Examples of Evenki

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Beje tar kuŋakanme hullat dastan.
beje
man
tar
that
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
hulla-t
blanket-INSTR
das-ta-n
cover-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(2)
Beje stakanma muut d’alupkiran.
beje
man
stakan-ma
glass-ACC
muu-t
water-INSTR
d’alupki-ra-n
fill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man filled the glass with water .’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(3)
Beje oroktovo iruktavundu tevren.
beje
man
orokto-vo
hay-ACC
iruktavun-du
cart-DAT
tev-re-n
load-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man loaded the hay on the cart.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(4)
Beje morinma moodu uiren.
beje
man
morin-ma
horse-ACC
moo-du
tree-DAT
ui-re-n
tie-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(5)
Beje muuve tygedu uŋkuren.
beje
man
muu-ve
water-ACC
tyge-du
bowel-DAT
uŋku-re-n
pour-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(6)
Beje knigava ostoldu neeren.
beje
man
kniga-va
book-ACC
ostol-du
table-DAT
nee-re-n
put-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(7)
Bejetken d’olovo okoshkoli nodaaren.
bejetken
boy
d’olo-vo
stone-ACC
okoshko-li
window-PROL
nodaa-re-n
throw-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(8)
Bejetken knigava alagumnidu emevren.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
eme-v-re-n
come-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(9)
Bejetken knigava alagumnila / tatkittula ŋenevd’ečen.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ŋene-v-d’eče-n
go-CAUS-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy carried the book to the teacher / to school.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(10)
Bejetken knigava alagumnila / tatkittula ungčen.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ung-če-n
send-AOR-3SG
‘The boy sent the book to the teacher/to school.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(11)
Bejetken knigava alagumnidu buuren.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
buu-re-n
give-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(12)
Bejetken knigava alagumnidu ičevkenen.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
iče-vken-e-n
see-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(13)
Bejetken knigava alagumniduk garan.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
ga-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy got the book from the teacher.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(14)
Bejetken knigava alagumniduk d’oromoron.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’oromo-ro-n
steal-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(15)
Bejetken knigava alagumniduk d’ajaran.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’aja-ra-n
hide-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(16)
Bejetken knigaduk stranitsava etytten.
bejetken
boy
kniga-duk
book-ABL
stranitsa-va
page-ACC
etyt-te-n
tear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(17)
Bejetken tetygeduk n’aŋn’ava tesiren.
bejetken
boy
tetyge-duk
cloth-ABL
n’aŋn’a-va
dirt-ACC
tesi-re-n
wipe-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy wiped the dirt from the cloth.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(18)
Bejetken kolobovo purtat mineren.
bejetken
boy
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
purta-t
knife-INSTR
mine-re-n
cut-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(19)
Bejetken kulinma mokandi ilečečen.
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ileče-če-n
touch-AOR-3SG
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick .’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(20)
Bejetken kulinma mokandi ikteren.
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ikte-re-n
hit-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick .’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(21)
Bejetken kulinma mokandi iktud’ečen.
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
iktu-d’eče-n
beat-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(22)
Bejetken kulinma mokandi vaaren.
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
vaa-re-n
kill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(23)
Bejetken oknovo d’olot sukčaran.
bejetken
boy
okno-vo
window-ACC
d’olo-t
stone-INSTR
sukča-ra-n
break-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(24)
Beje d’uuva mooduk ooran.
beje
man
d’uu-va
house-ACC
moo-duk
wood-ABL
oo-ra-n
make-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man built the house of timber.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(25)
Beje bejetkenme dulbundi gerbitten (gerbičen).
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
dulbun-di
fool-INSTR
gerbit-te-n
call-NONFUT-3SG
(gerbi-če-n)
(call-AOR-3SG)
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(26)
Beje bejetkendu ted’eve guunen.
beje
man
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ted’e-ve
truth-ACC
guun-e-n
say-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man said truth to the boy.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(27)
Beje bejetkentyki tepkeren.
beje
man
bejetken-tyki
boy-ALL
tepke-re-n
shout-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man shouted to the boy.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-all V
(28)
Beje ulgurve bejetkendu ulgučenen.
beje
man
ulgur-ve
story-ACC
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ulgučen-e-n
tell-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(29)
Bejetken bejeve ejetčen meŋurve buuden.
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ejet-če-n
ask-AOR-3SG
meŋur-ve
money-ACC
buu-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(30)
Beje bejetkennun agili ulgučemetten.
beje
man
bejetken-nun
boy-COMIT
agi-li
taiga-PROL
ulguče-met-te-n
talk-RECIPR-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man talked to the boy about the taiga.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-prol 3-com V
(31)
Beje tar bejetkenme saačan.
