Permissive causative (gigi) C

Description

This is one of Hoocąk’s four (periphrastic) causatives.
The causative verb
gigi expresses a permissive meaning (A lets U do X) and is considered to be more polite than hii.
It’s a valency increasing operation that can be used with both stative and active (intransitive and transitive) verbs.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
BOIL xere R
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’

(102)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere
boil
wa-hį-ra-gigi-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you boil these potatoes for me? / Can you boil my potatoes?’
SINK hasaware R
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’

waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
hį-ra-gigi
1E.U-2.A-let/cause
‘Did you sink my boat?’
COOK tuuc hii R
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’

(113)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They cooked potatoes for me.’
(792)
too=ra
potato=DEF
nee
1EMPH
tuuc
be.cooked
hii
make/CAUS
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me cook the potatoes.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
nee
1EMPH
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me cook the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk M
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
TEACH gigųs R
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’

(802)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-teach
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me teach the children/ I took over to teaching the kids.’
ROLL howaną(ną) R
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’

waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną
roll
hį-ra-gigi
1E.U-2.A-let/cause
‘Did you roll my ball down the hill?’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

(823)
wažątire
car
šuuc=ra
be.red=DEF
hawają
push
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me push the red car.’
TEAR rugas R
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’

(168)
waagax=ra
paper=DEF
wijuk-nįk=nąąka
cat-DIM=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
rugas
tear
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let these cats tear my paper.’
WIPE waža R
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’

(192)
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
hinųk-nįk
woman-DIM
woowąk=jaane
be.naughty=POS.VERT:PROX
wawaagax=ra
black.board=DEF
waža
wipe
gigi
let/cause
‘The teacher made the naughty little girl wipe the board.’
CUT mąącgis R
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’

(218)
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
mąącgis
cut
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They cut all of my meat for me. / They allowed me to cut the meat.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąącgis
OBJ.3PL-cut
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They cut all of my meat for me, they allowed me to cut the meat.’
SAY ee R
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’

(223)
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ee
say
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me say something.’
TELL horak R
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’

(236)
nee
1EMPH
hį-gicą-ire-anąga
1E.U-choose-SBJ.3PL-and
horak
tell
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They chose me and let me tell something.’
nee
1EMPH
hį-gicą-ire-anąga
1E.U-choose-SBJ.3PL-and
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<ka>rak
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They chose me and let me tell all my stories.’
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ho<ka>rak
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell
wa-gigi
OBJ.3PL-let/cause
‘The teacher let them tell their stories.’
ASK FOR taa R
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’

(247)
iirokit'e=ra
phone=DEF
ho<hį>k'ų-ire-anąga
<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL-and
nee
1EMPH
mąąką=ra
medicine=DEF
wa-taa
OBJ.3PL-ask.for
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave me the phone and let me ask for my prescriptions.’
TALK hokit'e R
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’

(260)
wa-hokit'e
OBJ.3PL-talk.to
hį-gigi-ire-kje
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-FUT
hi<ha>re-ha=jee
<1E.A>think-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm hoping they will let me talk to them.’
KNOW hiperes M
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’
SEE haja M
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’
SIT mįįnak R
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’

(294)
hąke
NEG.IN
mįįnąk
sit
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They didn't let me sit down.’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o R
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’

(300)
hąke
NEG.IN
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
kara-gik'o
POSS.RFL-shave
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They wouldn't let me shave (my beard).’
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they let me shave my beard.’
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
kara-gik'o
POSS.RFL-shave
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they let me shave my beard.’
GRIND gicop R
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’

(305)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nee
1EMPH
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-gigi
1E.U-let/cause
‘Grandma let me grind the seeds.’
šįįǧop=ra
onion=DEF
nee
1EMPH
gico<co>p
<RDP>chop
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me chop the onions.’
PEEL ruxoro R
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’

kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
ruxoro
peel
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
DIG k'ee R
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’

(877)
hopox-ižą
hole-one
k'ee
dig
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me dig a hole.’
(879)
hopox=ra
hole=DEF
k'ee
dig
karagi
cause.own
ha-gigi
1E.A-let/cause
‘I let him dig his own hole.’
hopox=ra
hole=DEF
k'ee
dig
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me dig the holes.’
hopox=ra
hole=DEF
wa-k'ee
OBJ.3PL-dig
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me dig the holes.’
TAKE ruus R
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’

biik
card
šgaac=ra
play=DEF
kųųhą-ija
underneath-there
hižą
one
ruus
take
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they let you draw a card from the bottom when playing cards?’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s M
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’
LOOK AT horoǧoc R
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’

