.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(141)
Jaagu'ų hįįšawaja?
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(142)
Jaagu'ų hikijąija hųųšawają.
jaagu'ų
why
hikiją-ija
on.side-there
ho<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me to the side.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(143)
Waamįnąkra guušigi hawają rehiire!
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(144)
Waarucra hakišjek hawająire.
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(145)
Hakiwająire.
ha<kii>wają-ire
<RCP/RFL>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They were pushing each other.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(146)
Waamįnąk te'e eeja hųųgiwająre.
waamįnąk
chair
te'e
this
eeja
there
ho<hį-gi>wają-re
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>push-IMP
‘Push this chair over there for me.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(147)
Waamįnąkra hanąąc eeja waįgiwająre.
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hanąąc
all
eeja
there
wa-ha<hį-gi>wają-re
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>push-IMP
‘Push all the chairs over there for me.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(148)
Waaruc hihakeja hįįwająire.
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 2 (LOC3) und[2].act[1].V
(149)
Mąą hošorošeja hųųwająire.
mąą
earth
hošoroš-eja
ditch-there
ho<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me into the hole in the ground.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(150)
Mąą hošorošeja hokiwająire.
mąą
earth
hošoroš-eja
ditch-there
ho<kii>wają-ire
<RCP>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed each other into the hole / ditch.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Inessive & reflexive (+ ho + kii)
(151)
Waagaxnąąka peežega warugas?
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(152)
Waagaxnąąka nee watugasšąną.
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(153)
Waagaxnąąka waną'ooke gaasraire.
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
waną'ooke
of.own.accord
gaasre-ire
be.torn-SBJ.3PL
‘The papers tore out of their own accord.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Resultative alternation
(154)
Waagaxnąąkre gaasre wahaa.
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
gaasre
be.torn
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I'm responsible for these papers to be torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Resultative & causative
(155)
Waagaxra gaasre wairagigi?
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
gaasre
be.torn
wa-hį-ra-gigi
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-let/cause
‘Did you cause my papers to tear?’
TEAR an Alternation:
Resultative alternation
(156)
Waagaxra gaasre warakaragi?
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
gaasre
be.torn
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you cause your papers to tear?’
TEAR an Alternation:
Resultative & causative
(157)
Waagaxnąąkre wairagišurugasną?
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-rugas-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-tear-POT
‘Can you tear these papers for me?’
TEAR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(158)
Hokiwagax tee nąąsu hihakeja hanįtugasikjene.
hokiwagax
picture
tee
this
nąąsu
head
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha-nį-tuugas-i-kjene
APPL.SUPESS-2.U-tear\1E.A-0-FUT
‘I'll tear this picture on your head.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(159)
Waagax kook te'e waamįnąk (hihak)eja hįįgirugasre.
waagax
paper
kook
box
te'e
this
waamįnąk
chair
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha-hį-gi-rugas-re
APPL.SUPESS-1E.U-APPL.BEN-tear-IMP
‘Tear this box on the chair for me.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Superessive & benefactive (+ ha + gi)
(160)
Woonąžį te'e nee hakitugasšąną.
woonąžį
shirt
te'e
this
nee
1EMPH
ha-kii-tuugas-šąną
1E.A-RFL-tear\1E.A-DECL
‘I tore this shirt myself.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(161)
Kookra eexjį waamįnąk hihakeja hakirugasšąną.
kook=ra
box=DEF
ee-xjį
3EMPH-INTS
waamįnąk
chair
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha-kii-rugas-šąną
APPL.SUPESS-RFL-tear-DECL
‘He tore this box on the chair for himself.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Superessive & benefactive (+ ha + gi)
(162)
Kookregi waagaxra woorugasre.
kook=regi
box=SIM/LOC
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
wa-ho-rugas-re
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-tear-IMP
‘Shred the papers into this box here.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(163)
Waagaxnaakre kooktegi woįgirugasre.
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
kook-teegi
box-this.here
wa-ho-hį-gi-rugas-re
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-1E.U-APPL.BEN-tear-IMP
‘Tear these papers into the box for me.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(164)
Waagaxra kookteegi woorakurugas?
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
kook-teegi
box-this.here
wa-ho-ra-ku-rugas
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-2.A-POSS.RFL-tear
‘Did you tear your papers into the box?’
TEAR an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(165)
Waagaxra wakurugasire.
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
wa-ku-rugas-ire
OBJ.3PL-POSS.RFL-tear-SBJ.3PL
‘They tore their papers.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(166)
Waagaxra wakikirugasire.
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
wa-kiki-rugas-ire
OBJ.3PL-RCP-tear-SBJ.3PL
‘They tore each others papers.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(167)
Waagaxnąąkre rugas wahii.
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
rugas
tear
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘He caused the papers to tear.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(168)
Waagaxra wijukiknąąka rugas waįgigiire.
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
wijuk-nįk=nąąka
cat-DIM=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
rugas
tear
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let these cats tear my paper.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(169)
Nąąpnąkera rugas kįį.
nąąp-nąąke=ra
hand-back=DEF
rugas
tear
kįį
make.self
‘He tore the back of his hand.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(170)
Nąąpra rugagas wakįįre.
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
ruga<ga>s
<RDP>tear
wa-kįį-ire
OBJ.3PL-make.self-SBJ.3PL
‘They tore their hands in several places.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(171)
Waagax te'e mąąhį yaatugasšąną.
waagax
paper
te'e
this
mąąhį
knife
hi-ha-tuugas-šąną
APPL.INST-1E.A-tear\1E.A-DECL
‘I tore this paper with a knife.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(172)
Waagaxte'e mąąhį hįįragišurugasną?
waagax-tee
paper-this
mąąhį
knife
hi-hį-ra-gi-šu-rugas-ną
APPL.INST-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-tear-POT
‘Can you tear this paper for me with the knife?’
TEAR an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(173)
Waagaxra mąąhį yaakurugasšąną.
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
mąąhį
knife
hi-ha-ku-rugas=šąną
APPL.INST-1E.A-POSS.RFL-tear=DECL
‘I tore my paper with the knife.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Instrumental & possessive reflexive (+ hi + kara)
(174)
Waarucra hanąąc wapaža.
