Personal passive

Description

The direct object of the active corresponds to the subject of the passive. This is the most common type of personal passive constructions. Passive constructions differ from the corresponding active ones only in the topicalized element: active constructions involve topicalized agents expressed by subjects, whereas personal passive constructions involve topicalized patients which are also expressed by subjects. Passivization is accomplished by means of the suffix -v (or its variants -p/-b/-mu/-vuv/-muv/-mup depending on the preceding or the following consonants). Most frequently active transitive verbs are involved in the passivization, e.g. va:- 'kill' - va:-v- 'be killed', o:- 'make', 'build' - o:-v- 'be made', 'be built', misin- 'cut off' - misin-mu 'be cut off', ete- 'finish' - ete-v- 'be finished', uj- 'tie' - ui-v- 'be tied to', baka- 'find' - baka-v- 'be found', ne- 'put', 'lay' - ne-v- 'be put down', 'be laid', iche- 'see' - iche-v- 'be seen'. The direct object of the active verb appears as the subject of the derived passive verb and the subject (agent) of the active verb (if expressed at all) appears, as a rule, in the dative case in the corresponding passive construction. This agentive object is usually missing in personal passive constructions since it is either not known or pragmatically irrelevant.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
COVER das- R
(1)
beje
man
tar
that
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
hulla-t
blanket-INSTR
das-ta-n
cover-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
FILL d’alupki- R
(2)
beje
man
stakan-ma
glass-ACC
muu-t
water-INSTR
d’alupki-ra-n
fill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man filled the glass with water .’
LOAD tev- R
(3)
beje
man
orokto-vo
hay-ACC
iruktavun-du
cart-DAT
tev-re-n
load-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man loaded the hay on the cart.’
TIE ui- R
(4)
beje
man
morin-ma
horse-ACC
moo-du
tree-DAT
ui-re-n
tie-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
POUR uŋku- R
(5)
beje
man
muu-ve
water-ACC
tyge-du
bowel-DAT
uŋku-re-n
pour-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
PUT nee- R
(6)
beje
man
kniga-va
book-ACC
ostol-du
table-DAT
nee-re-n
put-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man put the book on the table.’
THROW nodaa- R
(7)
bejetken
boy
d’olo-vo
stone-ACC
okoshko-li
window-PROL
nodaa-re-n
throw-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
BRING eme-v- R
(8)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
eme-v-re-n
come-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy brought the book to the teacher.’
CARRY Ŋene-v- R
(9)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ŋene-v-d’eče-n
go-CAUS-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy carried the book to the teacher / to school.’
SEND ung- R
(10)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-la
teacher-LOC
/
/
tatkit-tula
school-LOC
ung-če-n
send-AOR-3SG
‘The boy sent the book to the teacher/to school.’
GIVE buu- R
(11)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
buu-re-n
give-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
SHOW iče-vken- R
(12)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-du
teacher-DAT
iče-vken-e-n
see-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
GET ga- R
(13)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
ga-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy got the book from the teacher.’
STEAL d’oromo- R
(14)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’oromo-ro-n
steal-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
HIDE d’aja- R
(15)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’aja-ra-n
hide-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
TEAR etyt- R
(16)
bejetken
boy
kniga-duk
book-ABL
stranitsa-va
page-ACC
etyt-te-n
tear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
WIPE tesi- R
(17)
bejetken
boy
tetyge-duk
cloth-ABL
n’aŋn’a-va
dirt-ACC
tesi-re-n
wipe-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy wiped the dirt from the cloth.’
CUT mine- R
(18)
bejetken
boy
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
purta-t
knife-INSTR
mine-re-n
cut-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
TOUCH Ileče- N
(19)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ileče-če-n
touch-AOR-3SG
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick .’
HIT ikte- R
(20)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
ikte-re-n
hit-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick .’
BEAT iktu- R
(21)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
iktu-d’eče-n
beat-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
KILL vaa- R
(22)
bejetken
boy
kulin-ma
snake-ACC
mokan-di
stick-INSTR
vaa-re-n
kill-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
BREAK sukča- R
(23)
bejetken
boy
okno-vo
window-ACC
d’olo-t
stone-INSTR
sukča-ra-n
break-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BUILD oo- R
(24)
beje
man
d’uu-va
house-ACC
moo-duk
wood-ABL
oo-ra-n
make-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man built the house of timber.’
NAME gerbit- R
(25)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
dulbun-di
fool-INSTR
gerbit-te-n
call-NONFUT-3SG
(gerbi-če-n)
(call-AOR-3SG)
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
SAY guun- R
(26)
beje
man
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ted’e-ve
truth-ACC
guun-e-n
say-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man said truth to the boy.’
