Possessive reflexive causative (karagi) C

Description

This is the least common one out of Hoocąk’s four (periphrastic) causatives.
The causative verb
karagi is used when the causee is owned/belongs to the causer (A causes A's own U to do X).
It’s a valency increasing operation that can be used with both stative and active (intransitive and transitive) verbs.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

(739)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
hinįk
son
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
waamįnąk_serec=ra
couch=DEF
haruką
cover
karagi
cause.own
‘Hinu made her son cover the/his couch.’
noixga=ra
basket.wood=DEF
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wa-ra-t'ųų<še>re=ra
OBJ.3PL-2.A-<2.A>leave.behind=DEF
wa-haruką
OBJ.3PL-cover
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘The strips of ash wood you've left outside, did you have your relatives cover them?’
FILL hoixjį hii R
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
reex=ra
pail=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąąpak
cherry
hoixjį
be.full
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
wa-ha-karagi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my kids fill the pails with cherries.’
POUR waxų R
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’

(750)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
ceewasnį=ra
milk=DEF
waxų
pour
karagi
cause.own
‘She made her child dump his/her milk.’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

(762)
hinįk
son
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
wiiwašik=ra
flag=DEF
ru'ą
lift/carry
karagi
cause.own
‘He had his son carry the flag.’
KILL t'ee hii M
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige M
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’
BOIL xere R
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’

(103)
too=ra
potato=DEF
nee
1EMPH
xere
boil
wa-ha-karagi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-cause.own
‘I boiled my potatoes.’
(783)
nįį=ra
water=DEF
xere
boil
karagi
cause.own
‘He boiled his own water.’
SINK hasaware R
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’

(789)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I sank my boat.’
COOK tuuc hii M
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk M
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
TEACH gigųs M
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’
ROLL howaną(ną) R
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’

xee-eeja
hill-there
ra-šgaac
2.A-play
ra-hii-wi=ra
2.A-arrive.there-PL=DEF
xee
hill
harukąnąk
go.downwards
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘When you went to play by the hill, did you let your boys roll (down)?’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

(825)
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
hinįk
son
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
wažątire
car
šuuc=ra
be.red=DEF
ee
3EMPH
hawają
push
karagi
cause.own
‘Heena made his son push the red car.’
TEAR rugas R
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’

(156)
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
gaasre
be.torn
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you cause your papers to tear?’
(827)
waje=ra
dress=DEF
ciirop-eeja
door-there
haistak
slam
haa=ra
make/CAUS\1E.A=DEF
rugas
tear
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘My dress got stuck in the door and I made it tear.’
WIPE waža R
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’

(829)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hirohąp=ra
window=DEF
ee
3EMPH
waža
wipe
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my Kunu wipe the windows.’
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hirohąp=ra
window=DEF
ee
3EMPH
wa-waža
OBJ.3PL-wipe
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my Kunu wipe the windows.’
CUT mąącgis R
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’

(830)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
ee
3EMPH
wa-mąącgis
OBJ.3PL-cut
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my Kunu cut the meat and cheese.’
TELL horak R
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’

(836)
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
woowąk=ra
be.naughty=DEF
horak
tell
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘Heena was naughty and I had him tell it.’
ASK FOR taa R
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’

(838)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
ha-kara-gigųs-šąną
1E.A-POSS.RFL-teach-DECL
waruc
food
taa
ask.for
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I taught my dog and I made my dog ask for food.’
TALK hokit'e M
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’
KNOW hiperes R
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’

(841)
hacįįja
where
howajii=ra
come.from=DEF
hiperes
know
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made him aware of where he was from, where he came from (e.g. talking to one of my clan members).’
SEE haja M
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’
SIT mįįnak M
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’
GRIND gicop R
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šįįǧop=ra
onion=DEF
hanąąc
all
ee
3EMPH
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-chop
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you have your kids chop the onions?’
DIG k'ee M
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’
TAKE ruus R
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’

waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
parasre-ire=ra
be.flattened-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hižą
one
ruus
take
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘The flat balls, did you have your Kunu take one?’
PEEL ruxoro N
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s R
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’