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(175)
Hišjara nįįgipažakjene.
hišja=ra
face=DEF
nįį-gi-paaža-kjene
1&2-APPL.BEN-wipe\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to wipe your face.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(176)
Waarucra waįragišawažaną?
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waža-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-wipe-POT
‘Can you wipe the tables for me?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(177)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip hawažaire.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnįzizip
grease
ha-waža-ire
APPL.SUPESS-wipe-SBJ.3PL
‘They wiped oil on the rifle.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(178)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip wawiraįgišawažaną?
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
wa-hi-ra-hį-gi-ša-waža-ną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-2.A-1E.U-APPL.BEN-2.A-wipe-POT
‘Can you wipe oil on the rifles for me?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(179)
Wiižukra hanąąc wikįnįzizip wawiyaakawaža.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
hanąąc
all
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
wa-hi-ha-ka-waža
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-1E.A-POSS.RFL-wipe
‘I wiped oil on all my rifles.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrumental & possessive reflexive (+ hi + kara)
(180)
Wiižukra wikįnį hopaža.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį
oil
ho-paaža
APPL.INESS-wipe\1E.A
‘I wiped oil into the rifle.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(181)
Wiižukra wiikįnįziizip honįgipažakje?
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
ho-nįį-gi-paaža-kje
APPL.INESS-1&2-APPL.BEN-wipe\1E.A-FUT
‘Shall I wipe oil into the rifle for you?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(182)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip yaakawaža.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
hi-ha-ka-waža
APPL.INST-1E.A-POSS.RFL-wipe
‘I wiped my rifle with oil.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrumental & possessive reflexive (+ hi + kara)
(183)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip waakawaža.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
ho-ha-ka-waža
APPL.INESS-1E.A-POSS.RFL-wipe
‘I wiped oil into my rifle.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(184)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip (wa)wiipažakjene.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
wa-hi-paaža-kjene
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-wipe\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to wipe the rifles with oil.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(185)
Wiižukra wikįnįzizip wawiragišawažaną?
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
wa-hi-ra-gi-ša-waža-ną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-wipe-POT
‘Can you wipe the rifle with oil for them?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(186)
Wiižukra warakawažakjene?
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
wa-ra-ka-waža-kjene
OBJ.3PL-2.A-POSS.RFL-wipe-FUT
‘Are you going to wipe your rifle?’
WIPE an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(187)
Kiiwažare!
kii-waža-re
RFL-wipe-IMP
‘Wipe yourself!’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(188)
Kiikiwažaire.
kiki-waža-ire
RCP-wipe-SBJ.3PL
‘They wiped each other.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(189)
Šųųkxetera mąija kiiwaža.
šųųkxete
horse
mąą-ija
earth-there
kii-waža
RFL-wipe
‘The horse wiped himself off on the ground.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(190)
Eexjį kiikawaža.
ee-xjį
3EMPH-INTS
kii-ka-waža
RFL-POSS.RFL-wipe
‘He wiped himself.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(191)
Wagigųsra hocįcįįkra wawaagaxra waža wahii.
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
wa-wa<ha>gax=ra
OBJ.3PL-<APPL.SUPESS>write=DEF
waža
wipe
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘The teacher made the boys wipe the board.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(192)
Wagigųsra hinųkįk woowąkjaane wawaagaxra waža gigi.
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
hinųk-nįk
woman-DIM
woowąk=jaane
be.naughty=POS.VERT:PROX
wawaagax=ra
black.board=DEF
waža
wipe
gigi
let/cause
‘The teacher made the naughty little girl wipe the board.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(193)
Xuu hirakara wikįnįzizip yaakipaža.
xuu
skin
hirakara
take.care.of
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
hi-ha-kii-paaža
APPL.INST-1E.A-RFL-wipe\1E.A
‘I wiped skin protection on myself.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Superessive & reflexive/reciprocal (+ ha + kii)
(194)
Reecawašųeja xuu hirakara wikįnįzizip waakipaža.
reecawašų-eja
belly.button-there
xuu
skin
hirakara
take.care.of
wikįnį-ziizip
oil-be.thick&sticky
ho-ha-kii-paaža
APPL.INESS-1E.A-RFL-wipe\1E.A
‘I wiped suntan lotion into my belly button.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Inessive & reflexive (+ ho + kii)
(195)
Wiižukra xaarekjįra hahi nee waža hakį.
wiižuk=ra
gun=DEF
xaarek-jį=ra
be.rough-INTS=DEF
hahi
finally
nee
1EMPH
waža
wipe
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself wipe the rusty gun.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(196)
Ceewasnį wikįnį(ha)jara hanąąc wamąracgis?
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(197)
Mąįracgisšąną!
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(198)
Ceewasnį wiikįnįjara wamąįragicgisną?
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut-POT
‘Can you cut the cheeses for me?’
CUT an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(199)
Nąąpra mąįragicgisšąną!
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis=šąną
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut=DECL
‘You cut my hand!’
CUT an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(200)
Nąąpra hįmąįracgisšąną!
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(201)
Wanįra waaruc (hihak)regi hamąącgisre!
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak=regi
on.top=SIM/LOC
ha-mąącgis-re
APPL.SUPESS-cut-IMP
‘Cut the meat over the table!’
CUT an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(202)
Wanįra reexeja woomącgisre.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
reex-eja
pail-there
wa-ho-mąącgis-re
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-cut-IMP
‘Cut the meats into the pail.’
CUT an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(203)
Nąąksik mąąšonąąkra, nąąsu hihakra hamąįcgis wa'ųire.
nąąksik
stick
mąąšo=nąąk=ra
whittle=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
nąąsu
head
hihak=ra
on.top=DEF
ha-mąą<hį>cgis
APPL.SUPESS-<1E.U>cut
wa'ų-ire
do/be-SBJ.3PL
‘The stick they were carving, they cut it onto me (I have the shavings on my head).’
CUT an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(204)
Wanįra hanąąc waaruc (hihak)regi waamąįragicgisną?
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
waaruc
table
hihak=regi
on.top=SIM/LOC
wa-ha-mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis-ną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.SUPESS-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut-POT
‘Can you cut the meat onto the table for me?’
CUT an Alternation:
Superessive & benefactive (+ ha + gi)
(205)
Wanįra hanąąc reexeja woomąįragicgisną?