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
saa-ča-n
know-AOR-3SG
‘The man knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(32)
Beje bejetkenme ičeren.
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
iče-re-n
see-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man saw the boy.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(33)
Beje bejetkenme ičetten.
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ičet-te-n
look.at-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(34)
Beje bejetkenme ŋeelevkenen.
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋeele-vken-e-n
fear-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(35)
Bejetken bejeduk ŋeeletčečen.
bejetken
boy
beje-duk
man-ABL
ŋeelet-čeče-n
fear-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(36)
Bejetken bejeve ajavd’ačan.
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ajav-d’ača-n
like-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(37)
Beje bejetkenme gelekted’ečen.
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
gelekte-d’eče-n
look.for-IPFV-3SG
‘The man searched for the boy .’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(38)
Beje hunatpa arčaran.
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
arča-ra-n
meet-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man met the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(39)
Beje hunatpa bodod’očon.
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
bodo-d’očo-n
follow-IPFV-3SG
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(40)
Beje hunattu beleren.
beje
man
hunat-tu
girl-DAT
bele-re-n
help-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man helped the girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(41)
Beje kolobovo d’epten.
beje
man
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
d’ep-te-n
eat-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(42)
Beje kuŋakanme tetyvren.
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
tet-yv-re-n
dress-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(43)
Beje kuŋakanme avran.
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
av-ra-n
wash-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(44)
Beje simkitčan.
beje
man
simkit-ča-n
cough-AOR-3SG
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(45)
Beje urele tuktyren.
beje
man
ure-le
mountain-LOC
tukty-re-n
climb-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(46)
Beje dunnedu tegeren.
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-re-n
sit.down-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(47)
Beje dunnedu tegetčečen.
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-t-čeče-n
sit-PROC-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat (= was sitting) (on the floor).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(48)
Kuŋakan agili tuksad’aran.
kuŋakan
child
agi-li
taiga-PROL
tuksa-d’ara-n
run-PRES-3SG
‘The child is running in the forest.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-prol V
(49)
Kuŋakan poldula mikčanen.
kuŋakan
child
pol-dula
floor-LOC
mikčan-e-n
jump-NONFUT-3SG
‘The child jumped on the floor.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(50)
Bejetken ikenme iked’ečen.
bejetken
boy
iken-me
song-ACC
ike-d’eče-n
sing-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(51)
Bejetken gulesegdu bid’ečen.
bejetken
boy
guleseg-du
village-DAT
bi-d’eče-n
be-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy lived (in the village).’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(52)
Bejetken hoktodu ičevullen.
bejetken
boy
hokto-du
road-DAT
iče-vu-l-le-n
see-PASS-INCEP-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy appeared on the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-dat V
(53)
Ŋalev enuud’eren.
Ŋale-v
arm-1SG.POSS
enuu-d’ere-n
ache-PRES-3SG
‘My arm hurts (me).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(54)
Beje bučen.
beje
man
bu-če-n
die-AOR-3SG
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(55)
Beje dunnele bururen.
beje
man
dunne-le
ground-LOC
buru-re-n
fall-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man fell (on the ground).’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(56)
Bejetken doŋotoron.
bejetken
boy
doŋoto-ro-n
freeze-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy froze.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(57)
Bejetken d’emmud’ečen.
bejetken
boy
d’em-mu-d’eče-n
eat-want-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(58)
(Udun) udund’ečen.
(udun)
(rain)
udun-d’eče-n
rain-IPFV-3SG
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(59)
Bejetken gulesegduk sururen.
bejetken
boy
guleseg-duk
village-ABL
suru-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy went (from the village).’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(60)
Eni hutevi kumleren.
eni
mother
hute-vi
child-REFL.POSS
kumle-re-n
hug-NONFUT-3SG
‘The mother hugged her child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(61)
Homooty bejetkenme ŋosiktačan.
homooty
bear
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋosikta-ča-n
smell-AOR-3SG
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(62)
Asatken tynive en’ekelivi d’aldad’ečen.
asatken
girl
tynive
yesterday
en’eke-li-vi
grandmother-PROL-REFL.POSS
d’alda-d’eče-n
think-IPFV-3SG
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-prol V
(63)
Beje gurgaktavi husčaran.
beje
man
gurgakta-vi
beard-REFL.POSS
husča-ra-n
shave-NONFUT-3SG
‘‘The man shave his beard’.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(64)
Bejetken knigava alagumniduk d’avaran.
