Benefactive/possession of U (+gi) C

Description

By adding the applicative morpheme (-)gi- to the verb an additional undergoer slot is opened up. The undergoer slot thus created is most commonly filled with a beneficiary-like argument. In rare cases this slot can also be filled with a maleficiary argument. This operation is almost always valency increasing, however, the same operation can also be used to simply express a possessed U, in this latter case the addition of gi- may not increase the valency of the base verb.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
COVER haruką R
(2)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ha<šu>ruką-gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cover-already
‘Have you covered all the tables already?’
(728)
jaagu'ų
why
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų-wi=anąga
<2.A>use-PL=and
ha<hį-šu>ruką-wi
<1E.U-2.A>cover-PL
‘Why did you cover me with canvas?’

(3)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
wa-ha<hį-ra-gi-šu>ruką-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>cover-POT
‘Can you cover the tables for me?’
(6)
waipereci
canvas
hi<š>'ų=anąga
<2.A>use=and
nąą=ra
wood=DEF
wa-ha<hį-ra-gi-šu>ruką-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>cover-POT
‘Can you cover all my logs with canvas for me?’
FILL hoixjį hii N
(13)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A=already
‘I filled all the glasses already.’
(14)
wooracgą=ra
cup=DEF
hanąąc
all
nįį
water
hoixjį
be.full
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I filled all the glasses with water.’
(15)
jaagu'ų
why
wooracgą
cup
hanį=ra
have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
nįį-šooc
water-be.hazy
hoixjį
be.full
raa
make/CAUS\2.A
‘Why did you fill my glass with muddy water?’
(733)
wooracgą=nąąkre
cup=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hoixjį
be.full
wa-raa-ną
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-POT
‘Can you fill these cups?’
POUR waxų R
(19)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
eeja
there
wa-paaxų
OBJ.3PL-pour\1E.A
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
‘I spilled the rotten berries, I poured out the rotten berries.’

(20)
haas-t'eek=ra
berry-be.rotten=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waxų
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-pour
‘Did you pour out my rotten berries / Did you pour out the rotten berries for me?’
THROW ųųreehi R
(36)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
gooja
over.there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw the ball over there.’
(38)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
nąą-hihak-eeja
tree-on.top-there
wa-š-ųųreera
OBJ.3PL-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw all the balls on top of the tree?’
(41)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa<hį-gi>'ų
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>do/be
huu
come.here
hii-re
make/CAUS-IMP
‘Throw the balls to me.’
(44)
waǧįǧį
ball
nee
1EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąą-ija
tree-there
ha-ųųrehaa
1E.A-throw\1E.A
‘I threw my ball into the tree.’

(40)
*waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hį-gi-ųųree
1E.U-APPL.BEN-throw
hį-gigi-re
1E.U-let/cause-IMP
‘Throw the ball for me.’
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
hį-ra-gi-š-ųųreera
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-throw\2.A
‘Did you throw my ball? (away from me)?’
CARRY ru'ą R
(48)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you lift/carry these boxes?’
(49)
hį-šu-ru'ą-ną
1E.U-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry me?’

(50)
kook=nąąkre
box=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ru'ą-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-lift/carry-POT
‘Can you carry these boxes for me?’
STEAL mąąnų R
(64)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-mąą<šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>steal
‘Did you steal the apples?’

(65)
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi-šų>nų
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>steal
‘Did you steal all the apples from me / Did you steal all the apples for me?’
(66)
wažą
something
mąą<hį-ra-gi-šų>nų
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>steal
‘Did you steal something for me?’
HIDE nųųxąwą R
(68)
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
nųųxąwą
hide
wa-ha-žuu
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-put
‘I hid the toys.’
(71)
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-hide
waše-ra=jee
talk\2.A-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories?’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-hide
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They told me to keep all the stories secret.’

eegi
here
haji
here
hicąwį
wife
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
nųų<gi>xąwą
<APPL.BEN>hide
wa'ų=nąk-šąną
do/be=POS.NTL-DECL
‘He came here to hide from his wife.’
woorak=ra
story=DEF
wa-ra-hį-ra-gi-nųųxąwą
OBJ.3PL-2.A-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-hide
waše-ra-jee
talk\2.A-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you hiding the stories from me?’
TOUCH hiki'o M
(76)
hi<hį-ra>ki<š>'o
<1E.U-2.A><2.A>touch
‘Did you just touch me?’
(78)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
hiki'o
touch
‘He touched the snake.’
(79)
waką=ra
snake=DEF
reezi
tongue
hi-kara-k-'ųų=anąga
APPL.INST-POSS.RFL-POSS.RFL-do/make=and
hi<hį>ki'o
<1E.U>touch
‘The snake touched me with its tongue.’
KILL t'ee hii N
(84)
t'ee
die
nįį-kjene
make/CAUS\1&2-FUT
‘I'm going to kill you.’
NAME hige R
(92)
wažą
something
hi<nįį>ge-kjene
<1&2>say.to-FUT
‘I'm going to say something to you.’
(93)
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hige=nąąk=šąną
say.to=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They're calling him an idiot.’
(94)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waną'į_hirujis
idiot
hi<hį>ge-ire
<1E.U>say.to-SBJ.3PL
‘Yesterday they called me an idiot.’