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
reex-eja
pail-there
wa-ho-mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis-ną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut-POT
‘Can you cut the meat into the bucket for me?’
CUT an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(206)
Wanįra hanąąc wamąrakaracgis?
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra-kara>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A-POSS.RFL>cut
‘Did you cut all of your own meat?’
CUT an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(207)
Wanįra waaruc (hihak)eja hamąkaracgisšąną.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha-mąą<kara>cgis=šąną
APPL.SUPESS-<POSS.RFL>cut=DECL
‘He cut his meat over the table.’
CUT an Alternation:
Superessive & possessive reflexive (+ ha + kara)
(208)
Wanįra reexjeega eeja homąąkaracgisre.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
reex=jeega
pail=POS.VERT:DIST
eeja
there
ho-mąą<kara>cgis-re
APPL.INESS-<POSS.RFL>cut-IMP
‘Cut your meat into the pail.’
CUT an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(209)
Wainį higišik waginąra cgiisraire.
wainį_higišik
hanger
waginą=ra
rope=DEF
cgiisre-ire
be.cut-SBJ.3PL
‘The clotheslines are cut / broken apart.’
CUT an Alternation:
Resultative alternation
(210)
Kųnųga ee cgiisre wahii.
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
ee
this
cgiisre
be.cut
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘Kunu caused these to be broken.’
CUT an Alternation:
Resultative & causative
(211)
Nąąpra mąąrakicgis?
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
mąą<ra-kii>cgis
<2.A-RFL>cut
‘Did you cut your hand?’
CUT an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(212)
Mąąhį hišgaacnąąk'ų mąąki(ki)cgisire.
mąąhį
knife
hi-šgaac=nąąk='ų
APPL.INST-play=POS.NTL.PL=SIM
mąą<kiki>cgis-ire
<RCP>cut-SBJ.3PL
‘They were playing with knives and cut each other.’
CUT an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(213)
Wanįra hanąąc mąąhį paahi te'e wawiimącgisre.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
mąąhį
knife
paahi
be.sharp
tee
this
wa-hi-mąącgis-re
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-cut-IMP
‘Use this sharp knife to cut all the meat.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(214)
Wanįra mąąhįpahi himąigicgisre.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
mąąhį-paahi
knife-be.sharp
hi-mąą<hį-gi>cgis-re
APPL.INST-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>cut-IMP
‘Cut the meat for me with a sharp knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(215)
Mąąhįpahi wanįra himąrakaracgis?
mąąhį-paahi
knife-be.sharp
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hi-mąą<ra-kara>cgis
APPL.INST-<2.A-POSS.RFL>cut
‘Did you use a sharp knife to cut your meat?’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrumental & possessive reflexive (+ hi + kara)
(216)
Mąąhįpahi himąąkicgisšąną.
mąąhį-paahi
knife-be.sharp
hi-mąą<kii>cgis=šąną
APPL.INST-<RFL>cut=DECL
‘I cut myself with a sharp knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrumental & reflexive (+ hi + kii)
(217)
Wanįra neecą mąącgis wįįre.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
nee=cą
1EMPH=instead
mąącgis
cut
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They caused me to cut the meat.’
CUT an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(218)
Wanįra hanąąc mąącgis waįgigiire.
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
mąącgis
cut
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They cut all of my meat for me. / They allowed me to cut the meat.’
CUT an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(219)
Mąąs waginą že'e cgiicgisjį wa'ųakšąną.
mąąs
metal
waginą
rope
že'e
that
cgiicgis-jį
easy.to.break-INTS
wa'ų-aak=šąną
do/be-POS.HOR=DECL
‘This cable is easily breakable.’
CUT an Alternation:
Facilitative alternation
(220)
Teesge aire.
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 UTT2 act[1].V
(221)
Nee hįįragišegi.
nee
2EMPH
hi<hį-ra-gi>še-gi
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>say\2.A-TOP
‘If you could say it for me.’
SAY an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(222)
Wažą hiše?
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 UTT2 act[1].V
(223)
Neexjį ee hįgigiire.
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ee
say
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me say something.’
SAY an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(224)
Neexjį hakara'ee.
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ha-kara-ee
1E.A-POSS.RFL-say
‘I spoke my own piece.’
SAY an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(225)
Wažą ee wįįre.
wažą
something
ee
say
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me say something.’
SAY an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(226)
*Woorakra wiijaja hi'ee.
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wiijaja
loudspeaker
*hi-ee
APPL.INST-say
‘He told the story using a loudspeaker.’
SAY an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(227)
"Ka", ee.
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 UTT2 act[1].V
(228)
Woorak yaaperesra hanąąc wootakšąną.
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(229)
Woorak wiiraperesra hanąąc woįragišarakną?
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
TELL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(230)
Nįįkjąk waanįra woorak yaaperesra hanąąc wawaagitakšąną.
nįįkjąk
child
wa-ha<ha>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>have.NTL=DEF
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<ha-gi>tak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-APPL.BEN>tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told my kids all the stories I know.’
TELL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(231)
Woorakra wookarakire.
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ho<ka>rak-ire
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell-SBJ.3PL
‘They told their stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(232)
Woorak waanįrera wąągoogirakikjenawi.
woorak
story
wa-hanį-ire=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wąąga-ho<gi>rak-kjene-wi
1DI.U-<APPL.BEN>tell-FUT-PL
‘He will tell us their stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(233)
*Kook haakja woogirak yaa'ųanąga neexjį waakitakšąną.
kook
box
haakja
back
wa-ho<gi>rak
OBJ.3PL-<APPL.BEN>tell
hi<ha>'ų-anąga
<1E.A>use-and
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ho<ha-*kii>tak=šąną
<1E.A-RFL>tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I'm using a recorder and told myself something.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(234)
Woorak hųųkikirakikje.
woorak
story
ho<hį-kiki>rak-i-kje
<1I.A-RCP>tell-0-FUT
‘Let's tell each other stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(235)
Jaagu aajeega eexjį hokikarakxjį wa'ųjee.
jaagu
what
ee=jeega
say=POS.VERT:DIST
ee-xjį
3EMPH-INTS
ho<kii-ka>rak-xjį
<RFL-POSS.RFL>tell-INTS
wa'ų=jee
do/be=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying right now, he's bragging.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(236)
Nee hįgicąireanąga horak hįgigiire.
nee
1EMPH
hį-gicą-ire-anąga
1E.U-choose-SBJ.3PL-and
horak
tell
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They chose me and let me tell something.’
