Coercive/default causative (hii) C

Description

This is one of Hoocąk’s four (periphrastic) causatives.
The causative verb
hii is by far the most common one, its meaning is that of a coercive causative (A makes U do X), but it is also considered to be the default causative.
It’s a valency increasing operation that can be used with both stative and active (intransitive and transitive) verbs.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
BOIL xere R
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’

(101)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere
boil
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I boiled the potatoes.’
(104)
too=ra
potato=DEF
wiirohą
kettle
te'e
this
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
xere
boil
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘Using this kettle they boiled the potatoes.’
(781)
nįį=ra
water=DEF
reex-jeega
pail-POS.VERT:DIST
hi-xere
APPL.INST-boil
raa-ną
make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘You can boil the water with the pail.’
(782)
noixga=ra
basket.wood=DEF
eeja
there
ho-xere
APPL.INESS-boil
raa-ną
make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘You can boil the strips of wood in there.’
SINK hasaware R
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’

(106)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I sank the boat.’
(107)
waac
boat
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Did you sink my boat?’
(110)
waac
boat
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hasaware
drown/sink
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘My boat, I sank it.’
COOK tuuc hii M
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk R
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’

(120)
iijanįk
scream
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me scream.’
(121)
iijanįk
scream
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you scream?’
(122)
iijanįk
scream
nįį
make/CAUS\1&2
‘Did I make you scream?’
TEACH gigųs R
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-teach
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me teach the children/ I took over to teaching the kids.’
ROLL howaną(ną) R
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’

(132)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I rolled the ball down the hill.’
(136)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną
roll
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Did you roll my ball down the hill?’
(137)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
hii=nąąk-šąną
make/CAUS=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘They are rolling the ball on the table.’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

wažątire
car
šuuc=ra
be.red=DEF
hawają
push
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me push the red car.’
TEAR rugas R
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’

(167)
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
rugas
tear
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘He caused the papers to tear.’
WIPE waža M
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’
CUT mąącgis R
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’

(217)
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
nee=cą
1EMPH=instead
mąącgis
cut
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They caused me to cut the meat.’
SAY ee M
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’
TELL horak R
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’

(237)
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ho<ka>rak
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘The teacher made them tell their stories.’
ASK FOR taa M
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’
TALK hokit'e M
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’
KNOW hiperes M
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’
SEE haja M
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’
SIT mįįnak N
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o R
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’

mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
kara-gik'o
POSS.RFL-shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’
GRIND gicop R
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’

(846)
šįįǧop=ra
onion=DEF
nee
1EMPH
gico<co>p
<RDP>chop
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me chop the onions.’
PEEL ruxoro R
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’

(859)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I made Kunu peel the apples.’
(860)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
DIG k'ee R
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’

hopox-ižą
hole-one
k'ee
dig
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They had me dig a hole.’
TAKE ruus R
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’

biik
card
šgaac=ra
play=DEF
kųųhą-ija
underneath-there
hižą
one
ruus
take
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you draw a card from the bottom when playing cards?’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s R
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’

mąąkąanį=ra
doctor=DEF
hišjasu=regi
eye=SIM/LOC
mąąką
medicine
wa-ho-hį-gi-ruxų=anąga
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-1E.U-APPL.BEN-pour=and
gip'i<p'i>s
<RDP:ITER>blink
wįį
make/CAUS\1E.U
‘They put eye drops in my eye and made me blink.’
LOOK AT horoǧoc M
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’
FEAR nąąkewe R
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’

(348)
šųųk
dog
waceǧi
be.vicious
hižą
one
hahi
over.there
ha-kiri-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.back.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hi-nąąkewe
APPL.INST-be.afraid
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They brought back a vicious dog and scared Kunu with it.’
LIKE gipį R
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’