(98)
wažą
something
wa-hi<ra-hį-gi>ge-ną
OBJ.3PL-<2.A-1E.U-APPL.BEN>say.to-POT
‘Can you say something to them for me?’
BOIL xere M
(100)
too=ra
potato=DEF
xere=nąąk
boil=POS.NTL.PL
‘The potatoes are boiling.’
too=ra
potato=DEF
heejąga
now
xere-ire
boil-SBJ.3PL
‘The potatoes are boiling now.’
SINK hasaware M
(105)
waac=ra
boat=DEF
hasaware
drown/sink
‘The boat sank.’
(108)
coowe-xjį
almost-INTS
ha<hį>saware=gajeere
<1E.U>drown/sink=HYP
‘I almost drowned.’
coowe
almost
ha<hį>saware-ną
<1E.U>drown/sink-POT
‘I almost drowned.’
COOK tuuc hii N
(111)
too=ra
potato=DEF
tuuc
be.cooked
wa-haa
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\1E.A
‘I cooked the potatoes.’
SCREAM iijanįk M
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
TEACH gigųs N
(124)
wagax
write
ųų=ra
do/make=DEF
hį-gigųs-ire
1E.U-teach-SBJ.3PL
‘They taught me how to write.’
(125)
nįįp=ra
swim=DEF
hį-ra-gigųs-ną
1E.U-2.A-teach-POT
‘Can you teach me how to swim?’
(126)
Hoocąk
Hoocąk
hit'e
talk
nįį-gigųs-i-kjene
1&2-teach-0-FUT
‘I will teach you Hoocak.’
(127)
nįįkjąk
child
ee
3EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere
beads-work.with
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to teach her children.’
(130)
nįįkjąk-įk
child-DIM
nee
1EMPH
wa-hanį=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL\1E.A=DEF
wanąp'į-hikišere=ra
beads-work.with=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-ha-gigųs
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-teach
‘I taught my children how to do beadwork.’
ROLL howaną(ną) M
(131)
waǧįǧį=ra
ball=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
rahe
be.going.there
‘The ball is rolling down the hill.’
(133)
hocįcį-nįk=ra
boy-DIM=DEF
xee-eeja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘The little boy rolled down the hill.’
(135)
waǧįǧį
ball
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
xee-eja
hill-there
howaną-ną
roll-RDP
‘My ball rolled down the hill.’
PUSH hawają R
(138)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hapają
push\1E.A
‘I pushed the chair.’
(139)
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘The pushed me.’
(141)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ša>wają
<1E.U-2.A>push
‘Why did you push me?’
(143)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
guušigi
over.to.there
hawają
push
rehii-re
do.quickly-IMP
‘Push the chair over to the side!’
(144)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hakišjek
together/share
hawają-ire
push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed the tables together.’
(148)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
ha<hį>wają-ire
<1E.U>push-SBJ.3PL
‘They pushed me onto the table.’

(146)
waamįnąk
chair
te'e
this
eeja
there
ho<hį-gi>wają-re
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>push-IMP
‘Push this chair over there for me.’
(147)
waamįnąk=ra
chair=DEF
hanąąc
all
eeja
there
wa-ha<hį-gi>wają-re
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>push-IMP
‘Push all the chairs over there for me.’
TEAR rugas R
(151)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
peežega
who
wa-rugas
OBJ.3PL-tear
‘Who tore those papers?’
(152)
waagax=nąąka
paper=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuugas=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tear\1E.A=DECL
‘I tore those papers.’

(157)
waagax=nąąkre
paper=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-rugas-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-tear-POT
‘Can you tear these papers for me?’
WIPE waža R
(174)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-paaža
OBJ.3PL-wipe\1E.A
‘I've wiped all the tables.’

(175)
hišja=ra
face=DEF
nįį-gi-paaža-kjene
1&2-APPL.BEN-wipe\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to wipe your face.’
(176)
waaruc=ra
table=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waža-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-wipe-POT
‘Can you wipe the tables for me?’
CUT mąącgis R
(196)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-mąą<ra>cgis
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>cut
‘Did you cut all the cheeses?’
(197)
mąą<hį-ra>cgis-šąną
<1E.U-2.A>cut-DECL
‘You cut me!’
(200)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-mąą<hį-ra>cgis=šąną
1E.U-<1E.U-2.A>cut=DECL
‘You cut me on the hand!’

(198)
ceewasnį_wikįnįja=ra
cheese=DEF
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut-POT
‘Can you cut the cheeses for me?’
(199)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
mąą<hį-ra-gi>cgis=šąną
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>cut=DECL
‘You cut my hand!’
SAY ee R
(220)
teesge
this.way
ee-ire
say-SBJ.3PL
‘They said this.’
(222)
wažą
something
hiše
say\2.A
‘Did you say something?’
(227)
ka
no
ee
say
‘She said "no".’

(221)
nee
2EMPH
hi<hį-ra-gi>še-gi
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>say\2.A-TOP
‘If you could say it for me.’
TELL horak R
(228)
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hotak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told all the stories I know.’