TELL an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(237)
Wagigųsra nįįkjąkra woorakra wookarak wahii.
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ho<ka>rak
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘The teacher made them tell their stories.’
TELL an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(238)
Hirukąnąra hacaanąga žuura hataa.
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(239)
Hirukąnąra žuura hagita.
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
žuura
money
ha-gi-taa
1E.A-APPL.BEN-ask.for
‘I asked for money from the boss.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(240)
Žige žuura hįragita raji?
žige
again
žuura
money
hį-ra-gi-taa
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-ask.for
ra-jii
2.A-arrive.here
‘Have you come to ask me for money again?’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(241)
Waagax hakiruxarara wanįgitakjene.
waagax_hakiruxara=ra
book=DEF
wa-nįį-gi-taa-kjene
OBJ.3PL-1&2-APPL.BEN-ask.for-FUT
‘I'm going to ask you for the books.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(242)
*Gijire nįhera že'e hawa'ųanąga žuura hataa waajee.
*gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
APPL.SUPESS-ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(243)
Hakihąhą žuurara hakaratagįnį.
hakihąhą
over&over
žuura=ra
money=DEF
ha-kara-taa=gįnį
1E.A-POSS.RFL-ask.for=already
‘I've already asked for my money over and over again.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(244)
Hikiware wooruceja wanįrašąną hakitaa.
hikiware_wooruc-eeja
roadside.diner-there
wanį=ra-šąną
meat=DEF-only
ha-kii-taa
1E.A-RFL-ask.for
‘I asked for only meat at the restaurant.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(245)
Goišip žuura kikita wa'ųnąąkšąną.
goišip
always
žuura
money
kiki-taa
RCP-ask.for
wa'ų=nąąk=šąną
do/be=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They ask each other for money all the time.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(246)
Wiirokų honąąc hagigira, neexjį hahi hakiikarata.
wiirokų
tool
honąc
borrow
ha-gigi=ra
1E.A-let/cause=DEF
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
ha-kii-kara-taa
1E.A-RFL-POSS.RFL-ask.for
‘I let him borrow tools I went and asked for them back.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(247)
Iirokit'era hųųk'ųireanąga nee mąąkąra wataa hįgigiire.
iirokit'e=ra
phone=DEF
ho<hį>k'ų-ire-anąga
<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL-and
nee
1EMPH
mąąką=ra
medicine=DEF
wa-taa
OBJ.3PL-ask.for
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave me the phone and let me ask for my prescriptions.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(248)
Woogitek hųųkit'aireanąga mąąką taa wįįre.
woogitek
be.angry
ho<hį>kit'e-ire-anąga
<1E.U>talk.to-SBJ.3PL-and
mąąką
medicine
taa
ask.for
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They were mad at me, they told me in anger they made me ask for medicine.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(249)
*Žuura nįgitaa wįįre.
žuura
money
nį-gi-taa
2.U-APPL.BEN-ask.for
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me ask you for money.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(250)
Hakocąk honįkit'e raagų.
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(251)
Wažą hironįkit'e raagų.
wažą
something
hiro<nį>kit'e
<2.U>discuss.with
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I want to discuss something with you.’
TALK an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(252)
Xjąnąre wažą hišera, wawiironįkit'e raagų.
xjąnąre
yesterday
wažą
something
hiše=ra
say\2.A=DEF
wa-hiro<nį>kit'e
OBJ.3PL-<2.U>talk.to.about
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘The things you said yesterday, I want to talk to you about them.’
TALK an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(253)
Nįįkjąkra wanoicge nįhiirekjenera, jaasge nįwahiirekjeesgera, wawiraakit'e?
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wanoicge
animal
nįhii-ire-kjene=ra
have.pet-SBJ.3PL-FUT=DEF
jaasge
how
nį<wa>hii-ire-kjeesge=ra
<OBJ.3PL>have.pet-SBJ.3PL-OBL=DEF
wa-hi-ho<ra>kit'e
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-<2.A>talk.to
‘Did you talk to the children about pets, and how to keep them?’
TALK an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(254)
*Nįįkjąk ee hanįra hokigit'e.
*nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
hoki<gi>t'e
<APPL.BEN>talk.to
‘He talked to his kid / for his kid.’
TALK an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(255)
Nįįkjąk hanįra waakarakit'e.
nįįkjąk
child
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
ho<ha-kara>kit'e
<1E.A-POSS.RFL>talk.to
‘I talked to my child.’
TALK an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(256)
Nįįkjąk woowąk hanįhairera, že'e hawa'ųananga, nįįkjąkra waakarakit'e.
nįįkjąk
child
woowąk
be.naughty
hanį-ha-ire=ra
have.NTL-COLL-SBJ.3PL=DEF
žee
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wa-ho<kara>kit'e
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>talk.to
‘When the kids were being naughty, for that reason he talked to them about it.’
TALK an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(257)
Nįįkjąkra wookarakit'aire.
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wa-ho<kara>kit'e-ire
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>talk.to-SBJ.3PL
‘They talked to their kids.’
TALK an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(258)
Neexjį wakikit'e wahanąkšąną.
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ho<ha-kii>kit'e
<1E.A-RFL>talk.to
wahe=nąk=šąną
talk\1E.A=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm talking to myself.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(259)
Hinųkra hokikit'aire.
hinųk=ra
woman=DEF
ho<kii>kit'e-ire
<RCP/RFL>talk.to-SBJ.3PL
‘The women talked to each other/ themselves.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(260)
Wawokit'e hįgigiirekjee yaaraaje.
wa-hokit'e
OBJ.3PL-talk.to
hį-gigi-ire-kje
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-FUT
hi<ha>re-ha=jee
<1E.A>think-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm hoping they will let me talk to them.’
TALK an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(261)
Hųųkit'e nįšiire?
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(262)
Hocįcįįkra wąąknųįkra hokit'e wahiire.
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
wąąknųįk=ra
old.man=DEF
hokit'e
talk.to
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They made the boys talk to the old man.’