(894)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
wiišgac
toy
ceek=ra
be.new=DEF
hazohi
be.calm
ha-gi-paaha-gają
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A-SEQ
gipį
like
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When I showed the new toy to my son carefully, I made him like it.’
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
mąąkax
dirt
ho-jiinąk=ra
APPL.INESS-land=DEF
gip'i<p'i>s
<RDP:ITER>blink
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When my Kunu got dust into his eyes I made him blink.’
LOOK AT horoǧoc R
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’

(890)
hokiwagax
picture
hižą
one
wagax=ra
draw=DEF
haakja
back
horoǧoc
look.at
karagi
cause.own
‘He made her look at the picture she had drawn.’
hokiwagax
picture
hižą
one
wagax=ra
draw=DEF
žige
again
horoǧoc
look.at
karagi
cause.own
‘He made her look at the picture she had drawn.’
FEAR nąąkewe R
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’

(892)
wiišgac-įk
toy-DIM
hižą
one
ha-gi-tuuwį=ra
1E.A-APPL.BEN-buy\1E.A=DEF
ha-gi-paaha-gają
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A-SEQ
nąąkewe
be.afraid
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘That little toy I bought for him, when I showed it to him, I made him scared of it (his own) / I caused him to be scared.’
LIKE gipį R
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’

hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
wiišgac
toy
ceek=ra
be.new=DEF
haizo
be.careful
ha-gi-paaha-gają
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A-SEQ
gipį
like
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When I showed the new toy to my son carefully, I made him like it.’
MEET hikipa M
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’
FOLLOW ruxe R
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’

(898)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
girušją_reehi=ra
let.go=DEF
ruxe
chase
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Kunu let the ball go, did you make him chase it?’
HELP gijire R
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’

(899)
nąą
wood
gicgis
cut.off
ha-ree-ire=ra
COLL-go.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wa-gijire
OBJ.3PL-help
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘They went to cut wood, I made my Kunu help them.’
BURN taa'e R
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’

peec=ra
fire=DEF
hacągeere
with.difficulty
taa'e
blaze.up
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I finally got my fire to burn/ with difficulty I started my fire.’
LAUGH hikša M
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’
BE DRY wuus R
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’

(910)
wainį_howus_hii-eeja
dryer-there
wa'į=ra
blanket=DEF
wuus
be.dry
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I dried my blanket in the drier.’
BE ILL howaža R
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’

(920)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wookąnąk
hat
cųųšgųnį
be.without
šgaac
play
ha-gigi=ra
1E.A-let/cause=DEF
howaža
be.sick
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I caused my Kunu to get sick, when I let him play outside without a cap on.’
BE SAD horuš'ak R
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’

(924)
hicąwį
wife
haa=ra
make/CAUS\1E.A=DEF
wažą
something
ho<ha-gi>tak=ra
<1E.A-APPL.BEN>tell\1E.A=DEF
horuš'ak
be.sad
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When I told my wife something, I made her sad.’
FEEL PAIN teek R
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’

(930)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
teek
ache
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made his (e.g. my son's) head hurt.’
HUG nąąt'ųp R
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’

(935)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
hitek
maternal.uncle
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
ceek
first
kiri=ra
arrive.back.here=DEF
nąąt'ųp
hug
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my son hug his Teega, who had just come home.’
SEARCH FOR honį N
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

s'iireja
long.time.ago
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wažą
something
ho<ha-gi>tak=ra
<1E.A-APPL.BEN>tell\1E.A=DEF
žige
again
wewį
think.about
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘Something I told my Kunu a long time ago, I made him think about it again.’
EAT ruuc R
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’

(952)
wiicawak
muskrat
tuuc
be.cooked
raa=ra
make/CAUS\2.A=DEF
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ruuc
eat
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Did you have your Hinu eat that muskrat meat that you cooked?’
CRY ǧaak R
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’