(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(230)
nįįkjąk
child
wa-ha<ha>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>have.NTL=DEF
woorak
story
hi<ha>peres=ra
<1E.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<ha-gi>tak=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-APPL.BEN>tell\1E.A=DECL
‘I told my kids all the stories I know.’
(232)
woorak
story
wa-hanį-ire=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.NTL-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wąąga-ho<gi>rak-kjene-wi
1DI.U-<APPL.BEN>tell-FUT-PL
‘He will tell us their stories.’
(833)
woorak
story
hižą
one
ho<hį-gi>rak=ra
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>tell=DEF
hokiwagax
picture
xete
be.big
hi-ho<hį-gi>rak
APPL.INST-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>tell
wa'ų
do/be
‘When he told me a story he used a big picture.’
ASK FOR taa R
(238)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
haca-anąga
see\1E.A-and
žuura
money
ha-taa
1E.A-ask.for
‘I saw the boss and asked for money.’
gijire
help
nįhe=ra
be/PROG=DEF
že'e
that
hawa'ų-anąga
reason-and
žuura
money
taa
ask.for
wee=jee
talk=POS.VERT
‘What he's saying is, that he's been helping him, based on that he's asking for money.’

(239)
hirukąną=ra
boss=DEF
žuura
money
ha-gi-taa
1E.A-APPL.BEN-ask.for
‘I asked for money from the boss.’
(240)
žige
again
žuura
money
hį-ra-gi-taa
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-ask.for
ra-jii
2.A-arrive.here
‘Have you come to ask me for money again?’
(241)
waagax_hakiruxara=ra
book=DEF
wa-nįį-gi-taa-kjene
OBJ.3PL-1&2-APPL.BEN-ask.for-FUT
‘I'm going to ask you for the books.’
TALK hokit'e N
(250)
hakocąk
for.a.little.while
ho<nįį>kit'e
<1&2>talk.to
roo<ha>gų
<1E.A>want
‘I wanna talk to you for a little while.’
(261)
ho<hį>kit'e
<1E.U>talk.to
nį-šii-ire
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘Did they tell you to talk to me?’
KNOW hiperes M
(229)
woorak
story
wa-hi<ra>peres=ra
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi-ša>rak-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>tell-POT
‘Can you tell me all the stories you know?’
(264)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
wa-hi<ra>peres
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>know
‘Do you know those kids?’
(268)
nąągu_hoixa=ra
driveway=DEF
hawįc
more.than.enough
haite=ra
go.through\1E.A=DEF
hi<ha>peres=šąną
<1E.A>know=DECL
‘It struck me all of a sudden that I had just passed the driveway.’
SEE haja M
(273)
wįįx=ra
duck=DEF
ha-kere-ire=ra
COLL-go.back.there-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-ha<š>ja
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>see
‘The ducks took of, did you see them?’
(275)
keecąk=ra
turtle=DEF
nąąxawa
log
hihak-eeja
on.top-there
nąkre
POS.NTL:PROX
haja
see
kąnąk-ire
place-SBJ.3PL
‘They spotted the turtle on top of the log.’
SIT mįįnak N
(284)
mąą-eeja
earth-there
mįį<ha>nąk=nąk=šąną
<1E.A>sit=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm sitting on the floor.’
(292)
eeja
there
hį-mįįnąk-i-kje
1I.A-sit-0-FUT
‘Let us sit there.’
SHAVE (self) iihį(ra) gik'o M
mąąnąąpe-eja
military-there
ha-hii=regi
1E.A-arrive.there=SIM/LOC
higųąną
right.away
iihį=ra
beard=DEF
gik'o
shave
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘When I joined the military, right away they made me shave my beard.’
GRIND gicop R
(301)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
hireanąga
along.with
wicąwąs=ra
corn=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ra-gicop
OBJ.3PL-2.A-grind
‘Have you ground up all the seeds and the corn?’
(306)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-gicop
OBJ.3PL-grind
hį-šii
1E.U-tell.to.do
‘She told me to grind up the seeds.’

(302)
suu=ra
seed=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-gicop-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-grind-POT
‘Can you grind these seeds for me?’
PEEL ruxoro R
(308)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
wa-ruxoro-ire
OBJ.3PL-peel-SBJ.3PL
‘They peeled the oranges.’
(309)
wažązi=ra
orange=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
hanąąc
all
wa-šu-ruxoro-nį
OBJ.3PL-2.A-peel-ANT.FIN
‘Have you peeled the oranges yet?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-ruxoro
OBJ.3PL-peel
hį-šii-ire
1E.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL
‘They made me peel the apples.’

(310)
wažązi=nąąkre
orange=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxoro-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-peel-POT
‘Can you peel these oranges for me?’
(311)
wažązi
orange
wa-ha<ha>nį=ra
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>have.NTL=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxoro-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-peel-POT
‘Can you peel my oranges?’
DIG k'ee R
(315)
mąą=ra
earth=DEF
ha-k'ee
1E.A-dig
‘I'm digging the ground.’
(316)
hopox=jaane
hole=POS.VERT:PROX
nee
2EMPH
ra-k'ee
2.A-dig
‘Have you been digging this hole?’

(318)
hopox-xete-hižą
hole-be.big-one
hį-ra-gi-k'ee-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-dig-POT
‘Can you dig a big hole for me?’
(862)
hopox-xete=ra
hole-be.big=DEF
hižą
one
hį-ra-gi-k'ee-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-dig-POT
‘Can you dig a big hole for me?’
(871)
moopox-eeja
cave-there
hopox=ra
hole=DEF
hižą
one
hį-ra-gi-k'ee-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-dig-POT
‘Can you dig a hole in the cave for me?’
TAKE ruus R
(320)
žuura
money
hanąąc
all
nee
1EMPH
wa-tuus
OBJ.3PL-take\1E.A
‘I took all the money.’