TALK an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(263)
Waaš'ik nųnįge hegų neexjį hokit'e hakį.
ho<ha>š'ik
<1E.A>dislike
nųnįge
nevertheless
hegų
that.way
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
hokit'e
talk.to
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I didn't like him, but I made myself to talk to him.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(264)
Nįįkjąknąąka wawiraperes?
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(265)
Hoit'e higiperes nąąžįnįhe.
hoit'e
language
hi<gi>peres
<APPL.BEN>know
nąąžį-nįhe
stand-be/PROG
‘He stood there translating for him.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(266)
Hitek hiira mootakaceja ciijaane že'e higiperesše ee.
hitek
maternal.uncle
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
mąą-ho-taakac-eeja
earth-APPL.INESS-be.hot-there
cii=jaane
live=POS.VERT:PROX
žee
that
hi<gi>peres-že
<APPL.BEN>know-QUOT
ee
3EMPH
‘He knew of his uncle that lived out west.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(267)
Hitek haara mootakaceja ciijaane wąąkšik raašra yaakaraperes waa'ųnąkšąną.
hitek
maternal.uncle
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
mąą-ho-taakac-eeja
earth-APPL.INESS-be.hot-there
cii=jaane
live=POS.VERT:PROX
wąąkšik
Indian/person
raaš=ra
name=DEF
hi<ha-kara>peres
<1E.A-POSS.RFL>know
wa<ha>'ų=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL=DECL
‘My uncle that's living out there I know his Indian name.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(268)
(Nąągu) hoixara hawįc haitera yaaperesšąną.
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(269)
Hitokeįknąąka hikikiperes wa'ųnąąkgųnį hire wahii.
hitooke-nįk=nąąka
old.lady-DIM=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
hi<kiki>peres
<RCP>know
wa'ų=nąąk=šgųnį
do/be=POS.NTL.PL=DUB
hire
think
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘Those old ladies over there they seem to know each other.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(270)
Howaža hocieja hamįkra jaagu hį'ųra hiperes hįgigiire.
howaža_hoci-eeja
hospital-there
ha-mįįk=ra
1E.A-lie.down=DEF
jaagu
what
hį-ųų=ra
1E.U-be=DEF
hiperes
know
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘I was lying in the hospital and they let me know what was wrong with me.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(271)
Howaši hostoija wiijaja hi'ųireanąga hanąąc nįįžukjenera hiperes wahiire.
howaši
powwow
hosto-eeja
gathering-there
wiijaja
loudspeaker
hi'ų-ire-anąga
use-SBJ.3PL-and
hanąąc
all
nįįžu-kjene=ra
rain-FUT=DEF
hiperes
know
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘At the powwow they used the loudspeaker and made every body know that it was going to rain.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(272)
Xjąnąre wažą ha'e hiirera hąąhere yaahąteanąga hiperes hakį.
xjąnąre
yesterday
wažą
something
ha'e_hii-ire=ra
talk.about-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
hi<ha>hąte-anąga
<1E.A>dream.of-and
hiperes
know
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself know something they were talking about yesterday in my dream.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(273)
Wįįxra hakarairera, waašja?
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(274)
Hiraatira cąąkeja hagijaire.
hiraati=ra
car=DEF
cąąk-eja
outside-there
ha<gi>ja-ire
<APPL.BEN>see-SBJ.3PL
‘They saw his car outside.’
SEE an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(275)
Keecąkra nąąxawa hihakeja nąkre haja kąnąkire.
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(276)
Haguiregają sii woonąžįra waakarajaire.
ha-guu-ire=gają
COLL-come.back.here-SBJ.3PL=SEQ
sii
foot
wa-ho-nąąžį=ra
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-stand=DEF
wa-ha<kara>ja-ire
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>see-SBJ.3PL
‘Heading back they saw their tracks/footprints.’
SEE an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(277)
Hirokikjąp xeteeja hotoǧocra pįį haakica.
hirokikjąp
mirror
xete-eeja
be.big-there
hotoǧoc=ra
look.at\1E.A=DEF
pįį
be.good
ha<kii>ca
<RCP/RFL>see\1E.A
‘I got a good look at myself in the big mirror.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(278)
Ciinąkeja hahi hakikijaire.
ciinąk-eeja
village-there
hahi
over.there
ha<kiki>ja-ire
<RCP>see-SBJ.3PL
‘They saw each other in town.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(279)
Šųųkxetera nįįeja horoǧocgają hišjara ha(ki)karaja.
šųųkxete=ra
horse=DEF
nįį-eeja
water-there
horoǧoc=gają
look.at=SEQ
hišja=ra
face=DEF
ha<kii-kara>ja
<RFL-POSS.RFL>see
‘The horse looked into the water and saw his face there.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(280)
Waisgap taaxere ųųnąąkra waaja hįgigiire.
waisgap_taaxere
frybread
ųų=nąąk=ra
do/make=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
wa-haja
OBJ.3PL-see
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me watch them make frybread.’
SEE an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(281)
Hanįja hįgigiirekje yaaregajeere...
ha<nį>ja
<2.U>see
hį-gigi-ire-kje
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-FUT
hi<ha>re=gajeere
<1E.A>think=HYP
‘I was hoping they'd let me see you, but they haven't....’
SEE an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(282)
Hokiwagax hixgąxgą ceekra haja wahiire.
hokiwagax_hixgąxgą
movie
ceek=ra
be.new=DEF
haja
see
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They made them view that new movie.’
SEE an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(283)
Hoxiwagax hixgąxgą nąąkeweesgara haja hakį.
hokiwagax_hixgąxgą
movie
nąąkeweesge=ra
scary.thing=DEF
haja
see
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself watch that scary movie.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(284)
Mąija mįanąknąkšąną.
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 act[1].V
(285)
Waamįnąkra hamįanąkšąną.
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
ha-mįį<ha>nąk=šąną
APPL.SUPESS-<1E.A>sit=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the chair.’
SIT an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(286)
Jaagu'ų waarucra hamįšąnąkšąnąk?
jaagu'ų
why
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
ha-mįį<ša>nąk-ša=nąk
APPL.SUPESS-<2.A>sit-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you sitting on the table?’