(342)
mąąkąanį=ra
medicine.man=DEF
hinųk
woman
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
hąke
NEG.IN
horoǧoc
look.at
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘The doctors won't even let me look at my daughter.’
FEAR nąąkewe M
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’
LIKE gipį R
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’

(360)
ho<hį>raje
<1E.U>travel
ha-jii-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
gipį
like
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When they came to visit they made my Kunu happy.’
MEET hikipa M
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’
FOLLOW ruxe M
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’
HELP gijire R
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’

nąą
wood
gicgis=ra
cut.off=DEF
wa-gijire
OBJ.3PL-help
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me help them chop wood.’
BURN taa'e R
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’

(390)
taanį=ra
tobacco=DEF
taa'e
blaze.up
hį-ra-gigi-ną
1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you light my cigarette for me?’
LAUGH hikša M
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’
BE DRY wuus R
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’

(907)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
waagax
paper
wiiwaža
towel
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
wuus
be.dry
wa-gigi
OBJ.3PL-let/cause
‘Kunu dried Heena’s hands with a paper towel.’
BE ILL howaža R
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’

(917)
hąąhe=re
night=ANT
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hirakara-ire=ra
take.care.of-SBJ.3PL=DEF
howaža
be.sick
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They were looking after my Kunu last night and they made my Kunu sick.’
BE SAD horuš'ak M
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’
FEEL PAIN teek M
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’
HUG nąąt'ųp R
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’

hitek
maternal.uncle
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
kiri=ra
arrive.back.here=DEF
hąke
NEG.IN
ha-gipį-nį=nųnįge
1E.A-like-NEG.FIN=nevertheless
nąąt'ųp
hug
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘My Teega came back and I didn’t like it, but they made me hug him.’
SEARCH FOR honį R
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’

(942)
woore-eja
work-there
wažątire
car
xawanį
disappear
wa-hii-ire=ra
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-honį
OBJ.3PL-search
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘At work they lost cars, and they let me look for them.’
(943)
wiiwagax-ceek
pen-be.new
ruwį
buy
roogų-ire=ra
want-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wooruwį_hoci-eja
store-there
honį
search
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They wanted to buy a new pen, and they made me search for it at the store.’
woore-eja
work-there
wažątire
car
xawanį
disappear
wa-hii-ire=ra
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
honį
search
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘At work they lost cars, and they let me look for them.’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

(427)
wa-wewį
OBJ.3PL-think.about
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me think about it.’
(429)
wa-wewį
OBJ.3PL-think.about
hį-gigi
1E.U-let/cause
‘It made me think.’
(950)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
waagaxhajahoci-eja
school.house-there
woore
work
hok'ų-ire=ra
give-SBJ.3PL=DEF
mąąšją
be.strong
wewį
think.about(OBJ.3SG)
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The work they gave my Kunu in school, they made him think hard.’
(951)
s'iireja
long.time.ago
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wažą
something
ho<ha-gi>tak=ra
<1E.A-APPL.BEN>tell\1E.A=DEF
žige
again
wewį
think.about(OBJ.3SG)
ha-gigi
1E.A-let/cause
‘Something I told my Kunu a long time ago, I made him think about it again.’
EAT ruuc R
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’

(448)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
ruuc
eat
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me eat this apple.’
CRY ǧaak R
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’

(955)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
wa-kii-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-RCP-play
hii=ra
arrive.there=DEF
hikinų
accidentally
hapa-ire=ra
hit-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ǧaak
cry
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘My Kunu went to play with them, and they accidentally hit him and they made him cry.’
(956)
hį-xųnų-xjį-įk-regi
1E.U-be.small-INTS-DIM-SIM/LOC
ǧaak
cry
hį-gigi-ire=šųnų
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little they used to let me cry.’
RAIN nįįžu M
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’
FALL šiipre R
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’

