Reflexive causative (kįį) C

Description

The causative verb kįį expresses a reflexive meaning (A causes self to do X). In constructions with the reflexive causative, causer and causee are identical. They are both expressed through the Actor indexing on the causative verb. It is therefore not a valency increasing operation, it merely re-arranges the valency.
This causative can also have reciprocal reading with plural As (A& U cause each other to do X).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
BOIL xere R
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’

(785)
hąke
NEG.IN
hirakara
take.care.of
ha-ųų-nį-gi
1E.A-do/make-NEG.FIN-TOP
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
xere
boil
ha-kįį-kjene
1E.A-make.self-FUT
‘If I'm not careful here, I will boil myself.’
SINK hasaware R
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’

(109)
coowe
almost
hasaware
drown/sink
ha-kįį-ną
1E.A-make.self-POT
‘I almost drowned.’
COOK tuuc hii M
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk M
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
TEACH gigųs N
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’
ROLL howaną(ną) R
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’

(134)
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself roll down the hill.’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

(824)
s'ii
long.time
wa-ha<ha>pe=ra
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>wait=DEF
wažątire
car
šuuc=ra
be.red=DEF
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
iineki
alone
hawają
push
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I waited for them for a long time, but then I decided to push the red car myself.’
TEAR rugas R
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’

(169)
nąąp-nąąke=ra
hand-back=DEF
rugas
tear
kįį
make.self
‘He tore the back of his hand.’
(170)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
ruga<ga>s
<RDP>tear
wa-kįį-ire
OBJ.3PL-make.self-SBJ.3PL
‘They tore their hands in several places.’
WIPE waža M
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’
CUT mąącgis N
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’
SAY ee N
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’
TELL horak M
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’
ASK FOR taa M
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’
TALK hokit'e R
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’

(263)
ho<ha>š'ik
<1E.A>dislike
nųnįge
nevertheless
hegų
that.way
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
hokit'e
talk.to
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I didn't like him, but I made myself to talk to him.’
KNOW hiperes R
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’

(272)
xjąnąre
yesterday
wažą
something
ha'e_hii-ire=ra
talk.about-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
hi<ha>hąte-anąga
<1E.A>dream.of-and
hiperes
know
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself know something they were talking about yesterday in my dream.’
SEE haja R
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’

(283)
hokiwagax_hixgąxgą
movie
nąąkeweesge=ra
scary.thing=DEF
haja
see
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself watch that scary movie.’
SIT mįįnak R
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’

(293)
mįįnąk
sit
kįį
make.self
šii-ire
tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They let each other sit down/ they told each other to sit down / they told him to sit himself down.’
(845)
waamįnąk
chair
tooke
be.wet
jaane
POS.VERT:PROX
eeja
there
mįįnąk
sit
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘Did you make yourself sit on the chair that was wet?’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o N
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’
GRIND gicop R
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’

(847)
šįįǧop=ra
onion=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-gico<co>p
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>chop
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself chop all the onions.’
PEEL ruxoro M
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
DIG k'ee M
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’
TAKE ruus M
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s R
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’

mąąkax
dirt
hišjasu-eeja
eye-there
ha<nį>pa=ra
<2.U>hit=DEF
gip'i<p'i>s
<RDP:ITER>blink
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘When you got dirt into your eyes, did you make yourself blink?’
LOOK AT horoǧoc R
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’

(344)
hį-gi-ceexi
1E.U-APPL.BEN-be.expensive
nųnįge
nevertheless
wakąnąšge
frog
t'ee=ra
die=DEF
horoǧoc
look.at
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘It was difficult for me, but I made myself look at it.’
(345)
wažątire
car
higišąną
accident
ra-kįį=ra
2.A-make.self=DEF
wažą
something
ra-kii-gišgą=ra
2.A-RFL-damage=DEF
hacągeere
with.difficulty
ho<kii>roǧoc
<RFL>look.at
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘After the car accident, when you damaged yourself, did you finally make yourself look at yourself?’
FEAR nąąkewe R
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’