SIT an Alternation:
Locative applicative II (superessive) (+ha)
(287)
Waact'ą homįanąknąk.
waact'ą
airplane
ho-mįį<ha>nąk=nąk
APPL.INESS-<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL
‘I'm sitting in the plane.’
SIT an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(288)
Siira hamįįragišąnąk!
sii=ra
foot=DEF
ha-mįį<hį-ra-gi-ša>nąk
APPL.SUPESS-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>sit
‘You're sitting on my foot!’
SIT an Alternation:
Superessive & benefactive (+ ha + gi)
(289)
Nąąpra waamįakąnąk.
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
wa-ha-mįį<ha-ka>nąk
OBJ.3PL-APPL.SUPESS-<1E.A-POSS.RFL>sit
‘I'm sitting on my hands.’
SIT an Alternation:
Superessive & possessive reflexive (+ ha + kara)
(290)
Waacra homįąkąnąknąk.
waac=ra
boat=DEF
ho-mįį<ha-ka>nąk=nąk
APPL.INESS-<1E.A-POSS.RFL>sit=POS.NTL
‘I'm sitting in my boat.’
SIT an Alternation:
Inessive & possessive reflexive (+ ho + kara)
(291)
Waacra hižą homįįginąknąkšąną.
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hižą
one
ho-mįį<hį-gi>nąk=nąk-šąną
APPL.INESS-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>sit=POS.NTL-DECL
‘Someone is sitting in my boat.’
SIT an Alternation:
Inessive & benefactive (+ ho + gi)
(292)
Eeja hįmįįnąkikje.
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 act[1].V
(293)
Mįįnąk kįį šiire.
mįįnąk
sit
kįį
make.self
šii-ire
tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They let each other sit down/ they told each other to sit down / they told him to sit himself down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(294)
Hąke mįįnąk hįgigiiranį.
hąke
NEG.IN
mįįnąk
sit
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They didn't let me sit down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(295)
Mįįnąk hįšiire.
mįįnąk
sit
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to me sit.’
SIT an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(296)
Hąįnį hokahi iihįra hakaraik'o waa'ųaje.
hąįnį
morning
hokahi
every
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
ha-kara-gik'o
1E.A-POSS.RFL-shave
wa<ha>'ų-ha=jee
<1E.A>do/be-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘Every morning I shave my beard.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(297)
Iiihįra rakaraik'okjeesge.
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
ra-kara-gik'o-kje-heesge
2.A-POSS.RFL-shave-OBL.IN-OBL.FIN
‘You need to shave.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(298)
Iihįra hįragiik'oną?
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
hį-ra-gi-gik'o-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-shave-POT
‘Can you shave my beard?’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(299)
Iihįra wakiik'oire.
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
wa-kii-gik'o-ire
OBJ.3PL-RCP/RFL-shave-SBJ.3PL
‘They shaved each other.’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(300)
Hąke (iihįra) karaik'o hįgigiiranį.
hąke
NEG.IN
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
kara-gik'o
POSS.RFL-shave
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They wouldn't let me shave (my beard).’
SHAVE (self) an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(301)
Suura hireanąga wicąwąsra hanąąc waraicop?
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(302)
Suura waįragico(co)pną?
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-gicop-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-grind-POT
‘Can you grind these seeds for me?’
GRIND an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(303)
Suura neexjį waakaraicop.
suu=ra
seed=DEF
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
wa-ha-kara-gicop
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-POSS.RFL-grind
‘I ground my own seeds.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(304)
Huucra wakaraicopire?
huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
wa-kara-gicop-ire
OBJ.3PL-POSS.RFL-grind-SBJ.3PL
‘They ground up their acorns?’
GRIND an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(305)
Gaaga eera nee suura waicop hįgigi.
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nee
1EMPH
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-gigi
1E.U-let/cause
‘Grandma let me grind the seeds.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(306)
Suura waicop hįšii.
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(307)
Nee wakaraicop.
nee
1EMPH
wa-kara-gicop
OBJ.3PL-POSS.RFL-grind
‘I ground them for myself.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(308)
Wažązira waruxoroire.
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(309)
Wažązira keenį hanąąc wašuruxoronį?
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(310)
Wažązinąąkre waįragišuruxoroną?
wažązi=nąąkre
orange=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxoro-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-peel-POT
‘Can you peel these oranges for me?’
PEEL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(311)
Wažązi waanįra waįragišuruxoroną?
wažązi
orange
wa-ha<ha>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>have.NTL=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxoro-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-peel-POT
‘Can you peel my oranges?’
PEEL an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(312)
Wažązira waakuruxoronąk.
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ha-ku-ruxoro=nąk
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-POSS.RFL-peel=POS.NTL
‘I'm peeling my oranges.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(313)
Nąąksikra xororaire.
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
xorore-ire
be.peeled-SBJ.3PL
‘The sticks are peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Resultative alternation
(314)
Wažązite'e xoroxoroire.
wažązi-tee
orange-this
xoroxoro-ire
easy.to.peel-SBJ.3PL
‘These oranges are easy to peel.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Facilitative alternation
(315)
Mąąra hak'e.
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(316)
Hopoxjaane nee rak'e?
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(317)
Hopoxra nee hakarak'e.
hopox=ra
hole=DEF
nee
1EMPH
ha-kara-k'ee
1E.A-POSS.RFL-dig
‘I dug my own hole.’
DIG an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(318)
Hopoxxeteižą hįragik'eną?
hopox-xete-hižą
hole-be.big-one
hį-ra-gi-k'ee-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-dig-POT
‘Can you dig a big hole for me?’
DIG an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(319)
Wiigik'e yaa'ųanąga hopoxjaane ee yaak'e.
wiigik'e
shovel
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
hopox-jaane
hole-POS.VERT:PROX
ee
3EMPH
hi-ha-k'ee
APPL.INST-1E.A-dig
‘I used a shovel and dug this hole.’
DIG an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(320)
Žuura hanąąc nee watus.
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(321)
Žuurara hanąąc waįgirusire.
žuura=ra
money=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hį-gi-ruus-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-APPL.BEN-take-SBJ.3PL
‘They took all my money.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(322)
Žuurara hanąąc waakurus.
žuura=ra
money=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha-ku-ruus
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-POSS.RFL-take
‘I took all my money back.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(323)
Wakiirus haši.
wa-kii-ruus
OBJ.3PL-RCP/RFL-take
ha-šii
1E.A-tell.to.do
‘I told them to take it for themselves.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(324)
Žuurara hakitus.
