Adversative Passive

Description

Derivatives with the passive suffix -v with a few weather verbs and a verb of motion suru- ‘go away/ leave’ denote that a human patient expressed by the subject is subject to a certain atmospheric phenomenon (or leaving the place) considered as adversative to this person.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
RAIN udun- M
(58)
(udun)
(rain)
udun-d’eče-n
rain-IPFV-3SG
‘It rained.’
BE HUNGRY d’em-mu- N
(57)
bejetken
boy
d’em-mu-d’eče-n
eat-want-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy was hungry.’
FEEL COLD doŋoto- M
(56)
bejetken
boy
doŋoto-ro-n
freeze-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy froze.’
FALL buru- N
(55)
beje
man
dunne-le
ground-LOC
buru-re-n
fall-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man fell (on the ground).’
DIE bu- N
(54)
beje
man
bu-če-n
die-AOR-3SG
‘The man died.’
FEEL PAIN enuu- N
(53)
Ŋale-v
arm-1SG.POSS
enuu-d’ere-n
ache-PRES-3SG
‘My arm hurts (me).’
APPEAR iče-vu-l- N
(52)
bejetken
boy
hokto-du
road-DAT
iče-vu-l-le-n
see-PASS-INCEP-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy appeared on the road.’
LIVE bi- N
(51)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-du
village-DAT
bi-d’eče-n
be-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy lived (in the village).’
SING ike- N
(50)
bejetken
boy
iken-me
song-ACC
ike-d’eče-n
sing-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy sang (a song).’
JUMP mikčan- N
(49)
kuŋakan
child
pol-dula
floor-LOC
mikčan-e-n
jump-NONFUT-3SG
‘The child jumped on the floor.’
RUN tuksa- N
(48)
kuŋakan
child
agi-li
taiga-PROL
tuksa-d’ara-n
run-PRES-3SG
‘The child is running in the forest.’
SIT tege-t- N
(47)
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-t-čeče-n
sit-PROC-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat (= was sitting) (on the floor).’
SIT DOWN tege- N
(46)
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-re-n
sit.down-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
CLIMB tukty- N
(45)
beje
man
ure-le
mountain-LOC
tukty-re-n
climb-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
COUGH simkit- N
(44)
beje
man
simkit-ča-n
cough-AOR-3SG
‘The man coughed.’
WASH av- N
(43)
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
av-ra-n
wash-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man washed the child.’
DRESS tet-yv-- N
(42)
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
tet-yv-re-n
dress-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man dressed the child.’
EAT d’ep- N
(41)
beje
man
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
d’ep-te-n
eat-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man ate the bread.’
HELP bele- N
(40)
beje
man
hunat-tu
girl-DAT
bele-re-n
help-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man helped the girl.’
FOLLOW bodo- N
(39)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
bodo-d’očo-n
follow-IPFV-3SG
‘The man followed the girl.’
MEET asila- (1) N
(38)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
arča-ra-n
meet-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man met the girl.’
SEARCH FOR gelekte- N
(37)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
gelekte-d’eče-n
look.for-IPFV-3SG
‘The man searched for the boy .’
LIKE ajav- N
(36)
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ajav-d’ača-n
like-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy liked the man.’
FEAR Ŋeelet- N
(35)
bejetken
boy
beje-duk
man-ABL
ŋeelet-čeče-n
fear-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy feared the man.’
FRIGHTEN ŋeele-vken- N
(34)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋeele-vken-e-n
fear-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man frightened the boy.’
LOOK AT ičet- N
(33)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ičet-te-n
look.at-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man looked at the boy.’
SEE iče- N
(32)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
iče-re-n
see-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man saw the boy.’
KNOW saa- N
(31)
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
saa-ča-n
know-AOR-3SG
‘The man knew the boy.’
TALK ulgučen- (2) N
(30)
beje
man
bejetken-nun
boy-COMIT
agi-li
taiga-PROL
ulguče-met-te-n
talk-RECIPR-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man talked to the boy about the taiga.’