(353)
cii-rook
house-inside
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho<ha>kewe-gają
<1E.A>go.inside-SEQ
hižą
one
eeja
there
haca-ną
see\1E.A-POT
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘When I walked into the dark house, I saw someone there, I scared myself.’
LIKE gipį R
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’

(361)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
wa-haca
OBJ.3PL-see\1E.A
ha-hii=ra
1E.A-arrive.there=DEF
gipį
like
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Last night I went to a baseball game, I made myself happy.’
MEET hikipa R
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’

(366)
ceewąk-hižą
bull-one
huu=ra
come.here=DEF
nąągu-eeja
road-there
nąą<ha>žį-anąga
<1E.A>stand-and
hikipa
meet
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The bull was coming I stood in the road and made me meet him.’
FOLLOW ruxe R
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’

(379)
nįį-eeja
water-there
wažą
something
ho-tuušąną=ra
APPL.INESS-drop\1E.A=DEF
nee
1EMPH
ruxe
chase
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself chase after the thing I dropped into the water.’
HELP gijire R
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’

(386)
nąą
wood
gicgis=ra
cut.off=DEF
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
gijire
help
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself help him chop wood.’
BURN taa'e M
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’
LAUGH hikša R
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’

(455)
hirokikjąp-eeja
mirror-there
hotoǧoc-gi
look.at\1E.A-TOP
hikša
laugh/smile
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘When I looked in the mirror I made myself smile.’
BE DRY wuus R
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’

(913)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
ha-hį-nįįžu=ra
APPL.SUPESS-1E.U-rain=DEF
cii-eja
house-there
ha-gii
1E.A-arrive.back.there
wuus
be.dry
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was caught in the rain outside, I went home and got myself dried off.’
BE ILL howaža R
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’

(402)
eegišge
too.much
hawįc
more.than.enough
haa-gają
make/CAUS\1E.A-SEQ
howaža
be.sick
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I ate too much and made myself sick.’
(919)
s'ii
long.time
hąke
NEG.IN
ha-nąą-nį=ra
1E.A-sleep-NEG.FIN=DEF
haji
here
howaža
be.sick
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I didn't sleep for a long time and I made myself sick.’
BE SAD horuš'ak R
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’

(923)
hąąhe-serec
night-be.long
nąącge_woo<hį>ci
<1E.U>worry
ha-nįhe=gejenį
1E.A-be/PROG=CAUSAL
horuš'ak
be.sad
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Because I was worried all night, I got depressed (/I made myself lonely).’
FEEL PAIN teek R
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’

(410)
wažą
something
hikinų
accidentally
hibo<ha>kita=ra
<1E.A>bump.self=DEF
hokawas-rook-eja
be.dark-inside-there
huuporo=ra
knee=DEF
teek
ache
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘In the dark I bumped into something and I hurt my knee.’
(929)
hąąhe-serec
night-be.long
nįįnąwox
beer
taacgą=ra
drink\1E.A=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I drank beer all night long, and I made my head ache.’
HUG nąąt'ųp R
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’

(933)
s'ii
long.time
hąke
NEG.IN
haca-nį=ra
see\1E.A-NEG.FIN=DEF
haišąnąš-jį=nųnįge
be.dirty-INTS=nevertheless
nąąt'ųp
hug
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I hadn't seen him for a long time, and he was dirty, but I made myself hug him anyway.’
SEARCH FOR honį M
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

(428)
wa-wewį
OBJ.3PL-think.about
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself think.’
EAT ruuc R
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’

(450)
wikirihujopxete
crocodile
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
ruuc
eat
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘Did you make yourself eat the alligator meat?’
CRY ǧaak R
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’

(954)
hį-xųnų-įk
1E.U-be.small-DIM
ha-nįhe-regi
1E.A-be/PROG-SIM/LOC
hišjasu-regi
eye-SIM/LOC
hikinų
accidentally
ha<ha-kii>pa=ra
<1E.A-RFL>hit=DEF
ǧaak
cry
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘When I was little, I accidentally poked myself in the eye, and I caused myself to cry.’
RAIN nįįžu N
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’
FALL šiipre R
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’