(321)
žuura=ra
money=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-hį-gi-ruus-ire
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-APPL.BEN-take-SBJ.3PL
‘They took all my money.’
BLINK hišjasu(ra) gip'i(p'i)s N
(328)
hišjasu=ra
eye=DEF
ha-gip'is
1E.A-blink
‘I blinked.’
(329)
jaagu'ų
why
goišip
always
hišjasu
eye
ra-gip'is-ša=nąk
2.A-blink-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why do you keep blinking?’
LOOK AT horoǧoc M
(330)
jaagu'ų
why
žeežegų
this.way
ho<hį-šo>roǧoc-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>look.at-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you looking at me like that?’
FEAR nąąkewe M
(346)
nąą<hį-ra>kewe
<1E.U-2.A>be.afraid
wa<š>'ų-ša=nąk
<2.A>do/be-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Do you fear me?’
(568)
šųųk-xete=ra
dog-be.big=DEF
nąą<ha>kewe
<1E.A>be.afraid
‘I'm afraid of the big dog.’
nąą<ha>kewe=nųnįge
<1E.A>be.afraid=nevertheless
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
nee
1EMPH
waruc
food
hok'ų
give
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘I was scared, but I made myself feed the dog.’
LIKE gipį M
(354)
šųųk=ąąkre
dog=POS.HOR:PROX
wa-ha-gipį
OBJ.3PL-1E.A-like
‘I like these dogs.’
MEET hikipa N
(362)
nąągu-xete-eeja
road-be.big-there
wa-hi<ha>kipa
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>meet
‘I met them on the road.’
(692)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
mąąs
axe
hi<ha>kipa
<1E.A>meet
‘I hit myself with the axe / I met with an axe.’
FOLLOW ruxe R
(367)
nį-tuuxe-kjene
2.U-chase\1E.A-FUT
‘I'll follow you.’

(368)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxe-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-chase-POT
‘Can you follow/chase my dog (for me)?’
(369)
caa=ra
deer=DEF
nųųp
two
ha-guuc=ra
1E.A-shoot=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruxe-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-chase-POT
‘I shot two deer, can you chase them down for me?’
HELP gijire M
(380)
nįį-gijite-ną
1&2-help\1E.A-POT
‘Can I help you?’
BURN taa'e M
(388)
nąąxawa=ra
log=DEF
heejąga
now
taa'e-ire
blaze.up-SBJ.3PL
‘The logs are burning.’
(389)
nąąju=ra
head.hair=DEF
taa<nį>'e-'e=nąk
<2.U>blaze.up-RDP=POS.NTL
‘Your hair is on fire.’
LAUGH hikša N
(391)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hikša=nąąk=šąną
laugh/smile=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The children are laughing.’
(393)
hinųk-nįk=ra
woman-DIM=DEF
hokikjąp
mirror
nąąžį-anąga
stand-and
hikša=jee
laugh/smile=POS.VERT
‘The little girl is standing in front of the mirror smiling.’
BE DRY wuus M
(395)
xuu=ra
skin=DEF
hį-wuus-xjį
1E.U-be.dry-INTS
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My skin is dry.’
(906)
nąąp=ra
hand=DEF
hį-wuus-ire=gįnį
1E.U-be.dry-SBJ.3PL=already
‘My hands are dry already.’
nąą'ap=ra
leaf=DEF
wuus-ire=ra
be.dry-SBJ.3PL=DEF
xjuuxjuk-ire
be.crumbly-SBJ.3PL
‘The dry leaves are crispy/crumbly (=fragile).’
BE ILL howaža M
(398)
ho<hį>waža
<1E.U>be.sick
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
/
/
hopaža
be.sick\1E.A
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘I've been sick for a while.’
(399)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
howaža
be.sick
‘My son is sick.’
BE SAD horuš'ak N
(404)
hotuš'ak=nąk
be.lonesome\1E.A=POS.NTL
‘I'm sad.’
FEEL PAIN teek M
(407)
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
hį-teek=nąk
1E.U-ache=POS.NTL
‘My head is hurting.’
(408)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
nį-teek-ire
2.U-ache-SBJ.3PL
‘Are your legs hurting?’
(925)
xjąnąre
yesterday
waǧįǧį
ball
ųųreehi=ra
throw=DEF
aa=ra
arm=DEF
gi-teek-še
APPL.BEN-ache-QUOT
ee-jee
say-POS.VERT
‘He pitched last night, now he's saying his arm is hurting.’
HUG nąąt'ųp M
(411)
hį-xųnų=regi
1E.U-be.small=SIM/LOC
x'ooke
parents
wa-haa=ra
OBJ.3PL-have.kin\1E.A=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp-ire=šųnų
<1E.U>hug-SBJ.3PL=HAB
‘When I was little my parents used to hug me.’
(412)
hocįcį
boy
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<hį>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.U>hug=DECL
‘Your boy hugged me.’
(413)
hocįcį-nįk
boy-DIM
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
nąą<ha>t'ųp=šąną
<1E.A>hug=DECL
‘I hugged your little boy.’
SEARCH FOR honį R
(419)
ho<hį-ra>nį-ra=jee
<1E.U-2.A>search-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Are you looking for me?’
(421)
keewaxgu_waamįnąk
mushroom
hoxatap-eeja
woods-there
ho<ha>nį
<1E.A>search
‘I'm looking for mushrooms in the woods.’
(937)
howe
go.about
ho<hį>nį-re
<1E.U>search-IMP
‘Search for me!’