ASK FOR ejet- N
(29)
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ejet-če-n
ask-AOR-3SG
meŋur-ve
money-ACC
buu-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
(90)
bejetken
boy
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
sovetja
advice
ejet-če-n
ask-PAST-3SG
‘The boy asked the teacher for advice.’
TELL ulgučen- (1) N
(28)
beje
man
ulgur-ve
story-ACC
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ulgučen-e-n
tell-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
SHOUT AT tepke- (1) N
(27)
beje
man
bejetken-tyki
boy-ALL
tepke-re-n
shout-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man shouted to the boy.’
SAY guun- N
(26)
beje
man
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ted’e-ve
truth-ACC
guun-e-n
say-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man said truth to the boy.’
NAME gerbit- N
(25)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
dulbun-di
fool-INSTR
gerbit-te-n
call-NONFUT-3SG
(gerbi-če-n)
(call-AOR-3SG)
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
BUILD oo- N
(24)
beje
man
d’uu-va
house-ACC
moo-duk
wood-ABL
oo-ra-n
make-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man built the house of timber.’
BREAK sukča- N
(23)
bejetken
boy
okno-vo
window-ACC
d’olo-t
stone-INSTR
sukča-ra-n
break-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
KILL vaa- M
(22)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
vaa-re-n
kill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
BEAT iktu- N
(21)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
iktu-d’eče-n
beat-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
HIT ikte- M
(20)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ikte-re-n
hit-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick .’
TOUCH Ileče- N
(19)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ileče-če-n
touch-AOR-3SG
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick .’
CUT mine- N
(18)
bejetken
boy
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
purta-t
knife-INSTR
mine-re-n
cut-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
WIPE tesi- N
(17)
bejetken
boy
tetyge-duk
cloth-ABL
n’aŋn’a-va
dirt-ACC
tesi-re-n
wipe-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy wiped the dirt from the cloth.’
TEAR etyt- N
(16)
bejetken
boy
kniga-duk
book-ABL
stranitsa-va
page-ACC
etyt-te-n
tear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
HIDE d’aja- N
(15)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’aja-ra-n
hide-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
STEAL d’oromo- M
(14)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’oromo-ro-n
steal-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
GET ga- N
(13)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
ga-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy got the book from the teacher.’
SHOW iče-vken- N
(12)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
iče-vken-e-n
see-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
GIVE buu- N
(11)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
buu-re-n
give-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
SEND ung- N
(10)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ung-če-n
send-AOR-3SG
‘The boy sent the book to the teacher/to school.’
CARRY Ŋene-v- N
(9)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ŋene-v-d’eče-n
go-CAUS-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy carried the book to the teacher / to school.’
BRING eme-v- N
(8)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
eme-v-re-n
come-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy brought the book to the teacher.’
THROW nodaa- N
(7)
bejetken
boy
d’olo-vo
stone-ACC
okoshko-li
window-PROL
nodaa-re-n
throw-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
PUT nee- N
(6)
beje
man
kniga-va
book-ACC
ostol-du
table-DAT
nee-re-n
put-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man put the book on the table.’
POUR uŋku- N
(5)
beje
man
muu-ve
water-ACC
tyge-du
bowel-DAT
uŋku-re-n
pour-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
TIE ui- N
(4)
beje
man
morin-ma
horse-ACC
moo-du
tree-DAT
ui-re-n
tie-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
LOAD tev- N
(3)
beje
man
orokto-vo
hay-ACC
iruktavun-du
cart-DAT
tev-re-n
load-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man loaded the hay on the cart.’
FILL d’alupki- N
(2)
beje
man
stakan-ma
glass-ACC
muu-t
water-INSTR
d’alupki-ra-n
fill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man filled the glass with water .’
COVER das- N
(1)
beje
man
tar
that
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
hulla-t
blanket-INSTR
das-ta-n
cover-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
LEAVE suru- M
(59)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-duk
village-ABL
suru-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy went (from the village).’
HUG kumle- N
(60)
eni
mother
hute-vi
child-REFL.POSS
kumle-re-n
hug-NONFUT-3SG
‘The mother hugged her child.’