(969)
xee
hill
uuk-eeja
edge-there
mąą<ha>nį=ąk=ų
<1E.A>walk=POS.HOR=SIM
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hiną<ha-kii>sik-nąga
<1E.A-RFL>trip.over-and
eeja
there
šiipre
fall
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was walking along the edge of the hill, I tripped over my feet and caused myself to fall.’
FALL bookewe R
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’

(978)
iinį
stone
hižą
one
nąą<ha>xjak-nąga
<1E.A>kick-and
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
bookewe
trip/fall
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I kicked the rock and made myself stumble.’
APPEAR haǧep M
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’
WASH ruža M
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’
COUGH hooxiwi R
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’

(502)
peec
fire
ho<ha>t'ų=ra
<1E.A>make.fire=DEF
xii-xjį
smoke-INTS
haa-anąga
make/CAUS\1E.A-and
hooxiwi
cough
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made a fire, made it real smoky so I made myself cough.’
CLIMB hoti R
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’

(511)
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
nąą-wąąk-eeja
tree-above/up-there
hookiracak=ra
get.stuck.between=DEF
nąą=ra
tree=DEF
hoti
climb
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘When the cat got stuck in the tree, did you make yourself go up there?’
RUN nųųwąk M
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p R
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’

(528)
nee
1EMPH
hi<hį>gire=gejenį
's.turn=CAUSAL
waact'ą-ija
airplane-there
t'ąąp
jump
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Because it was my turn I got off the plane.’
waši-ceek
dance-be.new
nį-gigųs
2.U-teach
nąą'į-ire=ra
try-SBJ.3PL=DEF
t'ąą<t'ą>p
<RDP:ITER>jump
ra-kįį-kjeesge
2.A-make.self-OBL
‘When they were trying to teach you the new dance, did you have to make yourself jump?’
SING nąąwą R
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’

(545)
hį-gi-ceexi-nųnįge
1E.U-APPL.BEN-be.expensive-nevertheless
nąąwą
sing
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was difficult for me, but I made myself sing.’
TIE rusgic N
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’
GIVE hok'ų R
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’

nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii N
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’
HEAR nąąxgų M
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’
LIVE cii M
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’
WANT roogų R
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’

(620)
waruc
food
hirušją_haa=jee=ra
prepare\1E.A=POS.VERT=DEF
roogų
want
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was preparing food and I made myself want some.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
FEEL COLD taasak R
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’

(627)
hirohąp=ra
window=DEF
ruhas
be.open
hat'ųtee=ra
leave.behind\1E.A=DEF
taasak
feel.cold
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘When I left the window open, I made myself feel cold.’
DIE t'ee R
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’

(91)
t'ee
die
ha-kįį-kjene
1E.A-make.self-FUT
‘I'm going to kill myself.’
(630)
ziik=ra
squirrel=DEF
nąągu=ra
road=DEF
haruce
cross
nąą'į-gają
try-SEQ
t'ee
die
kįį
make.self
‘The squirrel tried to cross the road and killed himself.’
(725)
t'ee
die
kįį-ire
make.self-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed each other.’
(773)
wiic-eja
island-there
kiza=nąąk=ra
fight=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
roohą
a.lot
t'ee
die
kįį-ire
make.self-SBJ.3PL
‘The battle on the island a lot of them killed each other.’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi R
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’

(634)
wanį
meat
hotas'a
be.roasted
haa=jee=ra
make/CAUS\1E.A=POS.VERT=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was cooking meat and I made myself hungry.’
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
BUILD ųų M
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

(673)
nąąp
hand
waigiza=ra
limb=DEF
gišiš
break
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I broke my finger (my fault).’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

