Reflexive (+kii) C

Description

The reflexive is a valency-decreasing operation. When the morpheme kii is added to a transitive verb the undergoer slot can no longer be filled with an undergoer inflectional affix and is thus blocked. (e.g. ruža 'wash sth./sb.'--> kiiruža 'wash oneself'.
In very rare cases this operation can also be used to express an autobeneficiary meaning, in these cases the valency of the verb remains unchanged (e.g.
ruxoro 'peel sth.' --> kiiruxoro 'peel sth. for oneself').
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

(730)
wa'į
blanket
šjuuc
be.warm
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
ha<ha-kii>tuką
<1E.A-RFL>cover\1E.A
‘I covered myself with a warm blanket.’
FILL hoixjį hii N
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’
POUR waxų N
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’
THROW ųųreehi N
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

(58)
waginą
rope
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
ha-kii-tuu'ą
1E.A-RFL-lift/carry\1E.A
‘I hoisted myself with a rope.’
ha-kii-tuu'ą
1E.A-RFL-lift/carry\1E.A
nąą<ha>'į=ra
<1E.A>try=DEF
tuuš'ak-šąną
fail.at\1E.A-DECL
‘I attempted to pull myself up, but I couldn't.’
STEAL mąąnų M
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

(72)
ha-nųų<ha-kii>xąwą
APPL.SUPESS-<1E.A-RFL>hide
wa<ha>'ų=nąk-šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL-DECL
ha-jii
1E.A-arrive.here
‘I'm hiding myself here.’
pįį
be.good
nųų<kii>xąwą
<RFL>hide
wa'ų
do/be
hąke
NEG.IN
hi'e-ire-nį
find-SBJ.3PL-NEG.FIN
‘He hid himself well, and they were unable to find him.’
TOUCH hiki'o R
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’

(81)
hi<ha-kii>ki'o-'o
<1E.A-RFL>touch-RDP
‘I touched myself (in different places).’
KILL t'ee hii N
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige R
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’

(95)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<ha-kii>ge
<1E.A-RFL>say.to
‘Yesterday I called myself an idiot.’
BOIL xere N
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’
SINK hasaware N
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’
COOK tuuc hii N
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk N
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
TEACH gigųs R
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’

(128)
wanąp'į
beads
hikišere
work.with
nee
1EMPH
ha-kii-gigųs
1E.A-RFL-teach
‘I taught myself how to do beadwork.’
ROLL howaną(ną) M
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

(819)
nąąksik-serec
stick-be.long
hi<ha>'ų=anąga
<1E.A>use=and
waac
boat
ho-mįįnąk
APPL.INESS-sit
ha<ha-kii>pają
<1E.A-RFL>push\1E.A
‘I used that long stick and pushed myself in the boat.’
(822)
ha<ha-kii>pają
<1E.A-RFL>push\1E.A
ha-ųų=nąk=ų
1E.A-do/make=POS.NTL\1E.A=SIM
hija-ha-hii
there-1E.A-arrive.there
‘I pushed myself along and I got there.’
TEAR rugas M
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’
WIPE waža R
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’

(187)
kii-waža-re
RFL-wipe-IMP
‘Wipe yourself!’
(189)
šųųkxete
horse
mąą-ija
earth-there
kii-waža
RFL-wipe
‘The horse wiped himself off on the ground.’
CUT mąącgis R
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’

(211)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
mąą<ra-kii>cgis
<2.A-RFL>cut
‘Did you cut your hand?’
SAY ee N
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’
TELL horak N
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’
ASK FOR taa M
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’
TALK hokit'e R
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’

(258)
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ho<ha-kii>kit'e
<1E.A-RFL>talk.to
wahe=nąk=šąną
talk\1E.A=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm talking to myself.’
(259)
hinųk=ra
woman=DEF
ho<kii>kit'e-ire
<RCP/RFL>talk.to-SBJ.3PL
‘The women talked to each other/ themselves.’
KNOW hiperes N
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’
SEE haja R
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’

(277)
hirokikjąp
mirror
xete-eeja
be.big-there
hotoǧoc=ra
look.at\1E.A=DEF
pįį
be.good
ha<kii>ca
<RCP/RFL>see\1E.A
‘I got a good look at myself in the big mirror.’
SIT mįįnak N
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o R
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’

iipųųc=ra
mustache=DEF
nee-xjį
2EMPH-INTS
ra-kii-gik'o
2.A-RFL-shave
‘Did you shave off your beard/mustache?’
GRIND gicop M
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’
PEEL ruxoro M
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’
DIG k'ee M
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’
TAKE ruus M
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s N
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’
LOOK AT horoǧoc R
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’

(338)
hąįnį-tee
morning-this
hirokikjąp-eeja
mirror-there
ho<ha-kii>toǧoc=šąną
<1E.A-RFL>look.at\1E.A=DECL
‘This morning I looked at myself in the mirror.’
(345)
wažątire
car
higišąną
accident
ra-kįį=ra
2.A-make.self=DEF
wažą
something
ra-kii-gišgą=ra
2.A-RFL-damage=DEF
hacągeere
with.difficulty
ho<kii>roǧoc
<RFL>look.at
ra-kįį
2.A-make.self
‘After the car accident, when you damaged yourself, did you finally make yourself look at yourself?’
FEAR nąąkewe R
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’