(420)
wiiruhas=ra
key=DEF
wa-ho<hį-ra-gi>nį-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>search-POT
‘Can you look for my keys for me?’
(936)
waguje=ra
shoe=DEF
wa-ho<hį-gi>nį-re
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>search-IMP
‘Look for my shoes!’
(941)
hiraati-ceek=ra
car-be.new=DEF
hižą
one
hinįk
son
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
ho<gi-kara>nį
<APPL.BEN-POSS.RFL>search
nįhe
be/PROG
‘He is looking for a new car for his son.’
THINK wewį R
(423)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
peewį-ha=jee
think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A-1E.A=POS.VERT
‘I'm thinking about my son.’

(424)
žee
that
ha-gi-peewį
1E.A-APPL.BEN-think.about(OBJ.3SG)\1E.A
‘I was thinking about this for him (= I'm thinking about how he's going to do it).’
EAT ruuc R
(432)
kšee=nąkre
apple=POS.NTL:PROX
raac-i-kjene
eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat this apple?’
(433)
kšee=nąąkre
apple=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
hanąąc
all
wa-raac-i-kjene
OBJ.3PL-eat\2.A-0-FUT
‘Are you going to eat all of these apples?’

(435)
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hisge
some
hį-ra-gi-raac-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-eat\2.A-POT
‘Can you eat some of my meat?’
CRY ǧaak R
(456)
šųųk=ra
dog=DEF
hį-gi-t'ee=ra
1E.U-APPL.BEN-die=DEF
ha-ǧaak=šąną
1E.A-cry=DECL
‘When my dog died I cried.’
(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’

(457)
ǧaak=nąk-ge
cry=POS.NTL-CAUSAL
nįįšge
also
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘That person was crying so I cried with them.’
(458)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
nįge
somewhere
howare=ra
go.forward=DEF
ha-kunųnį=ra
1E.A-miss=DEF
ha-gi-ǧaak
1E.A-APPL.BEN-cry
‘I cried for my Kunu when he went traveling, I missed him.’
RAIN nįįžu N
(459)
haramehi
week
hį-jiihu-wi-re-eeja
1E.U-come.through-PL-ANT-there
nįįžu
rain
nįhe
be/PROG
‘It was raining last week.’
FALL šiipre M
(464)
nąą-ho<ha>ti-gają
tree-<1E.A>climb-SEQ
hį-šiipre
1E.U-fall
‘When I climbed a tree, I fell.’
FALL bookewe N
(469)
jaasge-gają
how-SEQ
boo<ra>kewe
<2.A>trip/fall
‘What happened, did you trip / how did you do that, did you trip?’
APPEAR haǧep R
(473)
eeja
there
caa
deer
hižą
one
haǧep
appear
jiinąk
become
‘There a deer appeared.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

(475)
xąąwįoxere
flower
hožu=ra
put.in=DEF
eeja
there
ha<gi>ǧep=šąną
<APPL.BEN>appear=DECL
‘The flower he planted, it appeared for him.’
WASH ruža R
(477)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-tuuža
OBJ.3PL-wash\1E.A
‘I washed all the cars.’

(478)
wažątire=ra
car=DEF
hį-ra-gi-šu-ruža-ną
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-wash-POT
‘Can you wash my car?’
(479)
waasge=ra
dish=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-ruža-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-wash-POT
‘Can you wash the dishes for me?’
COUGH hooxiwi N
(499)
ho<hį>waža=regi
<1E.U>be.sick=SIM/LOC
hoo<ha>xiwi
<1E.A>cough
ha-nįhe
1E.A-be/PROG
‘When I was sick I coughed a lot.’
(500)
paa_hiruǧįk
handkerchief
rook-eeja
inside-there
ho-hooxiwi-re
APPL.INESS-cough-IMP
‘Cough into the handkerchief.’
CLIMB hoti R
(503)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
ho<ra>ti
<2.A>climb
‘Did you climb the fence?’
(504)
nąą
tree
ho<ha>ti
<1E.A>climb
ha-hii
1E.A-arrive.there
nąą-hoti
tree-climb
ha-hii-wi
1E.A-arrive.there-PL
‘I went tree climbing, we went tree climbing.’
(505)
nąą-xete
tree-be.big
jeega
POS.VERT:DIST
ho<ha>ti-kjene
<1E.A>climb-FUT
‘I'm going to climb that big tree.’

(506)
nįįkjąk=nąąka
child=POS.NTL.PL:DIST
nąą=ra
tree=DEF
ho<hį-gi>ti=nąąk=šąną
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>climb=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘The kids are climbing my tree.’
(507)
nąą=jeega
tree=POS.VERT:DIST
ho<hį-gi>ti-anąga
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>climb-and
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
hį-hagure-re
1E.U-go.after-IMP
‘Go climb that tree for me (/ my tree) and get my cat.’
RUN nųųwąk M
(512)
saagre
be.fast
nųų<ra>wąk-ną
<2.A>run-POT
‘Can you run fast?’
JUMP t'ąą(t'ą)p R
(519)
wažą-hižą
something-one
nąą<ha>xgų=ra
<1E.A>hear=DEF
ha-t'ąąp
1E.A-jump
ha-jikere
1E.A-do.suddenly
‘I heard something and I jumped.’