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’ava-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy took the book from the teacher.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(65)
Bejetken mookanduk uldaksava ilečen.
bejetken
boy
mookan-duk
stick-ABL
uldaksa-va
bark-ACC
ile-če-n
peel-AOR-3SG
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(66)
Bi sarimusinim.
bi
1SG
sarimu-sin-i-m
blink-SEMELF-NONFUT-1SG
‘I blinked (my eyes).’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(67)
Asi unijekittule ŋeneren.
asi
woman
unijekit-tule
market-LOC
ŋene-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The woman went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(68)
Asatken in’ektellen.
asatken
girl
in’ekte-l-le-n
laugh-INCH-NONFUT-3SG
‘The girl laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(69)
Beje tepkeren.
beje
man
tepke-re-n
scream-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man screamed.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(70)
Kuŋakan evid’eren.
kuŋakan
child
evi-d’ere-n
play-PRES-3SG
‘‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(71)
Asatkan merged’ečen.
asatkan
girl
merge-d’eče-n
be.sad-IPFV-3SG
‘‘The girl was sad’.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(72)
Mjač sirund’eren.
mjač
ball
sirun-d’ere-n
roll-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ball is rolling’.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(73)
D’av eječen.
d’av
boat
eje-če-n
sink-AOR-3SG
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(74)
D’u d’egded’eren.
d’u
house
d’egde-d’ere-n
burn-PRES-3SG
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(75)
Dunne olgokin bisin.
dunne
ground
olgokin
dry
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ground is dry’.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(76)
Tar beje bejumimni bisin.
tar
that
beje
man
bejumimni
hunter
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(77)
Asal čunmilve duktevundu dukteŋkit dukted’ečetyn.
asa-l
woman-PL
čunmi-l-ve
seed-PL-ACC
duktevun-du
mortar-DAT
dukteŋki-t
pestle-INSTR
dukte-d’eče-tyn
grind-IPFV-3PL
‘The women ground the seeds with mortar and pestle.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-instr V
(78)
Asi kartoshkava uleed’eren.
asi
woman
kartoshka-va
potatoes-ACC
ulee-d’ere-n
dig-PRES-3SG
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(79)
Bejetken asatkanma muule anaran.
bejetken
boy
asatkan-ma
girl-ACC
muu-le
water-LOC
ana-ra-n
push-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-loc V
(80)
Atyrkan asatkanme davlavundu alagud’ačan.
atyrkan
old.woman
asatkan-me
girl-ACC
davlavun-du
song-DAT
alagu-d’ača-n
teach-IPFV-3SG
‘The old lady taught the girl a song.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-dat V
(81)
Bejetken homootyva doldyran.
bejetken
boy
homooty-va
bear-ACC
doldy-ra-n
hear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy heard the bear.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(82)
Asal ulleve iriireØ.
asa-l
woman-PL
ulle-ve
meat-ACC
irii-re-Ø
cook-NONFUT-3PL
‘The women cooked the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(83)
Muu hujud’eren.
muu
water
huju-d’ere-n
boil-PRES-3SG
‘The water is boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(84)
Beje hunatpa asilačan.
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
asila-ča-n
marry-AOR-3SG
‘The man married the girl.’
MARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(85)
Beje tar bejetkenme d’ončad’ačan.
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
d’onča-d’ača-n
remember-IPFV-3SG
‘The man remembered the boy.’
REMEMBER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(86)
Beje oronmo bejukted’ečen.
beje
man
oron-mo
deer-ACC
bejukte-d’eče-n
hunt-IPFV-3SG
‘The man hunted for deer.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(87)
Bejetken gulesegdule emeren.
bejetken
boy
guleseg-dule
village-LOC
eme-re-n
come-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy came (to the village).’
COME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-loc V
(88)
Bi udunmum.
bi
1SG
udun-mu-Ø-m
rain-PASS-NFUT-1SG
‘I got soaked in the rain.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Adversative Passive
(89)
Hovoko nekunin suruvren Nirumnjaldu.
Hovoko
Hovoko
nekun-in
younger.brother-3SG.POSS
suru-v-re-n
go.away-PASS-NFUT-3SG
Nirumnja-l-du
Nirumnja-PL-DAT
‘Hovoko's younger brother was led away by the Nirumnjals.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Adversative Passive
(90)
Bejetken alagumniduk sovetja ejetčen.
bejetken
boy
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
sovetja
advice
ejet-če-n
ask-PAST-3SG
‘The boy asked the teacher for advice.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(91)
Bu bakačavun: kolobo d’oromovčo bičen.
bu
we
baka-ča-vun
find-PAST-1PL
kolobo
bread
d’oromo-v-čo
steal-PASS-PAST.PART
bi-če-n
be-PAST-3SG
‘We found out that the bread was stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Personal passive
(92)
D’un djagda sekteldin dasivča bičen.
d’u-n
house-3SG
djagda
pine_tree
sekte-l-di-n
branch-PL-INSTR-3SG
dasi-v-ča
cover-PASS-PART
bi-če-n
be-PAST-3SG
‘His/her house was covered with pine-tree branches.’