SHOUT AT tepke- (1) R
(27)
beje
man
bejetken-tyki
boy-ALL
tepke-re-n
shout-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man shouted to the boy.’
TELL ulgučen- (1) R
(28)
beje
man
ulgur-ve
story-ACC
bejetken-du
boy-DAT
ulgučen-e-n
tell-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
ASK FOR ejet- R
(29)
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ejet-če-n
ask-AOR-3SG
meŋur-ve
money-ACC
buu-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
(90)
bejetken
boy
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
sovetja
advice
ejet-če-n
ask-PAST-3SG
‘The boy asked the teacher for advice.’
TALK ulgučen- (2) N
(30)
beje
man
bejetken-nun
boy-COMIT
agi-li
taiga-PROL
ulguče-met-te-n
talk-RECIPR-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man talked to the boy about the taiga.’
KNOW saa- R
(31)
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
saa-ča-n
know-AOR-3SG
‘The man knew the boy.’
SEE iče- R
(32)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
iče-re-n
see-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man saw the boy.’
LOOK AT ičet- R
(33)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ičet-te-n
look.at-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man looked at the boy.’
FRIGHTEN ŋeele-vken- R
(34)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋeele-vken-e-n
fear-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FEAR Ŋeelet- N
(35)
bejetken
boy
beje-duk
man-ABL
ŋeelet-čeče-n
fear-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy feared the man.’
LIKE ajav- R
(36)
bejetken
boy
beje-ve
man-ACC
ajav-d’ača-n
like-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy liked the man.’
SEARCH FOR gelekte- N
(37)
beje
man
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
gelekte-d’eče-n
look.for-IPFV-3SG
‘The man searched for the boy .’
MEET asila- (1) R
(38)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
arča-ra-n
meet-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man met the girl.’
FOLLOW bodo- N
(39)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
bodo-d’očo-n
follow-IPFV-3SG
‘The man followed the girl.’
HELP bele- N
(40)
beje
man
hunat-tu
girl-DAT
bele-re-n
help-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man helped the girl.’
EAT d’ep- R
(41)
beje
man
kolobo-vo
bread-ACC
d’ep-te-n
eat-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man ate the bread.’
DRESS tet-yv-- R
(42)
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
tet-yv-re-n
dress-CAUS-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man dressed the child.’
WASH av- R
(43)
beje
man
kuŋakan-me
child-ACC
av-ra-n
wash-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man washed the child.’
COUGH simkit- N
(44)
beje
man
simkit-ča-n
cough-AOR-3SG
‘The man coughed.’
CLIMB tukty- N
(45)
beje
man
ure-le
mountain-LOC
tukty-re-n
climb-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
SIT DOWN tege- N
(46)
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-re-n
sit.down-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
SIT tege-t- N
(47)
beje
man
dunne-du
ground-DAT
tege-t-čeče-n
sit-PROC-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man sat (= was sitting) (on the floor).’
RUN tuksa- N
(48)
kuŋakan
child
agi-li
taiga-PROL
tuksa-d’ara-n
run-PRES-3SG
‘The child is running in the forest.’
JUMP mikčan- N
(49)
kuŋakan
child
pol-dula
floor-LOC
mikčan-e-n
jump-NONFUT-3SG
‘The child jumped on the floor.’
SING ike- R
(50)
bejetken
boy
iken-me
song-ACC
ike-d’eče-n
sing-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy sang (a song).’
LIVE bi- N
(51)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-du
village-DAT
bi-d’eče-n
be-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy lived (in the village).’
APPEAR iče-vu-l- N
(52)
bejetken
boy
hokto-du
road-DAT
iče-vu-l-le-n
see-PASS-INCEP-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy appeared on the road.’
FEEL PAIN enuu- N
(53)
Ŋale-v
arm-1SG.POSS
enuu-d’ere-n
ache-PRES-3SG
‘My arm hurts (me).’
DIE bu- N
(54)
beje
man
bu-če-n
die-AOR-3SG
‘The man died.’
FALL buru- N
(55)
beje
man
dunne-le
ground-LOC
buru-re-n
fall-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man fell (on the ground).’
FEEL COLD doŋoto- R
(56)
bejetken
boy
doŋoto-ro-n
freeze-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy froze.’
BE HUNGRY d’em-mu- N
(57)
bejetken
boy
d’em-mu-d’eče-n
eat-want-IPFV-3SG
‘The boy was hungry.’
RAIN udun-
(58)
(udun)
(rain)
udun-d’eče-n
rain-IPFV-3SG
‘It rained.’
LEAVE suru-
(59)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-duk
village-ABL
suru-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy went (from the village).’