(520)
hicooke
grandfather
raa-ga
have.kin\2.A-PROP
nąąwą=nąk=šąną
sing=POS.NTL=DECL
gi-t'ąą<t'ą>p-re
APPL.BEN-<RDP:ITER>jump-IMP
‘Your grandpa is singing, jump for him.’
(522)
nąąwacak=ra
fence=DEF
hį-ra-gi-t'ąąp
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-jump
‘Did you jump (over) my fence?’
SING nąąwą R
(529)
jaagu'ų
why
nąąwą
song
te'e
this
nąą<ra>wą-ša=nąk
<2.A>sing(OBJ.3SG)-2.A=POS.NTL
‘Why are you singing this song ?’

(530)
nąą<hį-ra-gi-ra>wą-kjene
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A>sing-FUT
‘Will you sing for me?’
(531)
nąąwą=ra
song=DEF
nąą<hį-gi>wą=nąąk=šąną
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>sing=POS.NTL.PL=DECL
‘They are singing my song.’
TIE rusgic R
(546)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-šu-rusgic
OBJ.3PL-2.A-tie
‘Did you tie the shoe laces?’
(550)
waginą
rope
haare
be.rotten
hi'ų-anąga
use-and
šu-rusgic
2.A-tie
‘Did you tie it with a rotten rope?’
nąąksik=ra
stick=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-rusgi<sgi>c-ire=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<RDP>tie-SBJ.3PL=already
‘They tied up all the sticks already.’

(548)
waguje_siką=ra
shoelace=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-šu-rusgic-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-tie-POT
‘Can you tie my shoelaces?’
(881)
žuura=ra
money=DEF
hanąąc
all
hį-gi-ruus-ire
1E.U-APPL.BEN-take-SBJ.3PL
‘They took all my money.’
GIVE hok'ų N
(559)
xąąwįoxere=ra
flower=DEF
wa-ho<hį>k'ų-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U>give-SBJ.3PL
‘They gave the flowers to me.’
SEND no direct counterpart N
FRIGHTEN nąąǧire hii R
(117)
nąąǧire
be.scared
wįį-ire=ra
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ii<ha>janįk
<1E.A>scream
‘They scared me and I screamed.’
(474)
haǧep
appear
ra-kirinąk-gają
2.A-land.on.spot-SEQ
nąąǧire
be.scared
hį-raa
1E.U-make/CAUS\2.A
‘When you appeared all of a sudden you scared me!’

(569)
hokiza-ija
war-there
howare=ra
go.forward=DEF
nąą<ha-gi>ǧite
<1E.A-APPL.BEN>be.scared\1E.A
‘He went to war, so I was afraid for him.’
HEAR nąąxgų M
(576)
tee
this
nąą<ra>xgų
<2.A>hear
‘Did you hear this?’
(577)
cąąk-eeja
outside-there
wanįk=ra
bird=DEF
wa-nąą<ha>xgų=nąk=šąną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A>hear=POS.NTL=DECL
‘I'm listening to the birds outside/I am hearing the birds outside.’
(579)
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
jaagu
what
hihe=ra
say\1E.A=DEF
‘Did you hear what I said?’
LIVE cii M
(600)
ciinąk-regi
village-SIM/LOC
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Are you living in town here?’
ceex-eja
swamp-there
ra-cii-ra-jee
2.A-live-2.A-POS.VERT
‘Do you you live on the swamp?’
WANT roogų R
(611)
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ra>gų
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>want
‘Do you want these pictures?’
(622)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąkikara
hunt
roogų
want
‘Hinu wants to go hunting.’

(612)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
hokiwagax=nąąkre
picture=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
wa-roo<ha-gi>gų
OBJ.3PL-<1E.A-APPL.BEN>want
‘I want these pictures for my son / I want these pictures of my son.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
FEEL COLD taasak M
(623)
goišip
always
taa<hį>sak=šąną
<1E.U>feel.cold=DECL
‘I'm cold all the time.’
DIE t'ee M
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
t'ee
die
‘The cat died.’
BE HUNGRY tookewehi M
(631)
hąąhe-re
night-ANT
too<hį>kewehi-xjį
<1E.U>be.hungry-INTS
‘Last night I was real hungry.’
(632)
wijuk
cat
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
tookewehi
be.hungry
wa'ų=nąk
do/be=POS.NTL
‘My cat is hungry.’
GO no direct counterpart N
(635)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
ciinąk=ra
village=DEF
howare
go.forward
‘Hinu is going to town.’
(636)
gaaga
grandmother
ee=ra
3EMPH=DEF
hoci=ra
house=DEF
howate-kjene
go.forward\1E.A-FUT
‘I'm going to grandma's home.’
BUILD ųų R
(637)
rook_hožu=nąąkre
pie=POS.NTL.PL:PROX
nee
2EMPH
wa-š-ųų
OBJ.3PL-2.A-do/make
‘Did you make these pies?’
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
nąąparas
board
hi'ų
use
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house with boards.’