žuura=ra
money=DEF
ha-kii-tuus
1E.A-RFL-take\1E.A
‘I took the money for myself.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(325)
Žuurara aakiake waki(ki)rusire.
žuura=ra
money=DEF
aakiake
across
wa-kiki-ruus-ire
OBJ.3PL-RCP-take-SBJ.3PL
‘They took each others' money.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(326)
Haakja kiikurus.
haakja
back
kii-ku-ruus
RFL-POSS.RFL-take
‘They got themselves out again (e.g. a cat).’
TAKE an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(327)
Hacįįja hošurus?
hacįįja
where
ho-šu-ruus
APPL.INESS-2.A-take
‘Where did you get it?’
TAKE an Alternation:
Locative applicative I (inessive) (+ho)
(328)
Hišjasura haip'is.
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(329)
Jaagu'ų hoišip hišjasu raip'isšąnąk?
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 act[1].V
(330)
Jaagu'ų žeežegų hųųšoroǧocraje?
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(331)
Huure, wiibocacaš kookra haji hųųgiroǧocre.
huu-re
come.here-IMP
wiibocacaš_kook=ra
computer=DEF
haji
here
ho<hį-gi>roǧoc-re
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>look.at-IMP
‘Come here, look at my computer.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(332)
Hųųragišorocną?
ho<hį-ra-gi-šo>roǧoc-ną
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>look.at-POT
‘Can you look at this for me?’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(333)
Wiiroroǧoc hi'ųanąga caanąąka wiiroǧocaje.
wiiroroǧoc
binoculars
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
caa=nąąka
deer=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi-horoǧoc-aje
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-look.at-IMP.POST
‘Use these binoculars and look at those deer.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(334)
Caara wiiroroǧoc wiitoǧocšąną.
caa=ra
deer=DEF
wiiroroǧoc
binoculars
wa-hi-hotoǧoc=šąną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-look.at\1E.A=DECL
‘I looked at the deer with binoculars.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative (+hi)
(335)
Wąąkšiknąąka caara wiiroǧoc wiiroįgiroǧocnąąkšąną.
wąąkšik=nąąka
Indian/person=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
caa=ra
deer=DEF
wiiroǧoc
binoculars
wa-hi-ho<hį-gi>roǧoc=nąąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>look.at=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘Those people are looking at my deer with binoculars.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental & benefactive (+ hi + gi)
(336)
Caara waakoroǧocaje.
caa=ra
deer=DEF
wa-ha-ho<ko>roǧoc-ha=jee
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-<POSS.RFL>look.at-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm looking at my deer.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(337)
Caara wiiroǧoc wiyaakoroǧoc.
caa=ra
deer=DEF
wiiroǧoc
binoculars
wa-hi-ha-ho<ko>roǧoc
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INST-1E.A-<POSS.RFL>look.at
‘I looked at my deer with binoculars.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental & possessive reflexive (+ hi + kara)
(338)
Hąįnįte’e hirokikjąpeja waakitoǧocšąną.
hąįnį-tee
morning-this
hirokikjąp-eeja
mirror-there
ho<ha-kii>toǧoc=šąną
<1E.A-RFL>look.at\1E.A=DECL
‘This morning I looked at myself in the mirror.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(339)
Šųųknąąka woogitek hoki(ki)roǧocnąąkšąną.
šųųk=nąąka
dog=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
woogitek
be.angry
ho<kiki>roǧoc=nąąk=šąną
<RCP>look.at=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The dogs are looking at each other mad.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(340)
Wašiwajera hokawaǧuknąga hoki(ko)roǧocjee.
waši-waje=ra
dance-dress=DEF
ho<ka>waǧuk-anąga
<POSS.RFL>wear-and
ho<kii-ko>roǧoc=jee
<RFL-POSS.RFL>look.at=POS.VERT
‘She put on her dance dress and looked at herself in it.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive & possessive reflexive (+ kii + kara)
(341)
Hocįcįįkra hirokikjąp kšeekšek cooweeja nąąžįanąga hirokiroǧocjee.
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
hirokikjąp
mirror
kšeekšek
be.crooked
coowe-eeja
in.front-there
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hi-ho<kii>roǧoc=jee
APPL.INST-<RFL>look.at=POS.VERT
‘The little boy is standing in front of the crooked mirror and is looking at himself with it.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental & reflexive (+ hi + kii)
(342)
Mąąkąanįra hinųk haara hąke horoǧoc hįgigiiranį.
mąąkąanį=ra
medicine.man=DEF
hinųk
woman
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
hąke
NEG.IN
horoǧoc
look.at
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘The doctors won't even let me look at my daughter.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(343)
Wąąkcaap wahaara wakąnąšge t'ee horoǧoc wįįrawi.
wąąk-caap
male-kin
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
wakąnąšge
frog
t'ee
die
horoǧoc
look.at
wįį-ire-wi
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL-PL
‘My male relatives they made us look at the dead frog.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(344)
Hįgicexi nųnįge wakąnąšge t'eera horoǧoc hakį.
hį-gi-ceexi
1E.U-APPL.BEN-be.expensive
nųnįge
nevertheless
wakąnąšge
frog
t'ee=ra
die=DEF
horoǧoc
look.at
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘It was difficult for me, but I made myself look at it.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(345)
Wažątire higišąną rakįra, wažą rakiišgąra, hacągeere hokiroǧoc rakį?
wažątire
car
higišąną
accident
ra-kįį=ra
2.A-make.self=DEF
wažą
something
ra-kii-gišgą=ra
2.A-RFL-damage=DEF
hacągeere
with.difficulty
ho<kii>roǧoc
<RFL>look.at
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘After the car accident, when you damaged yourself, did you finally make yourself look at yourself?’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(346)
Nąįrakewe waš'ųšąnąk?
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(347)
Šųųk hanįra nąįgikewe wa'ųnąąkšąną.
šųųk
dog
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį-gi>kewe
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>be.afraid
wa'ų=nąąk=šąną
do/be=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They fear my dog.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(348)
Šųųk wacexi hižą haniN hakiriirera, Kųnųga hinąąkewe hiire.