(958)
hinųk
daughter
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
woowąk
be.naughty
gejenį
CAUSAL
hiraati=ra
car=DEF
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ha-giše=ra
1E.A-take.away=DEF
ǧaak
cry
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘My daughter was naughty, so I took her car away for a little while and I made her cry.’
RAIN nįįžu N
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’
FALL šiipre R
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’

(970)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hi<ha-kara>kišere
<1E.A-POSS.RFL>work.with
ha-jee=ų
1E.A-POS.VERT=SIM
hikinų
accidentally
wakąjakook=ra
battery=DEF
šiipre
fall
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I was working on my car and I accidentally made my car battery fall down.’
GET harucap R
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’

wiišgac'ų-eeja
circus/fair-there
wanoicge
animal
gicą=ra
choose=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hikinų
accidentally
xete-xjį=ra
be.big-INTS=DEF
harucap
grab
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘At the carnival in picking prizes, I accidentally had my Kunu pick the biggest one.’
FALL bookewe R
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’

(979)
nąągu=ra
road=DEF
nųųwąk
run
hatuce
cross\1E.A
nąą<ha>'į-wi=gają
<1E.A>try-PL=SEQ
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
bookewe
trip/fall
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘We tried to run across the road and I caused my son to stumble/fall down.’
APPEAR haǧep R
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

xąąwįoxere
flower
šuuc=ra
be.red=DEF
cii-nąąke-regi
house-back-SIM/LOC
haǧep
appear
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘My red roses came up in the back yard, I made them come up in the back yard.’
WASH ruža R
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’

(985)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
hiraati=ra
car=DEF
ruža
wash
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my son wash his/the car.’
COUGH hooxiwi R
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’

(986)
nįįkjąk-įk=ra
child-DIM=DEF
hikinų
accidentally
wažą-pšoopšoc
something-be.powdery
ha-gipši=ra
1E.A-send.dust.flying=DEF
hooxiwi
cough
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I accidentally put powder to the child and caused him to cough.’
CLIMB hoti R
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’

(989)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
cii-wąąk-regi
house-above/up-SIM/LOC
hoti
climb
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Did you make your dog climb up the stairs here?’
RUN nųųwąk R
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’

(992)
šųųkxete=ra
horse=DEF
nųųwąk
run
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Did you make your horse run?’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p R
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’

waši-ceek
dance-be.new
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ra-gigųs-ra-jee=ra
2.A-teach-2.A-POS.VERT=DEF
t'ąą<t'ą>p
<RDP:ITER>jump
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘When you were teaching your Hinu the new dance did you make her jump?’
SING nąąwą R
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’

(995)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąąwą
sing
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made my son sing.’
TIE rusgic R
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’

too
potato
ha-gihi-wi=ra
1E.A-pick-PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
pąą=ra
bag=DEF
ee
3EMPH
rusgic
tie
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘We were picking potatoes and I made my Kunu tie his/the bag.’
GIVE hok'ų M
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii R
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

šųųk
dog
waroocgųnį
be.strange
hižą
one
nąągu-eja
road-there
jee=ra
POS.VERT=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąga
and
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
nąąǧire
be.scared
hii
make/CAUS
wa-ha-karagi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-cause.own
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I made my Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
LIVE cii R
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’

cii-xete-ižą
house-be.big-one
hį-gi-ųų-ire=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-do/make-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nįįšge
also
eeja
there
cii
live
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘They made a big house for me, I made my son live there also.’
HEAR nąąxgų M
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’
WANT roogų R
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
ciinąk-eeja
village-there
hanį
have.NTL
ha-hii=ra
1E.A-arrive.there=DEF
hirohąp-eeja
window-there
wiišgac
toy
ha-gi-paaha
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A
že'e
that
roogų
want
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I took Kunu to town and showed him a toy in the window, and I made him want it.’
FEEL COLD taasak R
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wookąnąk
hat
cųųšgųnį
be.without
hihinąp
go.outside
ra-karagi=ra
2.A-cause.own=DEF
taasak
feel.cold
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘When you let Kunu go out without a hat on, did you make him feel cold?’
DIE t'ee R
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’