(351)
wažą
something
woowąk
be.naughty
hihe-kje=ra
say\1E.A-FUT=DEF
nąą<ha-kii>kewe
<1E.A-RFL>be.afraid
wa<ha>'ų=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>do/be=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I was afraid of myself saying something wrong.’
LIKE gipį R
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’

(357)
wa-racgą=ra
OBJ.3PL-drink=DEF
tuušją=ra
quit\1E.A=DEF
heejąga
now
haji
here
ha-kii-gipį
1E.A-RFL-like
‘I quit drinking and now I've come to like myself.’
MEET hikipa N
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’
FOLLOW ruxe N
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’
HELP gijire R
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’

(383)
wiibocacaš_kook
computer
hi<ha>'ų-anąga
<1E.A>use-and
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ha-kii-gijite
1E.A-RFL-help\1E.A
‘I used the computer and by doing that I helped myself.’
BURN taa'e N
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’
LAUGH hikša R
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’

(394)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
wa-hi<ha-kii>kša
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-RFL>laugh/smile
ha=jee
1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm smiling at my children.’
(453)
hirokikjąp-eeja
mirror-there
hotoǧoc-anąga
look.at\1E.A-and
hi<ha-kii>kša
<1E.A-RFL>laugh/smile
‘I smiled at myself in the mirror.’
(903)
hirokikjąp
mirror
eeja
there
horoǧoc-nąga
look.at-and
hi<kii>kša=jee
<RFL>laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘He is looking in the mirror and laughing at himself.’
BE DRY wuus N
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’
BE ILL howaža N
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’
BE SAD horuš'ak N
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’
FEEL PAIN teek N
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’
HUG nąąt'ųp R
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’

(416)
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
nąą<kii>t'ųp=šąną
<RFL>hug=DECL
‘I hugged myself.’
SEARCH FOR honį M
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

(946)
ee
3EMPH
kii-wewį-xjį=anąga
RFL-think.about-INTS=and
hahi
over.there
wa-ho<ka>rak-jee
OBJ.3PL-<POSS.RFL>tell-POS.VERT
‘Thinking about himself he is telling his personal side of things there.’
EAT ruuc N
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’
CRY ǧaak N
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’
RAIN nįįžu N
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’
FALL šiipre N
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’
FALL bookewe N
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’
APPEAR haǧep N
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’
WASH ruža R
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’

(490)
hąįnį-tee
morning-this
ha-kii-tuuža
1E.A-RFL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed myself this morning.’
COUGH hooxiwi N
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’
CLIMB hoti N
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’
RUN nųųwąk N
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p N
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’
SING nąąwą M
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’
TIE rusgic R
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’

(998)
wijuk-įk=ra
cat-DIM=DEF
waginą
string
hi-šgaac-jee=ų
APPL.INST-play-POS.VERT=SIM
ee-xjį
3EMPH-INTS
kii-rusgic-šąną
RFL-tie-DECL
‘The cat was playing with the string and tied himself up.’
GIVE hok'ų R
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’

(573)
wiinąp'į
beadwork
tee
this
tuuwį-anąga
buy\1E.A-and
hegų
that.way
nee-xjį
1EMPH-INTS
ho<ha-kii>k'ų
<1E.A-RFL>give
‘I bought this necklace and gave it to myself.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii N
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’
HEAR nąąxgų R
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’

(589)
nįį-rook-eeja
water-inside-there
ha-wąą
1E.A-holler
rehaa=ra
do.quickly\1E.A=DEF
nąą<ha-kii>xgų
<1E.A-RFL>hear
‘I hollered under water and I heard myself.’
LIVE cii N
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’
WANT roogų M
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
FEEL COLD taasak N
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’
DIE t'ee N
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi N
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
BUILD ųų M
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’

(651)
peex=ra
bottle=DEF
nįįsgu
salt
ho<kii>žu
<RFL>put.in
‘He put salt in his container for himself.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

(666)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
ha-kii-gišiš=šąną
1E.A-RFL-break=DECL
‘I broke my leg.’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

(677)
Haaga
third.son
Mike-ga
Mike-PROP
hosto-ija
gathering-there
kii-waha-xjį-že
RFL-show-INTS-QUOT
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘Haaga Mike was really boasting at the powwow.’
HIT hapa R
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(691)
hikinų
accidentally
huu=ra
leg=DEF
ha<ha-kii>pa
<1E.A-RFL>hit
‘I hit my leg /hit myself on the leg.’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
BRING hanį jii M
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’
GET harucap M
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’
PLAY šgaac N
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho N
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) N
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’
SMELL horupąną R
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’

cee-wakere
cow-feces
ho-nąą<ra>žį=ra
APPL.INESS-<2.A>stand=DEF
heejąga
now
ho<ra-kii-šu>rupąną
<2.A-RFL-2.A>smell
‘You stepped on manure, do you smell yourself now?’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BEAT hirojį R
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’

nįį-hipa-ija
water-near-there
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
mąąha
mud
hi-ho<kii>jį-ire
APPL.INST-<RCP>hit-SBJ.3PL
‘They played by the beach and threw mud at each other.’
hikinų
accidentally
nąąksik
stick
te'e
this
hi-ho<ha-kii>jį
APPL.INST-<1E.A-RFL>hit
‘I accidentally beat myself with this stick.’
GRIND mąąxjuk M
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’