COVER an Alternation:
Personal passive
(93)
Nuŋartyn mindu soomat ajavuvčatyn.
nuŋartyn
3PL
min-du
1SG-DAT
soomat
very.much
ajavu-v-ča-tyn
love/like-PASS-PAST-3PL
‘I liked them very much.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Personal passive
(94)
Tar d’u d’egdyvren.
tar
that
d’u
house
d’egdy-v-re-n
burn-PASS-NONFUT-3SG
‘That house was/got burned.’
BURN an Alternation:
Personal passive
(95)
Nuŋanŋin ŋaalen soot vaapča bisin.
nuŋanŋin
3SG
ŋaale-n
hand-3SG
soot
very
vaa-p-ča
kill/hurt-PASS-PAST.PART
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘His hand was hurt very much.’
KILL an Alternation:
Decausative
(96)
D’av sukčavran.
d’av
boat
sukča-v-ra-n
break-DECAUS/PASS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boat broke (by itself; spontaneously).’
BREAK an Alternation:
Decausative
(97)
Uluki (hurkeken-du) vaavren.
uluki
squirrel
(hurkeken-du)
(boy-DAT)
vaa-v-re-n
kill-PASS-NFUT-3SG
‘The squirrel was killed (by the boy).’
KILL an Alternation:
Personal passive
(98)
Nuŋartyn (memegilver) vaamatte.
nuŋartyn
3PL
(memegilver)
(each.other)
vaa-mat-te-Ø
kill-RECIPR-NONFUT-3PL
‘They killed each other.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(99)
Taril bejel memegildukver ŋeelemetčere.
tar-il
that-PL
beje-l
man-PL
memegil<duk>ver
each.other<ABL>
ŋeele-met-čere-Ø
be_afraid-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘Those people are afraid of each other.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(100)
Nuŋan upkattuk ŋeelet-če-vki (ile) bisin.
nuŋan
3SG
upkat-tuk
all-ABL
ŋeelet-če-vki
fear-RESULT-HAB.PART
(ile)
(person)
bi-si-n.
be-PRES-3SG
‘He/she is always afraid of all other people.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Resultative
(101)
Bejetken berkenin d’udu d’ajučad’aran.
bejetken
boy
berken-in
bow-3SG.POSS
d’u-du
house-DAT
d’aju-ča-d’ara-n.
hide-RESULT-PRES-3SG
‘The boy's bow is hidden in the house.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Resultative
(102)
Butun muuli d’ukegečinduli sirunčed’eren.
butun
beetle
muu-li
water-PROL
d’uke-gečin-duli
ice-AS.IF-PROL
sirun-če-d’ere-n.
roll-RESULT-PRES-3SG
‘The beetle is moving on the (surface of the) water as if on ice.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Resultative
(103)
Nuŋartyn memegilduver d’ulvar oomatta.
nuŋartyn
they
memegil<du>ver
each.other<DAT>
d’u-l-var
house-PL-POSS
oo-mat-ta-Ø
make-RECIPR-NONFUT-3PL
‘They built houses for each other.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(104)
Taril bejel memegilnunmer guumetčere.
tar-il
that-PL
beje-l
man-PL
memegil<nun>mer
each.other<COMIT>
guu-met-čere-Ø
say-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘Those people are talking with each other.’
SAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(105)
Evenkil tykin lučadyldi gerbildi gerbitmetčere.
Evenki-l
Evenk-PL
tykin
now
lučady-l-di
Russian-PL-INSTR
gerbi-l-di
name-PL-INSTR
gerbit-met-čere-Ø
name-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘Evenks now call each other by Russian names.’
NAME an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(106)
Asal memegiltykiver tepkemetčere.
asa-l
woman-PL
memegil<tyki>ver
each.other<ALL>
tepke-met-čere-Ø
shout-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘The women are shouting at/to each other.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(107)
Asatkar ookinda memegilduver belemetčere.
asatka-r
girl-PL
ookin-da
always-?
memegil<du>ver
each.other<DAT>
bele-met-čere-Ø
help-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘The girls always help each other.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(108)
Bejetker memegilduliver d’aldamatčere.
bejetke-r
boy-PL
memegil<duli>ver
each.other<PROL>
d’alda-mat-čere-Ø
think-RECIPR-PRES-3PL
‘The boys are thinking of each other.’
THINK an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(109)
Bejetken bejeduk ejetčen meŋurve buuden.
bejetken
boy
beje-duk
man-ABL
ejet-če-n
ask-AOR-3SG
meŋur-ve
money-ACC
buu-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR the Verb form ejet-