(90)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
t'ee
die
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I killed my own dog.’
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
howaža-xjį=ra
be.sick-INTS=DEF
t'ee
die
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘My cat was really sick, so I killed it.’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi M
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’
BUILD ųų R
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
waisgap_taaxere
frybread
ųų
do/make
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you make your kids make frybread?’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
gišiš
break
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you allow your toys to get broke?’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

waagaxhaja
school
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
woore=ra
work=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-waha
OBJ.3PL-show
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you have your schoolchildren show all their work?’
HIT hapa R
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
šgaac=nąąk=ra
play=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
hapa
hit
hikiicga-ire=ra
practice-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nįįkjąk
child
wa-ha<šį>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
hisge
some
hapa
hit
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘They were practicing baseball and hitting, did you have your kids hit some?’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
šgaac=nąąk=ra
play=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
hojį
hit
hikiicga-ire=ra
practice-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nįįkjąk
child
wa-ha<šį>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
hisge
some
hojį
hit
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘They were practicing baseball and hitting, did you have your kids hit some?’
PLAY šgaac R
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’

nįįkjąk
child
xųnų-įk=ra
be.small-DIM=DEF
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
soccer
šgaac=nąąk=ra
play=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hireanąga
along.with
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
šgaac
play
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘When they were playing soccer, did you have your Kunu and Heena play?’
THROW ųųreehi R
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’

iinį-xete
stone-be.big
sgįįgre-ižą
be.heavy-one
hatucap-wi=ra
grab\1E.A-PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
ee
3EMPH
ųųreehi
throw
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘We picked up a heavy rock, and I made my Kunu throw it. (e.g. when clearing up a field).’
STEAL mąąnų R
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’

kšee
apple
nąą-hižą
tree-one
nąąwacak
fence
saanįk-eja
side-there
jee=ra
POS.VERT=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
hahi
over.there
kšee
apple
wa-mąąnų
OBJ.3PL-steal
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you let your boys steal apples from the other side of the fence?’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

mąą'e
storm
haja-ire-že
see-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
ee-ire=ra
say-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
cii-kųųhą-ija
house-underneath-there
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘When they said a tornado was coming did you make your boys hide in the basement?’
TOUCH hiki'o R
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’

wažą_paa_giririx
elephant
ha<š>ja-wi=ra
<2.A>see-PL=DEF
hocįcį-įk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
hiki'o
touch
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘When you saw elephants did you let your kids touch it?’
SAY ee R
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’

waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
woorak
story
ho<ka>rak-ire-kjeesge=ra
<POSS.RFL>tell-SBJ.3PL-OBL=DEF
hocįcį-įk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
ee
say
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘When they were to tell their story at school, did you make your boys say it?’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o R
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
waagaxhaja
school
ree-kjene=ra
go.there-FUT=DEF
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I had my Kunu shave his beard cause he was going to school.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho R
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’

nee
2EMPH
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
hikikoroho
get.dressed
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Did you get your cat dressed?’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) M
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’
SMELL horupąną R
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąga
and
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
waguje=ra
shoe=DEF
wa-ho<ku>rupąną
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>smell
wa-ra-karagi
OBJ.3PL-2.A-cause.own
‘Did you you have Kunu and Heena smell their shoes?’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BRING hanį jii R
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąąpak
cherry
rook_hožu
pie
hižą
one
hanį
have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I had my Kunu bring a cherry pie.’
BEAT hirojį R
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’

waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
hi<ha>kiicga-wi=ra
<1E.A>practice-PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wiirojį
bat
sgįįgre
be.heavy
hižą
one
hi-hojį
APPL.INST-hit
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I made Kunu hit with a heavy bat in baseball practice.’
GRIND mąąxjuk R
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’

Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
wa-mąąxjuk
OBJ.3PL-grind
ra-karagi
2.A-cause.own
‘Did you make your Kunu grind his acorns?’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’