(683)
hii=ra
tooth=DEF
ra-kara-gijap=ra
2.A-POSS.RFL-break.off=DEF
hahi
finally
waha
show
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘Did you finally bring yourself to show your chipped tooth?’
HIT hapa M
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(707)
nąąšek
dead.tree
heezik
bee
ho-cii-ire=ra
APPL.INESS-live-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hojį
hit
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The old tree with the bees, I made myself hit it.’
(708)
wookijį
boxing
ha-ųų=regi
1E.A-do/make=SIM/LOC
hicakoro
friend
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
ha-gitap-nąga
1E.A-hit.slightly-and
nee
1EMPH
ho<ha-kii>jį
<1E.A-RFL>hit
‘When I was boxing, my friend, I had a glancing blow on my boxing partner and I hit myself.’
BRING hanį jii R
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’

wažą=ra
something=DEF
hižą
one
hi<ha>karašišik-jį=ra
<1E.A>cherish-INTS=DEF
hanį
have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Something I really cherished, I brought it here with difficulty.’
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

nąą=ra
log=DEF
wa-haruką
OBJ.3PL-cover
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself cover the logs.’
THROW ųųreehi R
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’

hoo_<ha>gisik
<1E.A>fish
ha-hii=ra
1E.A-arrive.there=DEF
hoošušuc-ižą
trout-one
ha-gisik=ra
1E.A-fish=DEF
hanį-kere
have.NTL-go.back.there
peewį-xjį=nųnįge
think.about\1E.A-INTS=nevertheless
horoǧoc=ra
look.at=DEF
xųnų-įk
be.small-DIM
gejenį
CAUSAL
eesge
that's.why
haakja
back
ųųreehi
throw
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I went fishing, I caught a trout, but because it looked kind of small, I made myself throw it back.’
POUR waxų R
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’
FILL hoixjį hii R
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’

(17)
waruc=ra
food=DEF
ceep_<wa>haa=anąga
<OBJ.3PL>eat/drink.up\1E.A=and
hoixjį-xjį
be.full-INTS
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I ate up all the food and I filled myself right up.’
reex=ra
pail=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąąpak
cherry
hoixjį
be.full
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I finally made myself fill the pails with cherries.’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

(761)
kook=ra
box=DEF
iineki
alone
ru'ą
lift/carry
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I made myself lift the box alone.’
STEAL mąąnų R
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’

(767)
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
gejenį
CAUSAL
ciinąk-eja
village-there
kšee-ižą
apple-one
mąąnų
steal
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Because I was really hungry I brought myself to stealing an apple in town.’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

mąą'e
storm
haja-ire-že
see-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
ee-ire=ra
say-SBJ.3PL=DEF
cii-kųųhą-ija
house-underneath-there
nųųxąwą
hide
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘They said that a tornado was seen, so I made myself hide in the basement.’
TOUCH hiki'o R
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’

(770)
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘Even though I was afraid I made myself touch the snake.’
KILL t'ee hii M
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige M
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’
GET harucap R
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’

wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wažą
something
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-homą<ha>nų
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>cheat
ha-ųų=anąga
1E.A-do/make=and
harucap
grab
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The prized they were offering at the casino, I cheated and I made myself receive the prize.’
PLAY šgaac R
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho R
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’

hikoroho
dress
kįį-jee
make.self-POS.VERT
‘She's getting dressed/ she's getting ready.’
hikikoroho
get.dressed
hį-ra-šii=ra
1E.U-2.A-tell.to.do=DEF
hikikoroho
get.dressed
ha-kįį-ha-jee
1E.A-make.self-1E.A-POS.VERT
‘You told me to get dressed so I am getting dressed.’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) R
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’

wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
s'ii
long.time
xawanį
disappear
nųnįge
nevertheless
nąągu-aak-eja
road-POS.HOR-there
žige
again
gi-wąą
APPL.BEN-holler
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The cat was gone for a long time so I made myself holler for it again in the road.’
SMELL horupąną R
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’

xatap-eeja
woods-there
caa
deer
t'eek-jį
be.rotten-INTS
hižą
one
hi<ha>'e=ra
<1E.A>find=DEF
t'eek-jį
be.rotten-INTS
wa'ų-ąk=nųnįge
do/be-POS.HOR=nevertheless
horupąną
smell
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I found a rotting deer in the woods, it was really rotten but I smelled it anyway.’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BEAT hirojį M
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’
GRIND mąąxjuk M
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’