(359)
ho<hį>raje
<1E.U>travel
ha-jii-ire=ra
COLL-arrive.here-SBJ.3PL=DEF
gipį
like
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they came to visit they made me happy.’
MEET hikipa M
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’
FOLLOW ruxe R
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’
HELP gijire R
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’

(385)
nąą
wood
gicgis=ra
cut.off=DEF
wa-gijire
OBJ.3PL-help
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me help them chop wood.’
BURN taa'e R
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’

(387)
peec=ra
fire=DEF
taa'e
blaze.up
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I started the fire.’
LAUGH hikša R
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’

(454)
ga'a
that
hikša
laugh/smile
wįį-ną
make/CAUS\1E.U-DECL
‘It made me smile.’
(901)
Haaga
third.son
Mike-ga
Mike-PROP
ha'e_hii-ire=ra
talk.about-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hikša
laugh/smile
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they talked of Haaga Mike they made me laugh.’
Kųnų
first.son
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
hikša
laugh/smile
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They made my Kunu laugh.’
BE DRY wuus R
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’
BE ILL howaža R
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’

(403)
howaža
be.sick
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me sick.’
(918)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hooxiwi
cough
ha-nįhe-ire=ra
COLL-be/PROG-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nįįšge
also
howaža
be.sick
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When the kids kept coughing, and they also made me sick.’
BE SAD horuš'ak R
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’

(405)
horuš'ak
be.sad
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me sad.’
FEEL PAIN teek R
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’

waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’
HUG nąąt'ųp R
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’

(934)
hitek
maternal.uncle
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
kiri=ra
arrive.back.here=DEF
hąke
NEG.IN
ha-gipį-nį=nųnįge
1E.A-like-NEG.FIN=nevertheless
nąąt'ųp
hug
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘My Teega came back and I didn’t like it, but they made me hug him.’
SEARCH FOR honį N
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

(949)
woorak
story
š'aak-ižą
be.old-one
horak-ire=ra
tell-SBJ.3PL=DEF
s'ii
long.time
wewį
think.about(OBJ.3SG)
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They told an old story and they made me think for a long time.’
EAT ruuc M
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’
CRY ǧaak R
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’

(957)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-guuc-ire=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-shoot-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ǧaak
cry
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they shot my dog, they made me cry.’
RAIN nįįžu R
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’

(463)
wikirihookere=ra
spider=DEF
hižą
one
t'ee
die
raa-gi
make/CAUS\2.A-TOP
nįįžu
rain
raa-kjene
make/CAUS\2.A-FUT
‘If you kill a spider you're going to make it rain.’
(961)
ciinąkija
other.tribe
waši-ire=ra
dance-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nįįžu
rain
hii-ire-že
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘Other tribal people they danced and they said they made it rain.’
FALL šiipre R
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’

(963)
hiraati-xete=ra
car-be.big=DEF
iinį
stone
waxų=ra
pour=DEF
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
ha-šiipre
APPL.SUPESS-fall
wa-hii
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS
‘The truck that poured/dropped the gravel, he made it fall on the flowers.’
(968)
nąą=ra
tree=DEF
wa-ruksų<ksų>c-ire=anąga
OBJ.3PL-<RDP:ITER>shake-SBJ.3PL=and
nąąpak=ra
cherry=DEF
šiipre
fall
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They shook the trees and made the cherries fall down.’
FALL bookewe R
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’

(471)
hikųhe
hurry
hį-šii-ire=ra
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
bookewe
trip/fall
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me hurry and they made me trip.’
(472)
nųųwąk
run
šii-ire-gają
tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL-SEQ
bookewe
trip/fall
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They told him to run and they made him fall.’
APPEAR haǧep M
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’
WASH ruža R
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’

(497)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
mąąha
mud
hirojį-ire=ra
throw-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hicągeere
with.difficulty
ruža
wash
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They threw mud at my car and they finally made me wash it.’
COUGH hooxiwi R
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’