(638)
rookhožu=ra
pie=DEF
hižą
one
hį-ra-gi-š-ųų-kjene
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-do/make-FUT
‘Are you going to make me a pie?’
hinįk
son
hii=ra
have.kin=DEF
mąącgu-serec
bow-be.long
hižą
one
kara-gi-ųų-kjene
POSS.RFL-APPL.BEN-do/make-FUT
ee
say
‘He said he is going to make a longbow for his son.’
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-gi-ųų
1E.A-APPL.BEN-do/make
‘I made a house for him.’
LOAD hožu R
(645)
wiiraruti=ra
trailer=DEF
kšee
apple
ho<ha>žu
<1E.A>put.in
‘I loaded apples on the trailer.’

(646)
wiiraruti-eja
trailer-there
kšee
apple
ho<hį-gi>žu-ire
<1E.U-APPL.BEN>put.in-SBJ.3PL
‘They put apples for me on the trailer.’
(648)
waaruc
table
hihak-eja
on.top-there
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-žuu-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-put-POT
‘Can you put the apples on the table for me?’
kšee=ra
apple=DEF
hanąąc
all
wa-ho<hį-gi>žu-ire
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>put.in-SBJ.3PL
‘They put apples for me on the trailer.’
BREAK gišiš R
(657)
nąąksik
stick
eegi
here
wa<ha>žu=ra
<1E.A>put.away=DEF
nee
2EMPH
wa-ra-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-break
‘I put some sticks here, did you break them?’
(671)
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’

(658)
nąą=ra
tree=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-gišiš-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-break-POT
‘Can you break my sticks for me?’
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hikinų
accidentally
wiišgac=ra
toy=DEF
wa-ra-kara-gi-gišiš
OBJ.3PL-2.A-POSS.RFL-APPL.BEN-break
‘Did you accidentally break your Kunu's toy?’
huu=ra
leg=DEF
hį-ra-gi-gišiš-gųnį
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-break-DUB
hi<ha>re
<1E.A>think
‘I think you broke my leg.’
SHOW waha R
(674)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š'-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-ša-waha
OBJ.3PL-2.A-show
‘The moccasins you made, did you show them?’

(675)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
š-ųų=ra
2.A-do/make=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waha-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-show-POT
‘Can you show me the moccasins you made?’
(676)
caaha
deerhide
waguje
moccasin
ha<šį>nį=ra
<2.A>have.NTL=DEF
wa-hį-ra-gi-ša-waha-ną
OBJ.3PL-1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-2.A-show-POT
‘Can you shoe me your moccasins?’
(894)
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
wiišgac
toy
ceek=ra
be.new=DEF
hazohi
be.calm
ha-gi-paaha-gają
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A-SEQ
gipį
like
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When I showed the new toy to my son carefully, I made him like it.’
hinįk
son
haa=ra
have.kin\1E.A=DEF
wiišgac
toy
ceek=ra
be.new=DEF
haizo
be.careful
ha-gi-paaha-gają
1E.A-APPL.BEN-show\1E.A-SEQ
gipį
like
ha-karagi
1E.A-cause.own
‘When I showed the new toy to my son carefully, I made him like it.’
HIT hapa M
(684)
jaagu'ų
why
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
(685)
jaagu'ų
why
aa=regi
arm=SIM/LOC
ha<hį-ra>pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit my arm?’
(698)
hokawas
be.dark
rook-eeja
inside-there
ha<hį-ra>pa-pa
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘In the dark did you beat me (i.e. why did you hit me in the dark)?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
ha<ra>pa
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’
BEAT hojį R
(699)
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį-jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit-RDP:ITER
‘Why did you beat me?’
jaagu'ų
why
ho<hį-ra>jį
<1E.U-2.A>hit
‘Why did you hit me?’
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
nąąsu-eja
head-there
ho<ra>jį
<2.A>hit
‘Did you hit Hinu on the head?’

(700)
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
Heeną-ga
second.son-PROP
hįįnec=ra
shoulder=DEF
ho<gi>jį
<APPL.BEN>hit
‘Kunu struck Heena on the shoulder.’
(701)
cii_woomįš=ra
rug=DEF
ho<hį-ra-gi>jį-ną
<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>hit-POT
‘Can you beat the rug for me?’
BRING hanį jii R
(719)
rook_hožu=ra
pie=DEF
eegi
here
hanį
have.NTL
jii-re
arrive.here-IMP
‘Bring that pie in here!’