(967)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
tuuc-ire=ra
be.ripe-SBJ.3PL=DEF
šiipre
fall
wa-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When the apples are ripe on the tree they are letting them fall (they didn't pick them, but they waited).’
FALL bookewe M
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’
APPEAR haǧep R
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

nįįkųųhą_ho'ų
scuba.diving
hikiicga=ra
practice=DEF
nįį
water
aak-eja-šąną
across-there-only
haǧep
appear
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘In your scuba training, did you have you surface only across the river?’
WASH ruža R
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’

(496)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
ruža
wash
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me wash the car.’
COUGH hooxiwi N
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’
CLIMB hoti R
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’

(509)
hąke
NEG.IN
nąą=jeega
tree=POS.VERT:DIST
hoti
climb
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They wouldn't let me climb that tree.’
RUN nųųwąk R
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’

(516)
nąąkisik-ire=ra
foot.race-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
nųųwąk
run
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘In the race they let me run.’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p R
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’

(527)
waikąnąk-eja
bus-there
t'ąąp
jump
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let my me get off (jump off) the bus.’
waši
dance
ceek
be.new
nį-gigųs
2.U-teach
nąą'į-ire=ra
try-SBJ.3PL=DEF
t'ąą<t'ą>p
<RDP:ITER>jump
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When they were teaching you the new dance did they let you jump?’
SING nąąwą R
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’

hosto-ija
gathering-there
nąąwą
sing
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me sing at the gathering.’
TIE rusgic R
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’

(558)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-tie
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me tie the shoe laces.’
ciišu-xete=ra
lodge.pole-be.big=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-tie
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me put the lodge poles together.’
ciišu-xete=ra
lodge.pole-be.big=DEF
nee
1EMPH
rusgic
tie
wa-hį-gigi-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me put the lodge poles together.’
GIVE hok'ų R
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’

(575)
šųųk
dog
waceǧi=ra
be.vicious=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me feed that vicious dog.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii R
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

šųųk
dog
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They scared my dog.’
šųųk
dog
waroocgųnį
be.strange
hižą
one
nąągu-eja
road-there
jee=ra
POS.VERT=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąga
and
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
nąąǧire
be.scared
hii
make/CAUS
wa-ha-gigi
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-let/cause
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I let Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
HEAR nąąxgų R
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’

(598)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
gišiš-nį
break-ANT.FIN
ha-nąąxgų
APPL.SUPESS-hear
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The motor wasn't quite bad yet, they let me listen to it.’
LIVE cii R
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’

(608)
cii-xete
house-be.big
ee
3EMPH
hanį-ire=ra
have.NTL-SBJ.3PL=DEF
eeja
there
cii
live
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me live in their big home.’
WANT roogų M
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
FEEL COLD taasak R
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’

(626)
wanįk
bird
nįįha=ra
have.pet\1E.A=DEF
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
kere-ire=ra
put.upright-SBJ.3PL=DEF
taasak
feel.cold
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When they put my bird outside they made it feel cold.’
DIE t'ee R
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’

(85)
wijuk-nįk
cat-DIM
hira<gi>kara-gają
<APPL.BEN>take.care.of-SEQ
t'ee
die
gigi
let/cause
‘He was baby-sitting a cat and he caused it to die.’
(86)
caa
deer
t'ee
die
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed a deer for me.’
(726)
šųųkxete=ra
horse=DEF
t'ee
die
gigi
let/cause
‘He let the horse die.’
(771)
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
hį-ra-gigi-ną
1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you kill my cat?’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi M
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
BUILD ųų R
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’

(643)
rookhožu=ra
pie=DEF
nee
1EMPH
ųų
do/make
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me make the pie.’
waisgap_taaxere=ra
frybread=DEF
nee
1EMPH
ųų
do/make
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me make the frybread.’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

(672)
nąą-xete=ra
log-be.big=DEF
nee
1EMPH
gišiš
break
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me break the big log.’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

(682)
wažątire
car
ceek-ižą
be.new-one
ha-kii-tuuwį=ra
1E.A-RFL-buy\1E.A=DEF
waha
show
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When I bought myself a new car, they let me show it.’
HIT hapa R
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(695)
nee
1EMPH
coonį
first
hapa
hit
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me bat first.’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(712)
nee
1EMPH
coonį
first
hojį
hit
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me strike first.’
BRING hanį jii R
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’