(501)
xii=ra
smoke=DEF
wiyahįc
too.much
jiinąk
become
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
hooxiwi
cough
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made a lot of smoke and they made me cough, I had to cough.’
CLIMB hoti R
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’

(510)
nąą=jeega
tree=POS.VERT:DIST
hoti
climb
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you climb that tree.’
RUN nųųwąk R
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’

(517)
waǧįǧį
ball
wa-ho-šgaac-eja
OBJ.3PL-APPL.INESS-play-there
nee
2EMPH
nųųwąk
run
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘In the ball game did they make you run?’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p R
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’

waši
dance
ceek
be.new
nį-gigųs
2.U-teach
nąą'į-ire=ra
try-SBJ.3PL=DEF
t'ąą<t'ą>p
<RDP:ITER>jump
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they were teaching you the new dance did they make you jump?’
waikąnąk-eja
bus-there
t'ąąp
jump
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me get off (jump off) the bus.’
SING nąąwą R
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’

(544)
hosto-ija
gathering-there
nąąwą
sing
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘At the gathering, did they make you sing?’
TIE rusgic R
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’

(557)
hoo_higisik=ra
fishing.pole=DEF
hikinų
accidentally
hi-kii-rusgic
APPL.INST-RCP/RFL-tie
wa-hii-ire
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They got the fish lines tied together accidentally.’
(996)
noixga=ra
basket.wood=DEF
ha-kii-rusgic
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-tie
wa-hii-re
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-IMP
‘Tie the strips of wood together!’
(997)
ciišu-xete=ra
lodge.pole-be.big=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-tie
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me put the lodge poles together.’
GIVE hok'ų R
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’

šųųk
dog
waceǧi=ra
be.vicious=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me feed that vicious dog.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii R
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

(567)
k'oo-ire=ra
thunder-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąą<ha>ǧire
<1E.A>be.scared
‘Thunder frightens me.’
šųųk
dog
waroocgųnį
be.strange
hižą
one
nąągu-eja
road-there
jee=ra
POS.VERT=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąga
and
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
nąąǧire
be.scared
hii
make/CAUS
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘There was a strange dog in the road and I made Kunu and Heena scare it (away).’
HEAR nąąxgų R
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’

(592)
hąįnį-gi
morning-TOP
eegi
here
wąąga-stoo-kje-wi
1DI.U-gather.together-FUT-PL
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
honąxgų
hear.from/about
wa-hii-re
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS-IMP
‘Tomorrow we're going to gather here, go tell the boys.’
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
gišiš-nį
break-ANT.FIN
ha-nąąxgų
APPL.SUPESS-hear
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘The motor wasn't quite bad yet, they let me listen to it.’
LIVE cii M
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’
WANT roogų R
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’

(619)
nąąpak
cherry
rook_hožu
pie
ruuc=nąąk=ra
eat=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
nįge
part.of
roogų
want
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They were eating cherry pie and made me want some.’
mąąnąąpe
military
hokiwagax_hixgąxgą
movie
waha-ire=ra
show-SBJ.3PL=DEF
mąąnąąpe_kįį
join.the.army
roogų
want
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They showed a military film and they made me want to become a soldier.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
FEEL COLD taasak R
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’

(625)
hirohąp
window
ruhas-kere-ire=ra
be.open-put.upright-SBJ.3PL=DEF
taasak
feel.cold
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When they left the window open they made me feel cold.’
DIE t'ee R
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’

(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
(87)
wašjįk=ra
rabbit=DEF
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
t'ee
die
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed the rabbit on the table.’
(88)
caa
deer
žee
that
wiižuk-xete
gun-be.big
hi-t'ee
APPL.INST-die
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed this deer with a gun.’
(629)
wake=ra
raccoon=DEF
gišgap=ire
hit/run.over=SBJ.3PL
t'ee
die
hii-ire
make/CAUS-SBJ.3PL
‘They killed the raccoon, they ran over it.’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi R
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’