SMELL Ŋosukta- N
(61)
homooty
bear
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋosikta-ča-n
smell-AOR-3SG
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
THINK d'alda- N
(62)
asatken
girl
tynive
yesterday
en’eke-li-vi
grandmother-PROL-REFL.POSS
d’alda-d’eče-n
think-IPFV-3SG
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) husča- N
(63)
beje
man
gurgakta-vi
beard-REFL.POSS
husča-ra-n
shave-NONFUT-3SG
‘‘The man shave his beard’.’
TAKE d'ava- N
(64)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’ava-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy took the book from the teacher.’
PEEL ile- N
(65)
bejetken
boy
mookan-duk
stick-ABL
uldaksa-va
bark-ACC
ile-če-n
peel-AOR-3SG
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
BLINK sarim- N
(66)
bi
1SG
sarimu-sin-i-m
blink-SEMELF-NONFUT-1SG
‘I blinked (my eyes).’
GO ŋene- N
(67)
asi
woman
unijekit-tule
market-LOC
ŋene-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The woman went to the market.’
LAUGH in’ekte- N
(68)
asatken
girl
in’ekte-l-le-n
laugh-INCH-NONFUT-3SG
‘The girl laughed.’
SCREAM tepke- (2) N
(69)
beje
man
tepke-re-n
scream-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man screamed.’
PLAY evi- N
(70)
kuŋakan
child
evi-d’ere-n
play-PRES-3SG
‘‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD merge- N
(71)
asatkan
girl
merge-d’eče-n
be.sad-IPFV-3SG
‘‘The girl was sad’.’
ROLL sirun- N
(72)
mjač
ball
sirun-d’ere-n
roll-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ball is rolling’.’
SINK eje- N
(73)
d’av
boat
eje-če-n
sink-AOR-3SG
‘The boat sank.’
BURN d’egde- M
(74)
d’u
house
d’egde-d’ere-n
burn-PRES-3SG
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY olgokin bi- N
(75)
dunne
ground
olgokin
dry
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ground is dry’.’
BE A HUNTER bejumimni bi- N
(76)
tar
that
beje
man
bejumimni
hunter
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘This man is a hunter.’
GRIND huku- N
(77)
asa-l
woman-PL
čunmi-l-ve
seed-PL-ACC
duktevun-du
mortar-DAT
dukteŋki-t
pestle-INSTR
dukte-d’eče-tyn
grind-IPFV-3PL
‘The women ground the seeds with mortar and pestle.’
DIG ulee- N
(78)
asi
woman
kartoshka-va
potatoes-ACC
ulee-d’ere-n
dig-PRES-3SG
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH ana- N
(79)
bejetken
boy
asatkan-ma
girl-ACC
muu-le
water-LOC
ana-ra-n
push-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
TEACH alagu- N
(80)
atyrkan
old.woman
asatkan-me
girl-ACC
davlavun-du
song-DAT
alagu-d’ača-n
teach-IPFV-3SG
‘The old lady taught the girl a song.’
HEAR dooldy- N
(81)
bejetken
boy
homooty-va
bear-ACC
doldy-ra-n
hear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy heard the bear.’
COOK irii- N
(82)
asa-l
woman-PL
ulle-ve
meat-ACC
irii-re-Ø
cook-NONFUT-3PL
‘The women cooked the meat.’
BOIL huju- N
(83)
muu
water
huju-d’ere-n
boil-PRES-3SG
‘The water is boiling.’
MARRY asila- (2) N
(84)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
asila-ča-n
marry-AOR-3SG
‘The man married the girl.’
REMEMBER d’onča- N
(85)
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
d’onča-d’ača-n
remember-IPFV-3SG
‘The man remembered the boy.’
HUNT (FOR) bejukte- N
(86)
beje
man
oron-mo
deer-ACC
bejukte-d’eče-n
hunt-IPFV-3SG
‘The man hunted for deer.’
COME eme- N
(87)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-dule
village-LOC
eme-re-n
come-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy came (to the village).’