šųųk
dog
waceǧi
be.vicious
hižą
one
hahi
over.there
ha-kiri-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.back.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hi-nąąkewe
APPL.INST-be.afraid
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They brought back a vicious dog and scared Kunu with it.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(349)
Šųųkra nąąkarakewe.
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nąą<ha-kara>kewe
<1E.A-POSS.RFL>be.afraid
‘I'm fearing my own dog.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(350)
Šųųknąąka nąąki(ki)kewe wa'ųnąąkšąną.
šųųk=nąąka
dog=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nąą<kiki>kewe
<RCP>be.afraid
wa'ų=nąąk=šąną
do/be=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘Those dogs are afraid of each other.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(351)
Wažą woowąk hihekjera, nąą(ki)kewe waa'ųnąkšąną.
wažą
something
woowąk
be.naughty
hihe-kje=ra
say\1E.A-FUT=DEF
nąą<ha-kii>kewe
<1E.A-RFL>be.afraid
wa<ha>'ų=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I was afraid of myself saying something wrong.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(352)
Nįįkjąk waanįra šųųkra nąąkewe hįgigiire.
nįįkjąk
child
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nąąkewe
be.afraid
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made my children fear the dog.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(353)
Ciirok hokawas rookeja waakewegają , (hižą eeja hacaną,) nąąkewe hakį.
cii-rook
house-inside
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho<ha>kewe-gają
<1E.A>go.inside-SEQ
hižą
one
eeja
there
haca-ną
see\1E.A-POT
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘When I walked into the dark house, I saw someone there, I scared myself.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(354)
Šųųknąąkre waipį.
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(355)
Nįįkjąkra wanįgiipį.
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wa-nįį-gi-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1&2-APPL.BEN-like
‘I like your children.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(356)
Wažątire ceek hakituwįra hakaraipį.
wažątire
car
ceek
be.new
ha-kii-tuuwį=ra
1E.A-RFL-buy\1E.A=DEF
ha-kara-gipį
1E.A-POSS.RFL-like
‘I like the new car I just bought.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(357)
Waracgąra tuusjąra, heejąga haji hakiipį.
wa-racgą=ra
OBJ.3PL-drink=DEF
tuušją=ra
quit\1E.A=DEF
heejąga
now
haji
here
ha-kii-gipį
1E.A-RFL-like
‘I quit drinking and now I've come to like myself.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(358)
Kikitak hanįhairera aanąąk’ų hahi ki(ki)pįire.
kii<kii>tak
<RFL>quarrel
ha-nįhe-ire=ra
COLL-be/PROG-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ee=nąąk=ų
say=POS.NTL.PL=SIM
hahi
finally
kiki-gipį-ire
RCP-like-SBJ.3PL
‘They had been arguing eventually they came to like each other.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(359)
Hųųraje hajiirera, gipį wįįre.
ho<hį>raje
<1E.U>travel
ha-jii-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
gipį
like
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they came to visit they made me happy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(360)
Hųųraje hajiirera Kųnųga gipį hįgigiire.
ho<hį>raje
<1E.U>travel
ha-jii-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
gipį
like
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When they came to visit they made my Kunu happy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Permissive causative (gigi)
(361)
Hąąhere waǧįǧį rušgap waaca hahira, gipį hakį.
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
wa-haca
OBJ.3PL-see\1E.A
ha-hii=ra
1E.A-arrive.there=DEF
gipį
like
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Last night I went to a baseball game, I made myself happy.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(362)
Nąąguxeteeja wiyaakipa.
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(363)
Ciinąkeja nįįkjąkra wawiyaakarakipa.
ciinąk-eeja
village-there
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wa-hi<ha-kara>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-POSS.RFL>meet
‘I met my kids in town.’
MEET an Alternation:
Possessive reflexive (+kara)
(364)
Ciinąkeja Hinųga nąga Kųnųga hikikipaire.
ciinąk-eeja
village-there
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
anąga
and
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hi<kii>kipa-ire
<RCP/RFL>meet-SBJ.3PL
‘Kunu and Hinu met each other in town.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal (+kiki)
(365)
Ceewąkižą huura, nee hikipa wįįre.
ceewąk-ižą
bull-one
huu=ra
come.here=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hikipa
meet
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me (stand up there and) meet the bull that was coming.’
MEET an Alternation:
Coercive/default causative (hii)
(366)
Ceewąkižą huura nąągueja nąąžįanąga hikipa hakį.
ceewąk-hižą
bull-one
huu=ra
come.here=DEF
nąągu-eeja
road-there
nąą<ha>žį-anąga
<1E.A>stand-and
hikipa
meet
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The bull was coming I stood in the road and made me meet him.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reflexive causative (kįį)
(367)
Nįtuxekjene.
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2 und[2].act[1].V
(368)
Šųųkra hįragišuruxeną?
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxe-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-chase-POT
‘Can you follow/chase my dog (for me)?’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(369)
Caara nųųp hagucra, waįragišuruxeną?
caa=ra
deer=DEF
nųųp
two
ha-guuc=ra
1E.A-shoot=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxe-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-chase-POT
‘I shot two deer, can you chase them down for me?’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Benefactive/possession of U (+gi)
(370)
*Wijukra cii howe hakiruxenąąkšąną.
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
cii
house
howe
go.about
*ha-kii-ruxe=nąąk=šąną
APPL.SUPESS-RCP/RFL-chase=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The cats were chasing each other from house to house.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Reflexive (+kii)
(371)
Wijuksepra wijuksgara howe ciiraheeja (ha)kiruxajee.
wijuk-seep=ra
cat-be.black=DEF
wijuk-sgaa=ra
cat-be.white=DEF
howe
go.about
ciirahe-eeja
roof/ceiling-there
ha-kii-ruxe=jee
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-chase=POS.VERT
‘The black cat chased the white cat on the house.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Superessive & reflexive/reciprocal (+ ha + kii)
(372)
*Wijukra moopox nąąkra howe wookiruxe šgaacnąąkšąną.
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
mąą-hopox
earth-hole
nąąk=ra
POS.NTL.PL=DEF
howe
go.about
wa-*ho-kii-ruxe
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-RCP/RFL-chase
šgaac=nąąk=šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The cats were using all these holes / caves chasing each other in there.’