(633)
waruc_ųų=nąąkre
cook=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
tookewehi
be.hungry
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They were cooking and they made me hungry.’
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
BUILD ųų M
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

nąą-xete=ra
log-be.big=DEF
nee
1EMPH
gišiš
break
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me break the big log.’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

(678)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
wa-ka-waha
OBJ.3PL-POSS.RFL-show
hii
make/CAUS
‘He went to show his moccasins that he made.’
wažątire
car
ceek-ižą
be.new-one
ha-kii-tuuwį=ra
1E.A-RFL-buy\1E.A=DEF
waha
show
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I bought myself a new car, they made me show it.’
HIT hapa R
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(696)
cii_woomįš
rug
tuusge-wi=ra
clean\1E.A-PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
hapa
hit
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me hit the rug when we were cleaning them.’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(713)
cii_woomįš
carpet
tuusge
clean\1E.A
nąą<ha>'į-wi=ra
<1E.A>try-PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
coonį
first
hojį
hit
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When we were trying to clean the carpet, they made me.’
BRING hanį jii R
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’

(721)
rook_hožu-ižą
pie-one
hanį
have.NTL\1E.A
jii
arrive.here
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me bring a pie.’
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nąąpak
cherry
rook_hožu
pie
hižą
one
hanį
have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
haa
make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I had Kunu bring a cherry pie.’
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL
jii
arrive.here
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me bring the pies.’
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

nąą=ra
log=DEF
wa-haruką
OBJ.3PL-cover
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me cover the logs.’
THROW ųųreehi R
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’

mąąs_howaǧuk
horseshoe
šgaac-eja
play-there
nee
2EMPH
hiraak-xjį
be.last-INTS
ųųreehi
throw
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘At the horseshoe game did they make you throw last?’
POUR waxų R
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’

reex
pail
sgįįgre=ra
be.heavy=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waxų
pour
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They let me pour out that heavy pail.’
FILL hoixjį hii M
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

(760)
howaši-eja
powwow-there
wiiwašik=ra
flag=DEF
ru'ą
lift/carry
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘At the powwow they made me carry the flag.’
STEAL mąąnų R
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’

hiraati-ceek-hižą
car-be.new-one
hija
there
t'ųųp-ire-anąga
put-SBJ.3PL-and
mąąnų
steal
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They put a new car there and they made me steal it.’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

mąą'e
storm
haja-ire-že
see-SBJ.3PL-QUOT
ee-ire=ra
say-SBJ.3PL=DEF
cii
house
kųųhą-ija
underneath-there
nųųxąwą
hide
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They said that a tornado was seen, so they made me hide in their basement.’
TOUCH hiki'o R
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’

(769)
wagigųs=ra
teacher=DEF
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
wįį
make/CAUS\1E.U
‘The teacher made me touch the snake.’
KILL t'ee hii M
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige M
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’
GET harucap R
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’

hiraati
car
š'aak
be.old
hiwašjek-ire=ra
refuse-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
harucap
grab
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘The old car that they all rejected, they made me receive it.’
PLAY šgaac R
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’

waǧįǧį_rušgap
baseball
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
hopaža=nųnįge
be.sick\1E.A=nevertheless
hirasa
in.addition
šgaac
play
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘They were playing baseball and even though I was sick they also made my play.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho R
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’

x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) R
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’

nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gi-wąą-rehii
OBJ.3PL-APPL.BEN-holler-do.quickly
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘The had me holler for the kids.’
SMELL horupąną R
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’

wažą-pąną-pįį
something-be.smelly-be.good
ceek
be.new
wiiruwį=nąąk=ra
sell=POS.NTL.PL=DEF
wa-horupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘The new perfume they were selling, did they make you smell it?’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BEAT hirojį R
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’
GRIND mąąxjuk R
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’

huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-mąąxjuk
OBJ.3PL-grind
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they make you grind the acorns?’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’