HUG kumle- R
(60)
eni
mother
hute-vi
child-REFL.POSS
kumle-re-n
hug-NONFUT-3SG
‘The mother hugged her child.’
SMELL Ŋosukta- N
(61)
homooty
bear
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
ŋosikta-ča-n
smell-AOR-3SG
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
THINK d'alda- R
(62)
asatken
girl
tynive
yesterday
en’eke-li-vi
grandmother-PROL-REFL.POSS
d’alda-d’eče-n
think-IPFV-3SG
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) husča- R
(63)
beje
man
gurgakta-vi
beard-REFL.POSS
husča-ra-n
shave-NONFUT-3SG
‘‘The man shave his beard’.’
TAKE d'ava- R
(64)
bejetken
boy
kniga-va
book-ACC
alagumni-duk
teacher-ABL
d’ava-ra-n
take-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy took the book from the teacher.’
PEEL ile- R
(65)
bejetken
boy
mookan-duk
stick-ABL
uldaksa-va
bark-ACC
ile-če-n
peel-AOR-3SG
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
BLINK sarim- N
(66)
bi
1SG
sarimu-sin-i-m
blink-SEMELF-NONFUT-1SG
‘I blinked (my eyes).’
GO ŋene- N
(67)
asi
woman
unijekit-tule
market-LOC
ŋene-re-n
go-NONFUT-3SG
‘The woman went to the market.’
LAUGH in’ekte- N
(68)
asatken
girl
in’ekte-l-le-n
laugh-INCH-NONFUT-3SG
‘The girl laughed.’
SCREAM tepke- (2) N
(69)
beje
man
tepke-re-n
scream-NONFUT-3SG
‘The man screamed.’
PLAY evi- N
(70)
kuŋakan
child
evi-d’ere-n
play-PRES-3SG
‘‘The child is playing.’
BE SAD merge- N
(71)
asatkan
girl
merge-d’eče-n
be.sad-IPFV-3SG
‘‘The girl was sad’.’
ROLL sirun- N
(72)
mjač
ball
sirun-d’ere-n
roll-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ball is rolling’.’
SINK eje- N
(73)
d’av
boat
eje-če-n
sink-AOR-3SG
‘The boat sank.’
BURN d’egde- N
(74)
d’u
house
d’egde-d’ere-n
burn-PRES-3SG
‘The house is burning.’
BE DRY olgokin bi- N
(75)
dunne
ground
olgokin
dry
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘‘The ground is dry’.’
BE A HUNTER bejumimni bi- N
(76)
tar
that
beje
man
bejumimni
hunter
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘This man is a hunter.’
GRIND huku- R
(77)
asa-l
woman-PL
čunmi-l-ve
seed-PL-ACC
duktevun-du
mortar-DAT
dukteŋki-t
pestle-INSTR
dukte-d’eče-tyn
grind-IPFV-3PL
‘The women ground the seeds with mortar and pestle.’
DIG ulee- R
(78)
asi
woman
kartoshka-va
potatoes-ACC
ulee-d’ere-n
dig-PRES-3SG
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
PUSH ana- R
(79)
bejetken
boy
asatkan-ma
girl-ACC
muu-le
water-LOC
ana-ra-n
push-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy pushed the girl into the water.’
TEACH alagu- R
(80)
atyrkan
old.woman
asatkan-me
girl-ACC
davlavun-du
song-DAT
alagu-d’ača-n
teach-IPFV-3SG
‘The old lady taught the girl a song.’
HEAR dooldy- R
(81)
bejetken
boy
homooty-va
bear-ACC
doldy-ra-n
hear-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy heard the bear.’
COOK irii- R
(82)
asa-l
woman-PL
ulle-ve
meat-ACC
irii-re-Ø
cook-NONFUT-3PL
‘The women cooked the meat.’
BOIL huju- N
(83)
muu
water
huju-d’ere-n
boil-PRES-3SG
‘The water is boiling.’
MARRY asila- (2) N
(84)
beje
man
hunat-pa
girl-ACC
asila-ča-n
marry-AOR-3SG
‘The man married the girl.’
REMEMBER d’onča- R
(85)
beje
man
tar
that
bejetken-me
boy-ACC
d’onča-d’ača-n
remember-IPFV-3SG
‘The man remembered the boy.’
HUNT (FOR) bejukte- N
(86)
beje
man
oron-mo
deer-ACC
bejukte-d’eče-n
hunt-IPFV-3SG
‘The man hunted for deer.’
COME eme- N
(87)
bejetken
boy
guleseg-dule
village-LOC
eme-re-n
come-NONFUT-3SG
‘The boy came (to the village).’