(720)
mąąs_hišjasu=ra
glasses=DEF
wa-ha<hį-gi>nį
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-APPL.BEN>have.NTL
huu-re
come.here-IMP
‘Bring me my glasses.’
GET harucap M
wooki'ų-eeja
casino-there
wiirokų
tool
wooga-ire=ra
give.away-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-hatucap-šąną
OBJ.3PL-grab\1E.A-DECL
‘At the casino they gave away tools, I got them.’
PLAY šgaac N
(736)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
hanąąc
all
hąąp-serec
day-be.long
šgaac-ire
play-SBJ.3PL
eesge
that's.why
hįįcge-ire
be.tired-SBJ.3PL
‘All the children played all day long, that's why they are all tired.’
(843)
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
šųųkxete
horse
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
ha-kiki-mįįnąk
APPL.SUPESS-RCP-sit
šgaac=nąąk-šąną
play=POS.NTL.PL-DECL
‘The children were playing horse and they rode on each other.’
waagaxhajahoci-eeja
school.house-there
hegų_jaagu
whatever
šgaac-ire=ra
play-SBJ.3PL=DEF
Kųnų-ga
first.son-PROP
hanąąc
all
wa-šgaac
OBJ.3PL-play
ruxuruk
accomplish
wa'ų-jee
do/be-POS.VERT
‘What they play at school, whatever, Kunu can play them all.’
waǧįǧį_nąąxjak
football
ha-šgaac=ra
1E.A-play=DEF
nąąsu-eja
head-there
hį-jiinąk-ire=ra
1E.U-run.into-SBJ.3PL=DEF
nąąsu=ra
head=DEF
teek
ache
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘I was playing football and got bumped in the head, they made my head hurt.’
GET DRESSED hikikoroho N
hi<ra>kikoroho-wi=gįnį
<2.A>get.dressed-PL=already
‘Did you all get dressed already?’
SHOUT AT wąą (rehii) R
(118)
jaagu'ų
why
ra-wąą-wą-ra=jee
2.A-holler-RDP:INTS-2.A=POS.VERT
‘Why are you screaming, talking real loud, hollering?’

s'ii
long.time
nį-gi-wąą
2.U-APPL.BEN-holler
rehaa
do.quickly\1E.A
heejąga
now
nąą<hį-ra>xgų
<1E.U-2.A>hear
‘I've been hollering for you for a while, did you finally just hear me?’
hį-ra-gi-wąą=ra
1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN-holler=DEF
higųąną
right.away
nąą<nįį>xgų
<1&2>hear
‘When you hollered for me, I heard you right away.’
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gi-wąą-rehii
OBJ.3PL-APPL.BEN-holler-do.quickly
hį-gigi-ire
1E.U-let/cause-SBJ.3PL
‘The had me holler for the kids.’
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
s'ii
long.time
xawanį
disappear
nųnįge
nevertheless
nąągu-aak-eja
road-POS.HOR-there
žige
again
gi-wąą
APPL.BEN-holler
ha-kįį
1E.A-make.self
‘The cat was gone for a long time so I made myself holler for it again in the road.’
nįįkjąk=ra
child=DEF
nee
1EMPH
wa-gi-wąą-rehii
OBJ.3PL-APPL.BEN-holler-do.quickly
wįį-ire
make/CAUS\1E.U-SBJ.3PL
‘The had me holler for the kids.’
wijuk=ra
cat=DEF
s'ii
long.time
xawanį
disappear
nųnįge
nevertheless
nąągu-aak-eja
road-POS.HOR-there
žige
again
ha-gi-wąą
1E.A-APPL.BEN-holler
‘The cat was gone for a long time so I hollered for it again in the road.’
SMELL horupąną M
hųųc=ra
bear=DEF
hocįcį=ra
boy=DEF
keenį
ANT.IN
haja-nį
see-ANT.FIN
horupąną
smell
‘The bear couldn't see the boy yet, but he smelled it.’
wanį=ra
meat=DEF
hanąąc
all
t'eek-ire=ra
be.rotten-SBJ.3PL=DEF
higųąną
right.away
wa-hotupąną
OBJ.3PL-smell\1E.A
‘When all the meat rotted, I smelled it right away.’
BUILD no direct counterpart N
cii
house
hižą
one
ha-ųų
1E.A-do/make
‘I made a house.’
LEAVE no direct counterpart N
BEAT hirojį R
wašjįk-įk=ra
rabbit-DIM=DEF
iinį
stone
hiro<ha>jį
<1E.A>throw
‘I threw a stone at the rabbit / I hit the rabbit with a stone.’

(703)
Hinų-ga
first.daughter-PROP
Wiihą-ga
second.daughter-PROP
cii_woomįš
rug
ee
3EMPH
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąąksik
stick
hi-ho<gi>jį
APPL.INST-<APPL.BEN>hit
‘Hinu beat his rug with a stick.’
waką-įk
snake-DIM
hanį=ra
have.NTL=DEF
nąąksik
stick
hi-ho<hį-ra-gi>jį
APPL.INST-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>hit
‘Did you beat my snake with a stick?’
GRIND mąąxjuk R
huuc
acorn
mąąxjuk
grind
nį-šii-ire=ra
2.U-tell.to.do-SBJ.3PL=DEF
wa-mąą<ra>xjuk=gįnį
OBJ.3PL-<2.A>grind=already
‘They told you to grind up the acorns have you ground them already?’

huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi>xjuk-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>grind-POT
‘Can you grind my acorns for me?’
huuc=ra
acorn=DEF
wasgehoruža-ija
kitchen.sink-there
wa-mąą<hį-ra-gi>xjuk-ną
OBJ.3PL-<1E.U-2.A-APPL.BEN>grind-POT
‘You can grind my acorns by the sink.’
DRESS no direct counterpart N
x'ooke
parents
wa-raa-ga
OBJ.3PL-make/CAUS\2.A-PROP
ee
3EMPH
hikikoroho
get.dressed
nįį-ire
make/CAUS\2.U-SBJ.3PL
‘Did your parents dress you (e.g. at the powwow)?’