(715)
hąke
NEG.IN
rook_hožu
pie
hanį
have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
hį-gigi-ire-nį
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘They didn't let me bring a pie here.’
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me bring the pies.’
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąąpak
cherry
rook_hožu
pie
hižą
one
hanį
have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
ha-gigi
1E.A-let/cause
‘I had Kunu bring a cherry pie.’
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

nąą=ra
log=DEF
wa-haruką
OBJ.3PL-cover
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me cover the logs.’
THROW ųųreehi R
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’

mąąs_howaǧuk
horseshoe
šgaac-eja
play-there
nee
2EMPH
hiraak-xjį
be.last-INTS
ųųreehi
throw
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘At the horseshoe game did they let you throw last?’
POUR waxų R
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’

(742)
reex
pail
sgįįgre=ra
be.heavy=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waxų
pour
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me pour out that heavy pail.’
FILL hoixjį hii R
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’

(16)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-hį-ra-gigi-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-let/cause-POT
‘Can you fill these cups for me?’
(18)
haašjek
strawberry
kook=ra
box=DEF
hoixjį
be.full
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They filled my strawberry pail for me.’
(732)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
hį-ra-gigi
1E.U-2.A-let/cause
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(740)
reex=ra
pail=DEF
nąąpak
cherry
hoixjį
be.full
hii
make/CAUS
gigi
let/cause
‘He let him fill the pail.’
(741)
reex=ra
pail=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąąpak
cherry
hoixjį
be.full
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
ha-gigi
1E.A-let/cause
‘I let him fill the pail(s) with cherries.’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

howaši-eja
powwow-there
wiiwašik=ra
flag=DEF
ru'ą
lift/carry
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘At the powwow they let me carry the flag.’
STEAL mąąnų R
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’

(766)
hiraati-ceek-hižą
car-be.new-one
hija
there
t'ųųp-ire-anąga
put-SBJ.3PL-and
mąąnų
steal
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They put a new car there and they let me steal it.’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

cii-eeja
house-there
hisge
some
horaje
visitor
ha-jii-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
nųų<kii>xąwą
<RFL>hide
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘When we had visitors at our house, they made my cat hide.’
mąą'e
storm
haja-ire-že
see-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
ee-ire=ra
say-SBJ.3PL=DEF
cii
house
kųųhą-ija
underneath-there
nųųxąwą
hide
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They said that a tornado was seen, so they let me hide in their basement.’
TOUCH hiki'o R
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’

wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
hį-gigi
1E.U-let/cause
‘The teacher let me touch the snake.’
KILL t'ee hii M
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige M
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’
GET harucap R
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’

hiraati
car
š'aak
be.old
hiwašjek-ire=ra
refuse-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
harucap
grab
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The old car that they all rejected, they let me receive it.’
PLAY šgaac R
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’

(920)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wookąnąk
hat
cųųšgųnį
be.without
šgaac
play
ha-gigi=ra
1E.A-let/cause=DEF
howaža
be.sick
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘I caused my Kunu to get sick, when I let him play outside without a cap on.’
waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
ha-šgaac-wi=ra
1E.A-play-PL=DEF
horušją-ija
end-there
hahi
finally
šgaac
play
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘We played baseball, they let me play at the end.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho R
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’

howaža_hoci-eeja
hospital-there
ha-mįįk=ra
1E.A-lie.down=DEF
hąįnį-xjį-įk
morning-INTS-DIM
hikikoroho
get.dressed
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
hąąp-hokahi
day-every
‘When I was in the hospital they dressed me every morning.’
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) R
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gi-wąą-rehii
OBJ.3PL-APPL.BEN-holler-do.quickly
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The had me holler for the kids.’
SMELL horupąną R
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’

xąąwįoxere-šuuc
flower-be.red
hanį-ha-kiri-ire=ra
have.NTL-COLL-arrive.back.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-horupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘They had me smell the red flowers they brought home.’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BEAT hirojį R
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’

wa'į
blanket
hižą
one
higišik
hang
ha-kąnąk-wi=ra
1E.A-place-PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hi-hojį
APPL.INST-hit
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The blanket we hung up they let me beat it.’
GRIND mąąxjuk R
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’

huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-mąąxjuk
OBJ.3PL-grind
nį-gigi-ire
2.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you grind the acorns?’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’